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comparison of first line defense structures.
Skin: Thick, tight cells. dead skin sheads. Dermis layer gives skin strength and doesn tare easily. Salt inhibits growth of bacterias.
Mocus: Poor, but better than nothing. tightly packed, but only one layer of cells. cells are living.
. Skin (physical)
- Epidermis, dermis
. Skin (chemicals)
- Sweat, oils
.Other body organs (respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems)
structures, chemicals, processes that work to prevent pathogens entering the body.
Non specific Defense
. Formed elements( erthrocytes, platelets, leukocytes)
. Granulocytes: contain large granules that stain different colors. basophils: blue Eosinophils: red/orange Neutrophils: lilac Neutrophils & Eosinphils are capable of diapedesis.
. Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and Monocytes
. extracellular killing by leukocytes
. Nonspecific chemical defenses
three cell types that kill extracellularly
. Eosinophils: attack parasitic helminths by attaching to their surface. secrete toxins that weaken or kill helminth.
. Natural killers lymphocytes: secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells and tumors.
. Neutrophils: Produce chemicals that kill nearby invaders
. Augment phagocytosis
. Some attack pathogens directly
. some enhance other features or innate immunity
. Chemicals: lysozyme, complement, interferon, defensins
the body's ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products. Is a "smart" system whose "memory" allows it to respond rapidly to a second encounter with a pathogen. Antigens trigger specific immune responses. various cells, tissues, and organs are part of specific immunity. (includes B and T lymphocytes)
antibodies bind to them. Molecules that trigger a specific immune response. Include components of bacterial cell walls, capsules, pili, and flagella, as well as proteins of viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Food and dust can also contain antifenic particles.
enter the body by various methods
. Through breaks in the skin and mucous membranes. . Direct injection, as with a bite or needle.
.through organ transplants and skin grafts
Form a one-way system that conducts lymph from local tissues and returns it to the circulatory system.
Lymph is a liquid with similar composition to blood plasma that arises from fluid leaked from blood vessels into the surrounding tissues
Develop from stem cells in the red bone marrow.
includes lymphocytes, the smallest of the leukocytes. (made in bone marrow and leave to other places such as lymphnodes)
Physically trap foreign particles and microbes.
MALT includes the Appendix, lymphoid tissue of the respiratory tract, vagina, urinary bladder, mammary glands, and peyer's patches in the wall of the small intestine.
(Only attach to one particular shape then start making antibodies)
Arise and mature in the red bone marrow. Found primarily in the spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT
small percentage of B cells circulate in the blood
Major Function is the secretions of antibodies. B cells stay in red bone marrow then go through body.
also called immunoglobulins. Soluble proteins that bind antigen
*secreted by plasma cells, which are B cells actively fighting exogenous antigen. Considered part of the humoral immune response since bodily fluids such as lymph and blood were once called humors. The structure looks like a Y
. activation of complement (if cell has antibodes complement will land on it)
. Stimulation of inflammation
. Agglutination = coating (keeps things from getting in)
coat with antibodies and it can't attach to anything so it gets flushed out.
made in red bone marrow and then mature in the thalmus. Recognizes cell that are infected with a virus then land on it and destroy it. Circulate in the lymph and blood and migrate to the lymph nodes, spleen, and peyer's patches. part of teh cell-mediated immune response because they act directly against various antigens (endogenous invaders. Many of the body's cells that harbor intracellular pathogens. Abnormal body cells such as cancer cells that produce abnormal cell surface proteins).
IgM: First antibody that is made when plasma cell starts making antibodies.
IgE: big in allergies
IgG: most commone or abundant
IgA: Secreated into fluids and onto mucus surfaces. on the surface of all mucus membranes.
