ATP is made up of
the collision energy required for a chemical reaction which is the amount of energy needed to disrupt the stable electronic configuration of any specific molecule so that the electrons can be rearranged.
Energy of Activation- given for the energy required to convert reactants into products in a chemical reaction
sequences of chemical reactions
They are determined by its "enzymes" which are in turn determined by the cell's genetic makeup
both function as electron carriers.
Competitive- fill the active site of an enzyme and compete w/ the normal substrate for the active site. They do not form a product. Some bind permanently. Some bind & leave, slowing the enzyme's activity.
Noncompetitive- also called allosteric ("other space"). The inhibitor binds to another site on the enzyme other than the substrate's bindng site, called the allosteric site (prevents cell from making excess substances). This causes the active site to change shape making it nonfunctional.
Much of the energy released during oxidation-reduction reactions is trapped within the cell by the formation of ATP. Specifically a phosphate group "P" is added to ADP w/ the input of energy to form ATP. The addition of "P" to a chemical compound is called Phosphorylation.
(When this "P" is removed, energy is released)
Eukaryotes in the inner mitochondrial membrane
Prokaryotes in the plasma membrane
1 step: Glycolysis (also known as Embden-Meyerhof pathway)
2nd Step: Krebs Cycle (also called TCA- tricarboxylic acid cycle or citric acid cycle)
3rd Step: Electron transport Chain
the glucose rearranges & now another ATP is invested & another phosphate is added to glucose completely changing the structure. By adding extra groups the compound becomes unstable. By investing the two ATP's, the two phospate groups at the end of the compound has broken it apart into two pyruvic groups called G3P molecules.
Pentose phosphate pathway
Entner- Doudoroff pathway
little less energy
occurs instead of glycolysis
To the ETS to drop off their electrons!!
NOW ITS TIME FOR THE BIG PAYOFF (LOTS OF ATP TO BE MADE)
Pathway: ATP produced NADH produced FADH2 produced
Glycolysis 2 2 0
Interm step 0 2 0
Krebs Cyc 2 6 2
TOTAL 4 10 2
Each NADH produces ** 3 ATP **
Each FADH2 produces ** 2 ATP **
By substrate level By Oxidative Phosphorylation
Pathway: phosphorylation FROM NADH FROM FADH2
Glycolysis 2 6 0
Interm step 0 6 0
Krebs Cyc 2 18 4
TOTAL 4 30 4 TOTAL = 38 ATP
** 36 ATPs are prod in Eukaryotes
Electron acceptor Products
NO3- NO2-, N2+, H2O
SO4- H2S+, H2O
CO32- CH4+, H2O
Produces ethyl alcohol + CO2
Two important genera of lactic acid bacteria are Streptococcus and Lactobacillus are microbes produces ONLY lactic acid... there are called Homolactic
Organisms that produce lactic acid as well as other acids or alcohols are known as heterolactic
Microbes can oxidize substances other than glucose such as lipids and proteins through two processes:
Lipid Catabolism- microbes uses an enzyme called "lipase" to break down fats (hydrolyzed) into glycerol and fatty acids.
(multi C fatty acid -------> 2C fragment -------> 2C Acetyl)
Proteins are TOO large to pass unaided thru the plasma membrane. Microbes produced enzymes- protease & peptidase to break down proteins into amino acids to pass thru. The amino acids are "deaminated"- the removal of an amino acid group from an amino acid to form ammonia NH4+ which will be excreted from the cell, the remaning organic acid (keto acids) can center the Krebs cycle.
The keto acids are Pyruvic acid, Acetyl and Intermediates
Proteins, Carbohydrates and Lipids can all be sources of electrons & protons for respiration. These food molecules enter Glycolysis or Krebs cycle at various points.
Proteins break down to amino acids can enter at glycolysis, Acetyl CoA or Krebs
Carbohyrdates breaks down to sugars and enter at Glycolysis
Lipids break down to two parts either glycerol that enters at Glycolysis or Fatty acids that enter at Acetyl CoA.
** MOST MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MICROBE GROUP**
Organism level- the genotype & phenotype
Chromosome level (Eukaryote only)
the processes of replication, transcription and translation
DNA replicates, they transcribe and translate and that is how DNA goes from being a blueprint to functional.
All the genetic information in a cell.. your genes, your dna, your genetic makeup
for prokaryotes- plasmids make up part of the genome for prokaryotes. Plasmids allow bacteria cell to be anabolic resistant.
structure containing DNA that physically carries hereditary information; the chromosomes contain the ALL OF YOUR GENES!
The genes are found
a segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein (viruses can have RNA)
There are 3 types of gene:
the "expression" of those genes.
Prokaryotes by enzymes coiled tight bundle by enzyme called gyrase is a topoisomerase
For Eukaryotes we have to fit inside the nucleus so it will requires alittle work to fit 6ft info inside the nucleus so we will also use enzymes and a specific protein:
that is alot!!
Once aligned, the newly added nucleotide is joined to the growing DNA strand by an enzyme called DNA polymerase (proofreader) .
Looking at the structure of the DNA, the paired DNA strands are oriented in opposite directions relative to each other. The 5' end is always the end of the phosphate group & the 3' end is always the end with the hydroxyl group. DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides from the 5' to 3' end. Leading strand (5' to 3') is synthesizing continuosuly but the lagging (3' to 5') strand is synthesized discontinuously. For DNA polymerase to work here, it has to "jump forward" so it can work backwards.
When this happens it creates "gaps" or "fragments" called Okazaki fragments. Because your DNA polymerase is always jumping ahead you have sections not put together.
We cannot leave it like this b/c the copy strand has to be like the original strand. So the DNA ligase is brought in to patch the holes. It will get "rid" of the Okazaki fragments. It only needs to do this on the lagging strand (3' to 5')
This is how it works in the prokaryotes (cytoplasm) & Eukaryotes (nucleus) cells
DNA (info) ---------------> RNA -----------------------> PROTEINS
(RNA Polymerase) (Ribosomes)
Reference books in the library are full of info but you cant check them out. You can copy what you need out of the reference book. DNA is like a giant cookbook, its full of recipes but we want a specific one on chocolate cake. We find that recipe, make a copy, bring home and make out chocolate cake
Eukaryotic DNA contains segments that do not code for proteins
** transcripton & translation can occur at the same time in prokaryotes b/c the processes are not separated by a nuclear membrane.
*** but not in Eukaryotic cell b/c transcription has to take place 1st in the nucleus then translation
** Some transcribed genes arent translated. tRNA & rRNA, RNA primers serve add't functions**
Most genes are we refer to as Constitutive genes.
a coordinated set of genes, all of which work together. Found in prokaryotes
2 types- based on regulation
Ex: THE CAT ATE THE RAT
Frameshift: TTH ECA TAT ETH ERA T..
Nonsense Mutation- a base substitution resulting in a nonsense codon.
Missense mutation- this mutation will cause a change in the DNA, if the base substitution results in an amino acid substitution in the synthesized protein.
example: sickle cell anemia
This examle of a chemical mutagen
Can be identified by selecting or testing for an altered phenotype. Two Detection Methods are used.
To identify the capability of synthesizing amino acid "histidine".
mutants that cause cancer in animals, including humans.
No all mutations result in carcinogens but alot of them do.
Name after Bruce Ames who invented this test.
This test uses bacteria as carcinogens indicators. The bacteria that is used often as the standard is Salmonella.
This occurs through:
Ex. sister to sister
R factors- encode antibiotic resistance.
** The word fit means your lifetime reproductive output! **
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