Disproves spontaneous generation of large animals; showed maggots on decaying meat came form fly eggs.
Sealed glass flasks that contained broth, water, and seeds, placed in boiling water and no growth ensued while closed. Opened flasks had microbes from the air, boiled and not boiled. Closed and not boiled flasks also had growth. Air carried germs, or the air is required for the organisms inside flasks.
The idea that living things come from nonliving things.
Used swan-necked flasks to disprove spontaneous regeneration. Microbes got stuck in neck of flask so no growth even though they were exposed to the air. When necks were broken, growth occurred.
Microbes caused wine diseases by a byproduct of acid fermentation so he boiled the wine. Pasteurization– removing microbes with heat.
Provided direct evidence that microbes caused infection. He established aseptic technique so that in surgery microbes would not infect wounds.
Gave the 1st direct demonstration of the role of bacteria in causing diseases. The 1st idea that a disease is linked to a microbe. Studied Bacillus anthracis ( the causative agent of anthrax). The bacterium forms spores that were resilient to heat and stress and once ingested by a host, they are re-activated and multiply rapidly.
Proved germ theory of illness
Criteria used to establish link between a microbe and a disease
Name Koch's Postulates
1. Microbe must be found in all cases of disease and absent from healthy individuals.
2. Microbe must be isolate and grown in a pure culture.
3. Same disease must result when isolated microbe is inoculated into healthy host.
4. Same microbe must be isolated again from the diseased host.
Developed the 1st vaccine when he used material from cowpox lesions to protect people from smallpox.
Isolated Azotobacter (an aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria) and Rhizobium (a root nodule bacterium also capable of nitrogen-fixing), a sulfur-reducing bacterium (Spirillum desulfuricans)
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