Type 1: Assist cytotoxic T cells. Express a cytokine receptor named CCR5
Type 2: assit B cells. Have cytokine receptors CCR3 and CCR4
Important in determining the compatibility of tissues in successful tissue grafting. Major histocompatibility antigens are glycoproteins found in the membranes of most cells of vertebrate animals. Function to hold and position antigenic determinants for presentation to T cells. Antigens bind in the antigen-binding groove of MHC molecules. Two classes of MHC proteins. (MHC class I, MHC class II)
(no one has the same MHC want to find someone who has similar when it comes to transplants)
B cells that make antibodies. Make up the majority of cells produced during B cell proliferation. Each plasma cell secretes only antibody molecules complementary to the specific antigenic determinant. Are shot-lived cells that die within a few days of activation, though their antibodies and progeny can persist.
Type I: (immediate)
Type II: (antibody-mediated)
Type III: (immune complex reaction)
Type IV: (cell-mediated or delayed)
Skin test (more accurate) put different types of things on you and see how you react.
One can never be cured of an allergy but they symptoms can be made less worse
T- cells responsible. A delayed response to Ag involving activation of and damage by T cells. Delayed allergic response- skin response to allergens- tuberculin skin test, contact dermititis from plants, metals, cosmetics. Graft (transplant) rejection- reaction of cytotoxic T cells directed against foreign cells of a grafted tissue; involves recognition of foreign HLA/ MHC
3 types of anthrax:
cutaneous: spores enter through skin, black sore-eschar; least dangerous
Pulmonary: Inhalation of spores (death)
Gastrointestinal: ingested spores
Biological warfare threat.
Letter attacks of 2001 (letters)
-resulted in only 22 cases of anthrax and five deaths. - great disruption and concern - More than 32,000 people who may have come into contact with the letters were given prophylactic antibiotics. Letters were sent by a guy from maryland not a terrorist
gram-positive irregular bacilli. acid-fast staining. strict aerobes. produce catalase. possess mycolic acids and a unique type of peptidoglycan. do not form capsules, flagella or spores. grow slowly.
mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium leprae
.Infectious dose 10 cells (very low)
.phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages and multiply intracellularly
.after 3-4 weeks immune system attacks, forming tubercles, granulomas consisting of a central core containing bacilli surrounded by WBCs
mycetes= fungi (thought to once be fungi, but actually a bacteria). Genera actinomyces and nocardia are nonmotile filamentous bacteria related to mycobacteria. may cause chronic infection of skin and soft tissues. actinomyces sp- responsible for diseases of the oral cavity and intestines. Nocardia brasiliensis causes pulmonary disease similar to TB
coagulase-coagulates plasma and blood; produced by 97% of human isolates; diagnostic. hyaluronidase. staphylokinase. DNase. lipases. penicillinase.
Catalase test- add catalase if it bubbles it is staph not strep
hemolysins- lyse RBCs; a,b,g
toxic shock syndrome toxin
body temp is best, but room temp works too.
present in most environments frequented by humans.
readily isolated from formites (non living things).
carriage rate for healthy adults is 20-60% .
carriage is mostly in anterior nares, skin, nasopharynx, intestine.
ranges from localized to systemic. Localized- abscess, folliculitis (hair follicle), furuncle (deeper in skin than a pimple, cap on it would be a boil), carbuncle (deep in tissue), impetigo. Systemic- osteomyelitis, bacteremia.
Toxigenic disease- food intoxication, scalded skin syndromem, toxic shock syndrome
food contaminated by handling with bare hands. Bacteria grow and produce toxin. Refrigerate food to prevent growth. heating doesn't always destroy toxin. Symptoms usually start within 1-6 hours after eating contaminated food (usually gone in a day). Symptoms include: diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, cramps.
lives on skin and mucous membranes; endocarditis, bacteremia, UTI
(may cause wound infections?)
lives around apocrine sweat glands
(may cause wound infections?)
