An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by exporting more goods than what they imported.
Mercantilists supported several basic ideas which were.
A nations wealth is measured by the gold and silver it possesses. A nation must export more goods than it imports. Colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country. Strict laws must regulate trade with the colonies. Government must promote and protect local industries by taxing imported goods. Governments can increase revenue by imposing a single nation currency. And self sufficiency must be promoted.
Before the Agricultural Revolution farmers did what?
Worked to raise food for themselves and their landlords instead of making a profit by selling produce in the market. Relied upon ancient tools. Continued the three field system. Knew very little about the fertilizers, crop rotation, and animal breeding.
How did the Dutch lead the way into the Agricultural Revolution?
They built dikes or dams to reclaim land by draining it and thus making it usable.
Crop rotation was invented in 1750 by who, and what did it do?
Charles "Turnip" Townshend. Helped to conserve soil fertility and made more land available for production. It alternated grain with soil- enriching plants such as turnips and clover.
The agricultural revolution contributes to a rapid growth of population. What caused this?
Risk of famine was reduced because of the vast quantities of food being produced. More food led to more of a balanced diet, and a better diet for women made them able to have stronger babies. Vaccines were also developed against diseases.
Industrial Revolution was.
A shift that took place between 1750 and 1830 in the production of goods from handmade items to items made by more expensive and complicated machines. These changes also resulted in the transfer of work from home to the factory.
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England?
England was rich in raw materials secured from the colonies in worldwide trade. Wealthy men had the capital to invest. Agricultural Revolution provided a large pool of displaced workers needed. A stable government encouraged science, inventions, and the application of new methods to industry.As an island, England was cut off from thewars of continental Europe.
invented the flying shuttle which speed up weaving and increased production power.
Invented the spinning jenny which made it possible to spin several threads at once
Sir Richard Arkwright
invented the water frame which was a water powered spinning machine that increased the rapidity of spinning.
Invented the steam engine. Served Chiefly to operate a pump to drain water from coal mines.
Imroved Newcomen's work. Watt's engine was adapted for textile-mill use and for transportation
First steam engin locomotive. Paved the way for the railroad era.
Results of the Industrial Revolution
Increased the amounts of goods. Families migrated to the cities. Living conditions weakened. Women and children worked 12-14 hours a day.
First Factory Act
Restricted the number of hours children under nine worked.
Ten hours Act
limited women and children to ten hour shifts.
A group of anti-industrialists who opposed technology. They smashed machines to preserve their jobs and burned factories.
Rebelled against the Enlightenment's emphasis on reason and stressed emotion.
Wrote The Wealth of Nations. Main ideas included laissez-faire. Believed that the government should not get involved with the national economy. "Invisible hand"
Wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population. Main idea was that poverty and misrey were unavoidable because population growth was increasing faster than food supply.
Wrote The Communist Manifesto with Frederick Engels in which he called for a worldwide revolution to end the abuses of capitalism,
Basic theories of Marxism.
Argued that economics determines the course of history. History is a continual class strugle between the "haves" and "have nots" Predicted that hostility between the classes would be aggravated as the rich get richer and poor get poorer. Surplus value. Communist society.
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