Last Modified: 2016-03-08
-transport driven by diffusion
-e.g. blood cell typically have higher [glucose] outside than inside so there is no need to waste energy bringing it in
-only allow very specific molecules to enter
- uses phosphoaspartate intermediate
- moves calcium in, ATP bind and gets transferred to aspartic acid. ADP Leaves, protein changes shape and allows Ca+ through. Rest of process invovles the removal of the phosphaste from the aspartic acid (hydrolysis). once reomoved can do again. driven by hydrolysis of ATP
-is performing active transport w/o directly using ATP. glucose is moving against gradient
- is a symporter
-knocks out the Na/K pump and messes with the Na/Ca Pump
- by blocking the pumping of Na it lowers Na gradient so less Na comes in thus less Ca out
- used to treat conjestive heart failure (heart is not pumping hard enough) as Ca causes muscle contraction.
-Symporter moves molecules in the same direction
-uses proton gradient to move molecules across membrane
- once a proton binds to the carboxyl the charge changes and thus the shape of the protein and lactose is then able to bind. Once bound the protein changes shape again and allows the lactose in. H+ wanted to come in and comes off carboxyl readily in the cell.
uses Na gradient to drive Ca out of a cell
-is an antiport
-Na gradient is dependent upon Na/K ATPase
-e.g. multidrug-resistance protein (MDR) found in a variety of cells and drugs administered will become less effective (kicks drug out)
-normal sit: low [Na] in, high [Na] out, high [K] in, low [K] out.
-Burn Finger begins stimulus for nerve signal (pain). 1)As signal starts Na gates open and Na comes rushing in and depolarization occurs (a voltage change) 2) open K gates to balance charge - repoarization - but it overshoots 3) restoration of chare balance (recovery)
- signal starts @ one end and moves to the other
- is a Na channel inhibitor. prevents movement of sodium into cells
-K must be desolvated (shedding of water) in order to be the correct dimensions to pass through the channel and also be energetically favorable
- K movement through the channel is optimized by close range interactions inside the channel
Words From Our Students
"StudyBlue is great for studying. I love the study guides, flashcards, and quizzes. So extremely helpful for all of my classes!"
Alice, Arizona State University
"I'm a student using StudyBlue, and I can 100% say that it helps me so much. Study materials for almost every subject in school are available in StudyBlue. It is so helpful for my education!"
Tim, University of Florida
"StudyBlue provides way more features than other studying apps, and thus allows me to learn very quickly! I actually feel much more comfortable taking my exams after I study with this app. It's amazing!"
Jennifer, Rutgers University
"I love flashcards but carrying around physical flashcards is cumbersome and simply outdated. StudyBlue is exactly what I was looking for!"