live on scalp, face, external ear (all 3 may cause wound infections
infrequently lives on skin, intestine, vagine; UTI
Group A. Most serious stretococcal pathogen. Strict parasite...inhabits throat, nasopharynx, occasionally skin. Produces C-cardohydrates, M-protein (fimbrae), streptokinase, hyaluronidase, DNase, hemolysins (streptolysin O (SLO), streptolysin S (SLS)), pyogenic (erythrogenic) toxin
regularly resides in human vagina, pharynx, and large intestine. can be transferred to infant during delivery and cause severe infection. Most prevalent cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis (brain covering). 15,000 infections and 5,000 deaths in US. Pregnant women should be screened and treated. wound and skin infections and endocarditis in debilitated people.
LPS(lipopolysacchardide) Component of gram-negative cell wall is a potent immune stimulant. may lead to circulatory failure, tissue damage and death.
cannot get from a gram-positive syndrome
Pseudomonas- an opportunistic pathogen.
Brucella and Francisella- zoonotic pathogens.
Bordetella and Legionella- Mainly human pathogens.
Alcaligenes- opportunistic pathogen
Common cause of nosocomial infections in hosts with burns, neoplastic disease, cystic fibrosis. can cause: pneumonia, UTI, abscesses. Septicemia can lead to: endocarditis, meningitis, bronchopnemonia. corneal ulcers from contaminated lens solutions. ear infections (otitis) "swimmer's ear". Skin rash (contaminated hot tubs, saunas, swimming pools)
Klebsiella pneumoniae- normal inhabitant of respiratory tract, has large capsule, cause of nosocomial pneumonia, mennigitis, bacteremia, wound infections and UTIs (Normally live in large intestine). Enterobacter- UTIs , surgical wounds. Serratia marcescens- produces a red pigment; causes pneumonia, burn and wound infections, septicemia and meningitis. Cirtrobacter- opportunistic UTIs and bacteremia.
Multipule kinks ~~~~~
Gram negative human pathogen.
leptosprira (upturn at one or both ends)
Endo flagella (inside part of cell wall)
cork screw type motion
Salt- tolerant inhabitants of coastal waters, associate with marine invertebrates. vibrio parahaemolyticus- gastroenteritis from raw seafood.
Vibrio vulunificus- gastroenteritis from raw oysters (nasty skin/tissue infection of cuts and scratches)
Human reservoir. 2 strains. Trachoma strain- attacks the mucous membranes of the eyes, genitourinary tract and lungs (Ocular trachoma- uncommon in U.S. but common in africa and Asia. Severe infection, deforms eyelid and cornea, may cause blindness. Inclusion conjunctivitis- occurs as babies pass through birth canal; prevented by prophylaxis. STD- urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis (PID), infertility, scarring.) Lymphogranuloma venereum strain- disfiguring disease of the external genitalia and pelvic lymphatics.
d) both a and c
a) exogenous infections
b) endogenous infections
c) iatrogenic infections
d) vector-borne infections
It is a tightly packed physical barrier and The outer layers shed and thus remove any adhered microbes.
b. mucous membranes
c. macrophagesd. normal flora
washing microbes from teeth and destroying microbes through the action of lysozyme
Which type of cells is known to directly and specifically kill virally infected cells and neoplastic cells?
Which of the following is NOT a function of inflammation?
a. increased permeability of blood vessels
b. migration of phagocytes
c. tissue repaird. all are functions of inflammation
specific responses geared to specific invaders
secrete protective antibodies
Which of the following activities of antibodies would prevent the attachment of a virus to a host cell?
d. all of the above would prevent attachment
a. memory B cells
b. memory T cells
c. immediate responses without the need for activation of immune cells
d. all of the above
to vaccinate people against infectious agents
Which type of vaccine below has the least chance of reverting to a virulent form?
provides rapid protection
. Allergic responses are examples of what type of hypersensitivity reactions?
The primary chemical released by mast cells during degranulation is of what class?
The autoimmune disease lupus is an example of what type of hypersensitivity?
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