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Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to
A) use a magnifying glass.
B) develop a taxonomic system.
C) view protozoa and bacteria.
D) disprove spontaneous generation.
The microbes commonly known as __________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile.
Which of the following statements about algae is FALSE?
A) the group includes seaweeds and kelps.
B) they are photosynthetic organisms.
C) they provide most of the oxygen on Earth.
D) they are important in the degradation of dead plants and animals.
Microbes that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen are called
B) facultative anaerobes.
C) obligate parasites.
Which of the following scientists provided evidence in favor of the concept of spontaneous generation?
The microbial production of alcohol from sugar is known as
Which of the following statements about fungi is FALSE?
A) fungi are eukaryotes.
B) molds form hyphae.
C) fungi have a cell wall.
D) fungi are photosynthetic.
E) yeasts are unicellular.
Which of the following statements concerning Koch's postulates is false?
A) Koch's postulates cannot be used to demonstrate the cause of all diseases.
B) A suspected pathogen must be able to be grown in the laboratory.
C) All of Koch's postulates must be satisfied before an organism can be proven to cause a particular disease.
D) Koch's postulates involve the experimental infection of susceptible hosts.
E) A suspected pathogen must be found in the majority of individuals with a particular disease.
Which of the following individuals pioneered the use of chemicals to reduce the incidence of infections during surgery?
The study of the body's defenses against pathogens is called
D) molecular biology.
Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology?
A) What causes disease?
B) How do genes work?
C) Is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?
D) How are microbes related?
E) What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?
The microbial activity of __________ is responsible for the production of various foods.
E) both fungi and bacteria
What scientist first hypothesized that gene sequences could provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between organisms such as microbes?
Work by __________ laid the foundations of the field of environmental microbiology.
A) Redi and Spallanzani
B) Koch and Pasteur
C) Beijerinck and Winogradsky
D) Lister and Semmelweis
E) Pauling and Woese
According to Kluyver and van Niel, which of the following are true of basic biochemical reactions?
A) They are shared by all living things.
B) There are an unlimited number of them.
C) They primarily involve the transfer of electrons and ions.
D) Basic biochemical reactions shared by all living things primarily involve transfer of electrons and hydrogen ions.
Semmelweis advocated handwashing as a method of preventing which of the following diseases?
B) puerperal fever
Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of viruses?
A) they are visible with a light microscope.
B) they are acellular.
C) they are composed of genetic material and protein.
D) they are smaller than prokaryotic cells.
E) they are obligatory parasites.
How are fungal viruses different from viruses that infect other organisms?
A) they have no extracellular state.
B) they have only DNA for genetic material.
C) they have no capsid.
D) they have no intracellular state.
E) they cannot pass through a filter.
How are prions different from all other known infectious agents?
A) they cannot reproduce outside a cell.
B) they act as slow viruses.
C) they cause neurological problems.
D) they can be destroyed by incineration.
E) they lack nucleic acid.
The first true vaccine protected against disease caused by a __________ pathogen.
All of the following individuals were involved in improving public health in the 19th century EXCEPT
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of which of the following types of microbes?
Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of
B) genetic engineering.
D) microbial genetics.
E) gene therapy.
Which of the following was NOT an aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?
A) The necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape.
B) He boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present.
C) The flasks were incubated for very long periods of time.
D) The flasks were free of microbes until they were opened.
E) The flasks he used were sealed with corks.
Proteins that promote chemical reactions in the cell are called
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protozoa?
A) most exhibit asexual reproduction.
B) they are single-celled organisms.
C) they are eukaryotic organisms.
D) they are the microbes most similar to plants.
E) they frequently possess cilia or flagella.
Which of the following scientists was the first to develop a taxonomic system for classifying organisms?
Which of the following is NOT an observation Pasteur made concerning the fermentation of grape juice?
A) yeast can grow with or without oxygen.
B) bacteria produce acid in grape juice.
C) pasteurization kills yeast to prevent spoilage of grape juice.
D) yeast cells can grow and reproduce in grape juice.
E) yeast can grow in sealed or open flasks of grape juice.
Put the following events in the history of microbiology in order, from the earliest to the latest:
I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.
II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.
