Each individual brings to the table certain qualities that influence the way he or she leads.
Leadership as Ability
Person has the capacity to lead. Ability can be aquired.
Leadership as a skill
Leadership is a competency developed to accomplish a task effectively.
Leadership as a Behavior
What leaders do when they are in a leadership role.
Used by leaders to get the job done
Used by leaders to help people feel comfortable with other group members and at ease in the situations in which they find themselves.
Leadership as a Relationship
Leadership is centered on the communication between leaders and followers rather than on the unique qualities of the leader.
A process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal
Interactive event that occurs between the leader and the followers.
People need to be controlled, threatened and reminded of consequences to get them to work. Will avoid it if possible. Most people want to be told what to do, avoid responsibility and want security.
Working is as natural as playing. People act with self-control when committed to goals. Most people learn to accept and seek responsiblity.
Similar to Theory X. Leaders perceive subordinates as needing direction. Need to control subordinates in what they do. Emphasize that they are in charge, exerting influence and control over group members
Resembles the assumptions of Theory Y. Leaders treat subordinates as fully capable of doing work on their own. Try hard to treat everyone fairly, without putting themselves above subordinates.
Dissimilar to both Theory X and Theory Y. Leaders do not try to control subordinates and do not try to nurture and guide subordinates. They ignore workers and their work motivations. Some call nonleadership.
Depending on the day, the job, the crisis and the danger, the leader's job changes.
Philosophy of Leadership
Philosophy affects how others respond to you, how they respond to work, and in the end, how effective you are as a leader.
3 categories of leadership skills
Personal, interpersonal, group
Personal leadership skills
Self awareness, self management conflict
Interpersonal leadership skills
group communication, listening, managing performance, work towards goals
Group leadership skills
2 top qualities of a leader
1. agreeableness- glass half full, openness, straightforwardness, compassionate towards others
2. Conscientiousness- Do what you say you'll do, dependable, competent, self-discipline
Helping people get better, choice, improvement, encouragement, conversation, opportunity.
build a bond though this
Helping people fix things they have no choice but to change, non-negotiable, enforcing standards, discipline, contract, rules
Diverting the conversation to your own experience and not handing it back
Slang, jargon, stereotypes, cliches
Get you more than what's on the surface - but it's impossible to guess what you are getting.
What are relationship killers? (Gottman's four Horsemen of the apocalypse)
Criticism, defensiveness, stonewalling, contempt
Going after them
Tell them not even worth it, ignoring (worst because it communicates disgust)
The emotion, values, beliefs
What are the components of communication?
Task and Energy (when getting information use both)
What is the worst kind of relationship killer?
Contempt- Ignoring, changing the subject, me-too's, acting like someone doesn't matter.
What is the second worse relationship killer?
Giving advice, first law of communication. (Why don't you..., you should..., could..., couldn't you...)
What is the first law of communication?
You can give all the advice you want, but you are wasting your breath because people don't take advice.
you let them know you heard them
Anchors the conversation with a starting point
Statement of paraphrasing both CONTENT and ENERGY
You seem (insert best guess energy word) because (insert interpretation of CONTENT).
Example of a Door-opener
Give me an example... Tell me about... What are some details? How big a deal is this?
Statement of paraphrasing both CONTENT and ENERGY and adding a DOOR-OPENER
You seem (insert best guess energy word) because (insert interpretation of content). (Insert door-opener).
The bottom line
You must be authentic. If you don't care, then don't act like you do.
What is the key to reaching agreement and deals?
How do you accentuate the positive?
How do you find small moments of intimacy?
Find frequent and small ways to connect
Understand and recognize your own emotions as well as the emotions of others
Self awareness, stress management, problem solving, time management
communication, motivating others, power and influence, conflict
Where you get your energy, nothing to do with public speaking.
Where do Extraverts get their energy?
Where do Introverts get their energy?
What does the Sensing/ iNtuition scale mean?
Where do you get your new information?
How do you interpret information?
Where do S's get their information?
Prefer concrete, here and now, 5-senses, distrust hunches, love data as a basis for decisions.
Where do N's get information?
Prefer abstract and patterns, trust hunches, love to think about the future and what-ifs.
What does the thinking/ feeling scale mean?
Has nothing to do with ability to think. It's about the rules you use to make the decisions.
What are a T's decision making values?
Logical, reasonable, consistent, matching the rules (oblivious to conflict... it's all about the facts.
What are a F's decision making values?
