Introduction to Psychology PGS 101 Chapter 7: Memory Dr. ╔. Szeli Arizona State University Memory ? . . . is a system that allows for retention of information, skills, and capacities over time. ? Processes of memory include . . . ?encoding, ? storage, and ? retrieval. Memory Systems ? sensory ?memory? ? visual icons ? auditory echos ? short-term (working) memory ?7 ▒ 2 items ? losing it: decay, displacement, interference ? keeping it: chunking, maintenance rehearsal ? long-term memory ? elaborative rehearsal Memory Systems Long-Term Memory ? declarative memory, for facts ? semantic memory ? episodic memory ? procedural memory, for skills ? motor skills ?habits ? classically conditioned responses Memory: Other terms & concepts ? constructive processing ? do our memories have a ?playback? button? ? redintegration ? does one memory spark a flood of other memories? ? flashbulb memories ? where were you when?? ? pseudomemories ? how suggestible are our ?memories? to misinformation? ? context-dependent memory ? does it matter where (under what conditions) you last ?had? it? ? state-dependent memory ? does it matter how you felt? Testing Memory ? . . . is an indirect process. ? recall ? free recall ?cued recall ?recognition ? relearning (savings) Memory Loss ? failures in . . . ?encoding ?you?ve got to pay attention! ?consolidation (storage) ?you?ve got to stay awake! ?retrieval ?but it?s on the tip of my tongue! Memory Loss ? decay ? if you don?t use it, you lose it! ? displacement ? there?s only so much room in STM! ?interference ? proactive ? old habits die hard! ? retroactive ? out with the old, in with the new! ? motivated forgetting ? suppression ? I don?t want to remember! ? repression ? It?s better if I don?t remember! ? prospective forgetting ? Oops! Was that today?! Improving Memory ? recitation ? rehearsal ? maintenance ? elaboration ? selection ?organization ? chunking ? whole learning ? context-dependent cues ? attention ? spaced practice ? depth of processing ? mnemonics ? visual imagery ? associations ?acronyms ? any memory aid Dr. ╔va Szeli Research Methods PSY 290 - 55810 / 05585 / 84858
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