III. Woese discovers the archaea.
IV. Fracastoro proposes that "germs" cause disease.
V. Ehrlich discovers the first "magic bullet."
A) III, IV, I, II, V
B) V, IV, I, III, II
C) IV, I, V, II, III
D) III, V, II, IV, I
E) IV, I, II, V, III
John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology?
A) infection control
D) both infection control and epidemiology
E) infection control, epidemiology, and immunology
Robert Koch was involved in research on all of the following topics EXCEPT
A) the cause of anthrax.
B) the cause of fermentation.
C) development of a method to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
D) the cause of tuberculosis.
E) techniques for isolating microbes in the laboratory.
Which of the following is an incorrect pairing?
A) protozoa: multicellular
B) fungi: cell walls
C) algae: aquatic and marine habitats
D) prokaryotes: no nuclei
E) viruses: acellular parasites
What was the first disease proven to be bacterial in origin?
A) yellow fever
The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by
A) developing techniques for isolating pathogens.
B) developing methods for reducing nosocomial infections.
C) identifying the sources of infectious agents.
D) determining the taxonomic relationships among microbes.
E) developing vaccines.
Who discovered penicillin?
All of the following were involved in developing the germ theory of disease EXCEPT
Microorganisms characterized by the absence of a nucleus are called
The term that literally means "against putrefaction" is
D) recombinant technology.
The term __________ refers to an infection acquired in a health care setting.
C) spontaneous generation
The term __________ literally means "produces disease."
D) facultative anaerobe
The study of the causation of disease is known as
The term for the use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments is
The term __________ means the study of the blood components that fight infection.
The study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease is known as
C) molecular biology.
Christian Gram devised a staining technique that divides all bacteria into two groups.
3) The production of human blood-clotting factor by E. coli is an example of bioremediation.
Gene therapy is a modern approach to preventing infectious disease.
Koch's postulates can be used only to prove the causes of infectious diseases.
Joseph Lister reduced the incidence of wound infections in health care settings by using chlorinated lime water.
Fermentation can occur in the absence of living cells.
Lazzaro Spallanzani was the first scientist to provide evidence disproving the spontaneous generation of microorganisms.
Microbes that move by means of cilia are __________.
A cell that contains a nucleus is called a(n) __________ cell.
A(n) __________ organism makes its own food using solar energy.
Microbes that cause infectious disease are called __________.
An asexual method of reproduction associated with yeasts is __________.
A(n) __________ is a potential explanation for a set of observations made by a scientist studying a phenomenon.
Bacteria that can live without oxygen are termed __________.
Robert Koch discovered the cause of __________, a disease of animals that can be spread to humans.
A(n) __________ is a mass of cells that are descended from a single cell through successive cell divisions.
The glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell performs all of the following functions EXCEPT
A) protection against dehydration.
B) anchoring cells to each other.
C) cellular recognition and communication.
D) transfer of genetic material between cells.
E) strengthening the cell surface.
An antimicrobial that inhibits cell wall synthesis will result in which of the following?
A) Cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure.
B) Cells cannot attach to their hosts.
C) Ribosomes lose their function.
D) The sterols in the cell wall become nonfunctional.
E) The replication of cells, including cancer cells, slows down.
Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells?
A) animal cells
B) bacterial cells
C) fungal cells
D) virus-infected cells
E) both animal and fungal cells
30) Which of the following cells does NOT have the ability to release histamine?
A) mast cells
D) damaged body cells
42) TLRs are
A) phagocyte receptors that detect PAMPs.
B) the coating of a pathogen by complement.
C) molecules that damage cells, resulting in cell lysis.
D) present in intact skin, sebum, tears, etc.
E) nonspecific leukocytes that secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells.
Which of the following produces an exogenous antigen?
A) a bacterium inside a cell
B) a virus inside a cell
C) a bacterium outside a cell
D) a noninfected human cell
E) the malaria parasite inside a red blood cell
The perforin-granzyme pathway involves
A) the production of fever, which kills the pathogen.
B) the production of antibodies toward the invading pathogen.
C) the synthesis of special cell-killing proteins that act on infected or abnormal cells.
D) presenting the foreign antigen to B cells.
E) binding CD95L to infected cells, which eventually leads to cell apoptosis.
The immunological synapse refers to the
A) interaction between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell to produce a specialized contact area for communication between these cells.