Walking on the other person's shoes, harmony, consensus, and other's needs. (So what about the facts - it's the relationship that matters!)
What does the J/P scale mean?
How you deal with time.
How do J's deal with time?
Scheduled, appear organized. (can let the schedule drive them)
How do P's deal with time?
Flexible, not concerned with time, commitment to events. (Can fall into a trap of never finishing or taking on more than they can manage.)
What is the point of the Warm-up in an interview?
Show that you came to listen and show you are.
What is the point of the meat in an interview?
To get wanted information from the interviewee.
What is the point of a summary in an interview?
To summarize what they talked about, wrap up the interview. Serves on a check of the accuracy of the information.
What is the point of a magic question?
Helps sum up the interview.
What is a probe, and why do we use them?
probe- follow up questions to "meat" questions. They are used to clarify or elaborate information, ask for examples, get more details, ask about variations, get interview back on track, accommodate emotions, review possible influences, paraphrase or repeat question.
"Great man" theories
What early trait approach theories were called because they focused on identifying the innate qualities and characteristics possessed by great social, political, and military leaders.
Situational approach theories
Different situations demand different kinds of leadership
Examines how leaders use employee motivation to enhance performance and satisfaction.
Focuses on the match between the leader's style and specific situational variables.
Leader-member exchange theory - predicts that high-quality relations generate more positive leader outcomes than lower-quality relations.
transformational leadership theory
describes leadership as a process that changes people and organizations.
looks at the authenticity of leaders and their leadership is enjoying strong interest
spiritual leadership approach
examines how leaders use values, a sense of calling, and membership to motivate followers.
emphasizes the "caring principle" with leaders as "servants" who focus on their followers' needs in order to help these followers become more autonomous, knowledgeable, and like servants themselves.
trait that has to do with feeling positive about oneself and one's ability to succeed.
refers to a leader's special magnetic charm and appeal, and can have a huge effect on the leadership process
trait that characterizes effective leaders. determined leaders are very focused and attentive to tasks. Know where they are going and how they intend to get there.
refers to a leader's capacity to establish pleasant social relationships
characterizes leaders who possess the qualities of honesty and trustworthiness
the behaviors of leaders, focusing on what leaders do and how they act.
unique habits regarding work and play, which have been ingrained over many years, probably beginning as far back as elementary school. Rooted in the past, these habits regarding work and play form a very real part of who we are as people and how we function. Many of these early habits stay with us over the years and influence our current styles.
the leader organizes work, defines role responsibilities, and schedules work activities. (task leadership)
the leader stresses the production and technical aspects of the job. (task leadership)
Concern for production
includes policy decisions, new product development, workload, sales volume, or whatever the organization is seeking to accomplish. (task leadership)
includes building camaraderie, respect, trust, and regard between leaders and followers
involves taking an interest in workers as human beings, valuing their uniqueness, and giving special attention to their personal needs.
concern for people
includes building trust providing good working conditions, maintaining a fair salary structure, and promoting good social relations.
3 things relational leadership is about
1. treating followers with dignity and respect
2. building relationships and helping people get along
3. making the work setting a pleasant place to be
help a leader to accomplish the mundane but critically important aspects of showing leadership
involves having specialized knowledge about the work we do or ask others to do
people skills- those abilities that help a leader to work effectively with subordinates, peers, and superiors to accomplish the organization's goals.
having insight into and awareness of what is important to others, how they are motivated, the problems they face, and how they react to change
about working with concepts and ideas. involve the thinking or cognitive aspects of leadership.
refer to a leader's cognitive ability to take corrective action in a problem situation in order to meet desired objectives
4 steps in the problem-solving process
1. Identify the problem
2. Generate alternative solutions
3. Selecting the best solution
4. Implementing the solution
mainly a cognitive activity. leader needs to be able to think and consider ideas to develop effective strategies for a group or organization. requires developing careful plans of action based on the available resources and personnel to achieve a goal.
felt struggle between two or more interdependent individuals over perceived incompatible differences in beliefs, values, and goals, or over differences in desires for esteem, control, and connectedness.
4 unique aspects of conflict
1. conflict is a struggle
2. there needs to be an element of interdependence between parties for conflict to take place
3. conflict always contains an affective element, the "felt" part of the definition
4. conflict involves differences between individuals that are perceived to be incompatible
content dimension of communication
involves the objective, observable aspects such as money, weather, and land
refers to the participants' perceptions of their connection to one another.
