During development of the forebrain what structure is an important brain place for neurons that migrate to the diencephalon and especially to the cortex, thereby contributing to the explosive growth of the these regions of the brain
What is the clinical significance of the Circle of Willis?
Blood flow may be redirected through it to make up for the loss of flow from an artery from the heart ensuring satisfactory perfusion of the brain
What major arteries provide most of the anterior circulation to the brain?
internal carotid artery
What major arteries are responsible for the posterior circulation to the brain?
What specialized vascular structures (often near bones of the skull) serve as sites where venous blood “pools” before entering into general venous return to the heart?
dural venous sinuses
what structures manufacture CSF
what type of cells form the epithelium that lines the ventricles of the brain?
How does CSF exit from the ventricles of the brain to circulate in the subdural space surrounding the brain and spinal cord?
exits the 4th ventrical via four foramen
What structures in the membranes of the brain control CSF volume by the process of re- absorption?
what causes hydrocephalus
blockade of cerebral aquaduct
Where is the basal plate tissue located in the developing neural tube (and in the mature spinal cord)?
ventral portions of neural tube
Where is the alar plate tissue located in the developing neural tube (and the mature spinal cord)?
dorsal portions of th neural tube
What is the functional significance of basal plate tissue in the central nervous system?
what are commissural fiber pathways
these carry axons that interconnect the left and right halves of the brain
what are associate fiber pathways?
these carry axons ipsilaterally that interconnect one part of the cortext to another
General somatic afferent nerves carry what kind of information to the brainstem?
Cutaneous and propioreceptive sensation for skin, membranes, and muscles in head and neck
General visceral afferent nerves carry what kind of information to the brainstem?
Sensation fibers from visceral organs, including oral cavity, pharynx, larynx
Special somatic afferent nerves carry what kind of information to the brainstem?
Sensory information (hearing and balance) from inner ear (chochlea and labyrinth)
Special visceral afferent nerves carry what kind of information to brainstem?
Sensation fibers from tongue, nasal passages for taste
general somatic efferent nerves carry what kind of information from the brainstem?
motor innervations to extraocular muscles
general visceral efferent nerves carry what kind of information from the brainstem?
Motor innervations from cranial part of parasympathetic, plus sympathetic control of tear glands, gut
Special visceral efferent nerves carry what kind of information from brainstem?
motor innervations to the muscles of visceral, pharyngeal origin
name 3 cranial nerves that are purely motor in function
trochlear, abducens, hypoglossal
name 3 cranial nerves that are mixed
trigeminal, facial, glossopharnygeal
What brainstem structure is largely responsible for supplying serotonin to the forebrain?
What brainstem nucleus is largely responsible for supplying norepinephrine to the forebrain?
What brainstem nucleus is largely responsible for supplying dopamine to the forebrain?
[Refer to circle of willis] What is the name for the interconnected loop of blood represented by the figure:
circle of willis
[Refer to circle of willis] what is the artery especially prone to aneurysms?
posterior communicating artery
in which subdivision of the ANS are axons short?
in which subdivision of the ANS are axons long?
what is the rate limiting step in the synthesis of NE?
consider the somatic motor neurons: exactly where in the spical cord will one find their cell bodies?
ventral most positions in the ventral horn
what NT is released at a neuromuscular junction?
stimulus = sympathetic?
stressful, dangerous stimulus "fight or flight"
sensory cranial nerve associate with telencephalom
olfactory cranial nerve
sensory cranial nerve associateed with diencephalon?
optic cranial nerve
convey taste info to the brain
VII, IX, X
exclusively sensory in function
I, II, VIII
innervates muscles of mastication
trigeminal nerve V
anterior 2/3 of tongue?
trigeminal nerve V
cranial nerve carries info from taste buds on the posterior 1/3 of tongue
glossopharyngeal nerve IX
which cranial nerve serve to move the eyeballs in their sockets
III, IV, VI
name a cranial nerve that innervates visceral organs of the body
vagus nerve X
PNS, pia mater and arachnoid mater develops from the .........
neural crest cells
the dura mater derives from the......
the cavity inside the neural tube becomes the ........
if neural plate does not close properly an individual will develop....
3 primary early swellings of brain...
caudal portion of the neural tube forms the....
the telencephalon develops the....
the diencephalon develops the...
thalamus and hypothalamus
the rhombencephalon develops into the ______ and ______
metecephalon (pons + cerebellum)
the lateral ventricles are connected to the third ventricle through the....
the fourth ventricle is connected to the third by the .....
the cerebrospinal fluid exits the ventricular system through the....
subarachnoid space -- 4th ventricle
segements of the spinal cord develop from
sensory axons leave and enter via the _____ roots
motor axons leave and enter via the _____ roots
the alar plate mediates ______ function
the basilar plate mediates ______ function
dorsal horn neurons are important in _____ and ____ sensations
pain and visceral
cranial nerve nuclei contain cell bodies of ________ neurons
2 cranial nerves that do not enter the brainstem
olfactory and optic nerves (I and II)
The inferior olivary nucleus integrates _____ information and passes it to the _____
sensory and motor signals
the red nucleus is in the _______ and is involved in _________
the striatum, amydala and cerebral hemisphere components develop from the....
the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex is composed of ______ cells while the inner layer is composed of _____ cells
arachnoid granulations are sites where ......
the CSF is absorbed
the pia mater combines with the ______ to form the choroid plexus
path of CSF
choroid plexus ---- intraventricular formaen --- third ventricle --- cerebral aqueduct --- fourth ventricle --- leaves through lateral apertures --- subarachnoid space
the serotinergic pathway starts in the....
the noradrenergic pathway starts in the
lateral reticular formation
the dopaminergic pathway starts in the
basal midbrain + ganglia
movements of the tongue and eye
facial expressions and sound production
paraymp autonomic innervation of smooth muscle + glands in head and neck
sensory stimuli from skin and mucosal layers in the head
sensory stimuli from viscera and taste
SS (special nuclei) control
primative sound and vestibular structures
descending spinal tract of V controls
pain, temperature and crude touch
medial longitudinal fasciculus controls
gaze and head movements
hypoglossal nucleus controls
dorsal motor nucleus of X controls
parasymp tone of heart, lungs and abdominal viscera
swallowing and vocalization
extraocular eye movement
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