B) activation of a B cell to become a plasma cell.
C) interaction between lymphocytes and foreign antigens to produce memory cells.
D) binding of a monocyte or macrophage to antigen so that it can act as an antigen-presenting cell.
E) interaction of the many cytokines produced by different immunological cells.
Killed vaccines work by stimulating
A) the production of antibodies.
B) the action of Th1 cells.
C) the cell-mediated immune response.
D) cytotoxic T cells.
E) lymphocyte proliferation.
34) The tuberculin response is mediated by
A) memory T cells.
B) mast cells.
C) B lymphocytes.
D) plasma cells.
The first true vaccine provided protection from disease caused by a(n) __________.
Ignaz Semmelweis demonstrated the importance of __________ as a means of preventing disease transmission.
A term synonymous with immunization, __________ is derived from the Latin name of the cowpox virus.
The use of chemicals to treat diseases such as bacterial infections is called __________.
Organisms such as bacteria that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate are often studied in __________ microbiology.
The __________ of an organism is all the chemical reactions that take place in the organism.
Biotechnology can be said to have ancient roots. Explain.
Use the basic steps of the scientific method to describe Pasteur's experiments to investigate spontaneous generation.
Explain how the discipline of biochemistry grew out of the science of microbiology.
Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of
B) cellular structure.
Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?
B) basal body
Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE?
A) reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.
B) viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things.
C) organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.
D) reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things.
E) living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP.
Bacterial pili can be described as
A) composed of tubulin.
B) solid, rigid protein structures.
C) composed of peptidoglycan.
D) specialized fimbriae.
E) a means of locomotion.
Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
E) both fimbriae and glycocalyces
Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called
A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of
B) positive phototaxis.
C) negative phototaxis.
D) positive chemotaxis.
E) negative chemotaxis.
Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?
A) Prokaryotic flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
B) A "run" results from counterclockwise movement of the flagellum.
C) Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin.
D) Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has an endoflagellum.
E) Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body.
Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?
A) Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.
B) Pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells.
C) Pili are long, hollow tubules.
D) Not all bacteria have pili.
E) A bacterial cell will usually have only one or two pili.
Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial cell walls?
B) lipoteichoic acids
C) mycolic acid
Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain
B) amino acids.
Lipid A is also known as
B) teichoic acid.
D) mycolic acid.
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
A) unique ribosomes.
B) the presence of mycolic acid in their cell walls.
C) the absence of a cell wall.
D) cell walls composed solely of amino acids.
E) the absence of a cytoplasmic membrane.
Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes?
B) facilitated diffusion
D) active transport
E) group translocation
ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
A) facilitated diffusion
C) group translocation
E) both active transport and group translocation
Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?
A) Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
B) During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
C) Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
D) Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
E) Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of
A) mycolic acid.
D) dipicolinic acid.
Which of the following is unique to archaea?
When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called
C) passive transport.
Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is CORRECT?
A) These processes occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
B) Phagocytosis is a type of endocytosis in which liquids are brought into the cell.
C) Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.
D) Waste products and secretions are exported from the cell during endocytosis.
E) Endocytosis is a form of passive transport, whereas exocytosis is a form of active transport.
One lipid found in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes is
D) fatty acid.
Which of the following statements concerning centrioles is FALSE?
A) The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia.
B) Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis.
C) Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome.
D) Centrioles are found in all organisms except prokaryotes.
E) Centrioles are composed of microtubules.
Which of the following is classified as a membranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?
A) endoplasmic reticulum
E) both ribosomes and centrioles
Which of the following is NOT associated with the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell?
Bloom's Rank: Knowledge
Section: Cytoplasm of Eukaryotes
26) Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is CORRECT?
A) The rough ER is the site of lipid synthesis.
B) The smooth ER has ribosomes associated with it.
C) The ER is a lipid storage organelle.
D) The ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm.
E) The smooth ER is a site of ATP synthesis.
Bloom's Rank: Application
27) Which of the following organelles is responsible for producing most of the ATP in a eukaryotic cell?
B) Golgi body
D) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is CORRECT?
Which of the following organelles is responsible for producing most of the ATP in a eukaryotic cell?
Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that they have
B) two lipid bilayers.
C) 70S ribosomes.