In human communication what two dimensions are always bound together
content dimension and relationship dimension
involves struggles between leaders and others who differ on issues such as policies and procedures
refers to differences between individuals with regard to the approach they wish to take in attempting to reach a goal. It is conflict over the best means to an agreed-upon goal; it is not about what goal to achieve
occurs when individuals differ with regard to the substance of the goal itself, or what the goal should be
another way of describing a conflict on the relational level
refers to the differences we feel between ourselves and others concerning how we relate to each other
relational conflict is usually related to incompatible differences between individuals over what 3 issues?
emphasizes deciding issues on their merits rather than through competitive haggling or through excessive accommodation
4 principles effective leaders understand and utilize in conflict situations
1. separate the people from the problem
2. focus on interests, not positions
3. invent options for mutual gains
4. insist on using objective criteria
Forms of objective criteria
precedent-looks at how this issue has been resolved previously. professional standards- determine if there are rules or standards for behavior based on a profession/trade involved in conflict. what would a court decide- looks at legal precedent or legal ramifications. moral standards-concider resolving the conflict based on ethical considerations or "doing what's right tradition-looks at established practices or customs in considering the conflict. scientific judgement-conciders facts/evidence
describes a process that occurs in the early phase of conflict; helps participants define the nature of the conflict and clarify their positions with regard to each other
refers to the technique of breaking down large conflicts into smaller, more manageable pieces
refers to communicative attempts to establish or maintain one's self-image in response to threat, helps individuals establish how they want to be seen by others. goal is to protect one's self-image
a patterned response or behavior that people use when approaching conflict
both an unassertive and uncooperative conflict style. passive and ignore conflict situations rather than confront them directly
conflict style of individuals who are highly assertive about pursuing their own goals but uncooperative in assisting others to reach theirs
unassertive but cooperative conflict style. individual essentially communicates to another "you are right, I agree; let's forget about it"
occurs halfway between competition and accommodation and involves both a degree of assertiveness and a degree of cooperativeness
most preferred style of conflict, requires both assertiveness and cooperation. when both parties agree to a positive settlement to the conflict and attend fully to the other's concerns while not sacrificing or suppressing their own.
advantages of avoidance
when an issue is of trivial importance or when the potential damage from conflict would be too great. can provide a cooling off period to allow participants to determine how best to resolve the conflict at a later time.
disadvantages of avoidance
usually counterproductive, often leading to stress and further conflict. those who continually avoid conflict bottle up feelings of irritation, frustration, anger, or rage inside themselves, creating more anxiety
advantages of competition
useful when quick decisive action is needed. can generate creativity and enhance performance because it challenges participants to make their best efforts
disadvantages of competition
resolution options are limited to one party "beating" another, resulting in a winner and a loser. often result in creating unstable situations and hostile and destructive communication. it is disconfirming, individuals fail to recognize the concerns and needs of others
advantages of accommodation
allows individuals to move away from the uncomfortable feelings that conflict inevitably produces. individuals can lessen the frustration that conflict creates. productive when the issue is more important to one party than the other or if harmony in the relationship is the most important goal.
disadvantages of accommodation
a lose-win strategy. the accommodator sacrifices his or her own values and possibly a higher-quality decision in order to maintain smooth relationships. allows others to take charge. accommodators lose because they may fail to express their own opinions and feelings and their contributions are not fully considered
advantages of compromise
requires attending to one's goals as well as others'. works best when other conflict styles have failed or aren't suitable to resolving the conflict. many times it can force an equal power balance between parties.
disadvantages of compromise
does not go far enough in resolving conflict and can become "an easy way out" in order to reach resolution conflicting parties often don't fully express their own demands, personal thoughts, and feelings. innovative solutions are sacrificed in favor of a quick resolution and the need for harmony supersedes the need to find optimal solutions to conflict. result is neither side is completely satisfied.
advantages of collaboration
both sides win, communication is satisfying, relationships are strengthened and negotiated solutions are frequently more cost-effective in the long run.
disadvantages of collaboration
most difficult style to achieve. It demands energy and hard work among participants as well as shared control. requires individuals to take time to explore their differences, identify areas of agreement and select solutions that are mutually satisfying. This calls for extended conversation in which the participants explore entirely new alternatives to existing problems.
verbals and non-verbals match, means you're honest
Type of behavior that respects you and not others
Type of behavior that respects others but not you
type of behavior that doesn't respect you or others
type of behavior that respects you and others
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