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Wayne State University
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A] 4 types of light microscopes
C] How do you transport a microscope ?
D] Total Magnification Equation
a] Bright-field, Dark field, phase contrast and Fluorescence
b] Allows light to pass through slide & then through various lenses to eye
c] One hand
on the arm
and other hand
under the base
A] Which part is used for major focus and minor focus
B] What is the practical limit of resolution with a light microscope?
C] How to increase resolution
D] The equation for the Numerical Aperture
used for major and
used for minor focus
c] Decrease wavelength and add oil immersion , diaphragm should be open
d] D= Wavelength / NA Condenser + NA of objective lens
A] Numerical Aperture (N A) ..... How do you increase it ?
B] The 3 functions of resolution
C] What are the 3 lens systems
D] Function of these systems
a] measure of lens ability to capture light coming from a specimen & use it to make the image ...... decrease wavelength and add oil
b] Numerical aperture, Wavelength of light and design of condenser
c] Oscular, Objective and Condenser
Eye pieces (10x)
Scanning (4x), Low (10x), High Dry (40x), Oil Immersion (100x)
Under stage, collects & directs the light......Concentrates light for uniform illumination
?Controls amount of light coming thru
A] Smears should
B] Purpose of heat fixing
C] Aseptic Technique
D] How should flaming a loop work
a] Withstand washing, should not be thick, organism should be clear to see
b] Kill bacteria, fix them to slide, coagulate cytoplasmic proteins
c] Avoids contamination of pure culture
d] - Flame before & after working with MO
- Flame btw working with diff organisms
- When cooling
(DONT WAVE IT AROUND)
A] Simple stains
B] Common dyes used here
C] Why these dyes work
a] Using a simple stain to color bacteria
b] Methylene clue, basic fuchsin and crystal violet
c] Because they have + charges and bacteria are - charge
A] Basic Dyes
B] Acidic Dyes
C] What type of charge do bacteria have
Have (+) charge
..... can penetrate through bacteria because of attraction btw charges
Have (-) charge
Eosin or Nigrosin
..... cannot penetrate thought bacteria because of the repulsion of charge .... No heat fixing (no shrinkage or cell distortion)
A] Purpose of negative stain .... what type of dye is used here?
B] Bad side for Nigrosine or Congo Red
C] What are the 2 bacteria's used in negative staining ?
Stains the background of slide
not MO ..... Nigrosine(india ink)
b] Have to work quickly because it
will dry out
cracks can be created
A] What are the stains used in capsular staining
B] What 2 types of bacteria are used here and which has a capsular and which doesn't
C] Procedure for capsular staining
? What is the polysaccharide layer referred to as ?
a] Congro Red (background and Maneval's (bacteria)
= Has capsular
= No capsular
c] - Perform negative stain with Congo red, air dry
- Flood with Maneval stain for 1min and rinse w/water
- Blot dry w/ bibulous paper
A] Acid Fast stain
B] What is used for Primary stain, Mordant, Decolorizer and counterstain ?
C] Acid fast = what color and Non Acid fast = what color ?
a] Detects presence of
(waxy lipid layer)
..... uses the
Phenol(penetrates) and carbolfuchsin (enters bacteria)
Seam and Heat for 15min
A] What are the 2 diseases caused by Acid Fast
B] 2 types of bacterias used here
a] Tuberculosis and Leprosy
b] Mycobacterium smegmatis
and Staphlococcus epidermidis
A] Bacteria of Bacillus genus
B] In Gram stain what color is - and what color is +
C] The 2 bacterias used
D] What was used for Primary stain, Mordant, Decolorizing and counterstain ?
a] some are gram-variable .. can be gram - or gram +
c] Psuedomonas Aeruginosa
and Staphylococcus Epidemidis
A] How to determine if its Gram
B] What is this determining factor made of?
C] How much of peptidoglycan is in G(+) and in G(-)
D] What do G(+) wall have that G(-) do not have and what do G(-) have
a] By the peptidoglycan
and N-acetylmuramic acid
= 90% and G
G(+) have Teichoic acid
G(-) have LPS lipopolysaccharide layer
A] What bacteria produces endospores (vegetative cells)
B] All endospores are typically G(+) or G(-)
C] Whats the proteins in exosporium and its function
D] What makes up 10% of the dry weight of core.... how much water is in the core
E] Core contains and endospores formed
a] Bacillus and Clostridium
and it resist staining
e] High levels of small acid-soluble proteins (SASP).... lack of nutrients
A] How to destroy endospores
B] What are endospores resistant to
C] Diseases that are caused by endospores...... What causes food poisoning ?
D] Which species are aerobes and which are anaerobes
b] Heat, drying and UV radiation
(punctures in skin) , and
(ingestion of endospores through eating) ..... Bacillus cereus
= aerobes .......
A] Method used here?
B] What was used for Primary stain, Mordant, Decolorizing and counterstain ?
C] Type of bacteria used here
Heat and Steam
A] What type of method is used here
B] Purpose of this method
C] What is the stain agent and Mordant used here?
D] What are the 3 types of movements in bacteria
a] Leifson's method
stain precipitates on the length
of the flagella so that it
coats the flagella & increases the diameter
= Pararosaniline ......
= Tannic Acid
d] Gliding, rotary and Flagellar
a] flagella at both ends
flagella at one end
c] flagella all around
l flagella at one end
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