D) light-harvesting pigments.
Which of the following is paired incorrectly?
A) plants: cellulose cell wall
B) algae: glycocalyx present
C) bacteria: peptidoglycan cell wall
D) fungi: cellulose, chitin, and/or glucomannan cell wall
E) archaea: polysaccharide cell wall
Which of the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory is FALSE?
A) Eukaryotes were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells.
B) Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
C) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.
D) The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes.
E) The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton?
A) anchors organelles
B) gives shape to the cell
C) packages cellular secretions
D) performs endocytosis
E) aids in contraction of the cell
The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
A) facilitated diffusion.
B) group translocation.
Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
A) large molecules
C) small hydrophobic molecules
D) small hydrophilic molecules
E) both ions and hydrophilic molecules
Anabolic reactions may be characterized as
B) breaking large molecules into smaller molecules.
C) forming large molecules from smaller molecules.
D) producing ATP.
E) breaking large molecules into smaller molecules to produce ATP.
Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?
C) active transport
E) both facilitated diffusion and active transport
Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?
C) lipoteichoic acid
E) mycolic acid
The cytoplasmic membranes of __________ contain phospholipids and proteins.
A) archaeal cells
C) eukaryotic cells
D) both bacterial and eukaryotic cells
E) archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic cells
Membrane rafts are found in the cytoplasmic membranes of
D) both archaea and bacteria.
E) both archaea and eukaryotes.
Endocytosis and exocytosis are means of transport used by
D) all prokaryotes.
E) no cells use both processes.
Some __________ use group translocation as a means of transport.
E) eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Hopanoids are found in __________ cytoplasmic membranes.
The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.
E) bacteria and eukaryotes
Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.
E) both bacteria and eukaryotes
Some members of __________ have hami.
D) both archaea and bacteria
__________ may have pili.
E) Eukaryotes and bacteria
__________ may have flagella.
E) Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes
Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?
A) Gram-negative bacteria
B) Gram-positive bacteria
D) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
E) all prokaryotes
The cell walls of __________ contain tetrapeptides.
C) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
Which of the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space?
The cytoplasmic membranes of __________ contain lipids.
Which of the following prokaryotic cells contain an outer membrane?
Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates.
Peroxisomes contain enzymes used to digest nutrients that have been brought into the cell through phagocytosis.
Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete.
All cell membranes contain phospholipids and a wide variety of proteins.
The process of facilitated diffusion requires an input of energy.
Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of 60S and 40S subunits.
Lysosomes result from the endocytosis of food particles by eukaryotic cells.
Formation of a biofilm may contribute to bacteria's ability to cause disease.
Chromatin is composed of DNA and special packaging proteins called hopanoids.
The Golgi body prepares cellular products for export.
In a(n) __________ solution, an animal cell can gain so much water that it may burst.
The presence of a cell __________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions.
A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a __________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution.
A(n) __________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.
The __________ body anchors the bacterial flagellum in the cell wall.
The reserve deposits of starch or other compounds found in many prokaryotic cells are called __________.
Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.
Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)
Paired structures composed of tubulin that play a role in eukaryotic mitosis are known as __________.
Fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces are __________.
A(n) __________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.
The type of organelles found only in eukaryotic cells are described as __________.
The semiliquid matrix of the nucleus is called the __________.
A structural molecule found in eukaryotic cytoskeletons, flagella, cilia, and centrioles is __________.
Another name for a channel protein in the cell membrane is __________.
Compare and contrast the characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compare and contrast archaea and bacteria, with particular attention to the features that lead to their placement in separate taxa.
Most antibacterial drugs disrupt or destroy bacterial cellular characteristics that are different from those of eukaryotic cells or that may not even be present in eukaryotic cells. List and describe at least three cellular features of bacteria that could be targeted to inhibit or kill a bacterial pathogen.
Describe the similarities and differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Describe how the structure of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane relates to its function of selective permeability.
Which of the following statements concerning cellular metabolism is FALSE?
A) Energy obtained from nutrients or light is stored in the bonds of ATP.
B) Enzymes are used in both catabolic and anabolic reactions.
C) Macromolecules are converted into cell structures via catabolism.
D) The goal of metabolism is reproduction of the organism.
E) ATP is used in the formation of macromolecules.