A writing form using a series of small and large triangles, used by the Sumerians
A culture lasting from 3000 BCE to 2400 BCE where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers meet. First civilized people to develop city-states, script, political structure, etc. Polytheist beliefs with a theocracy in place.
"Land Between the Two Rivers", quite literally the stretch of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Part of the Fertile Crescent, and a community heavily dependent on the rivers for crops and basic living.
A man who conquered all the lands along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, possibly forming the first empire.
Legend of Sargon
A bibliography of Sargon which relates him to the people in the hopes that they will stay in his empire.
Code of Hammurabi
A set of laws giving us insight into the Babylonian culture. Shows us information about high crime rates, mistreatment of women, divine intervention, and the importance of community.
People who lived in Israel and had a monotheist belief.
People who lived along the Great Sea, and because they were a large trade community invented an alphabet used everywhere, currency, and ship building skills. For trade, they became early colonizers.
A contract or agreement between the Hebrews which gave you rules in your relationship with others and god. Also referred to as the Ten Commandments. This script was shown in many public places in the Hebrew culture.
Belief in one god based around the concepts of right and wrong.
A culture ranging from 800 BCE-600 BCE who lived in Mesopotamia along the Tigris River. Ruled using fear, being very militant. Some of the first to build roads, staging posts, and libraries.
Code of the Assura
A code very much focused on relations between women, men, and neighbors, often dealing with punishment. Reproduction is important, and people are punished for their wrongs by being visibly marked.
Small buildings positioned along roads where you could switch horses on long journeys so that the animals wouldn't tire out and mail could be delivered quicker.
Ruling from 550 BCE to 320 BCE. Cyrus the Great ruled from 559 BCE to 530 BCE. Next, Cambyses and Darius became rulers. The main flaw was the Harem, where concubines (sex slaves) lived, and using Zoroastrianism as their main religion.
Cyrus the Great
A ruler of Persia from 559 BCE to 530 BCE, ruling mostly on kindness and uniting the Persians in battle. Referred to as Messia in the bible, he was accepting of all religions and taxed minimally, he died before he could finalize the empire.
Son of Cyrus the Great who rules from 521-485. Keeps his father's peacefulness and tries to unite the empire by switch to the language of Aramaic and using one system of measurements and coins. Used Satrapies, or states, to organize the empire.
Persian monotheistic religion started by Zoroaster. Based around the battle between Ahura Mazda, the good god, and Ahiriman, the bad. Very concerned with death of the world, which would bring a Saoshyant to judge your Urvan.
A term coined to the period when Jews were held captive in Babylon. Often used when talking about something good being held in a dirtier place.
In Islam, it is a genie, or a tribe's own god. This god was in the form of a statue.
Tribe leaders of the Arabs, often picked by the community elders.
A shrine based around the meteor in Mecca, which housed many gods and goddesses.
Lived from 570-632, first marries to Khadija. He is told by god to recite, and must share the messages that there is only one god and there is an equality among men. The first Muslim, starting the entire religion
Largest trade center in Arabia centered around the kaaba. Mohammad leaves in 622 for Medina.
1. Shahada: Declaration of faith, makes anyone a muslim
2. Salat: Daily prayer
3. Zakah: Annual fee giving charity to the poor
4. Sawm: Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan.
5. The haji, or pilgrimage to Mecca.
Monotheistic religion started by Mohammad, believing in Allah. A follower is called a Muslim. The capital of the religion is Damascus.
Period in 622 in which Mohammad leaves Mecca for Medina. Very important to Muslims, known as year one.
Term meaning holy war, or struggle for Islam. Can be used to refer to an inner battle for faith, a struggle to improve Muslim society, or a holy war for Islam.
Sunni vs. Shia
The first want to elect a caliph, or successor to Mohammad, and the second want the caliph to be a descendant of Mohammad
House of Wisdom
Islamic library in Baghdad.
The capital of the Islam empire after the Assyrians moved it there. It was central to the empire, figured out how to make paper, and other than tax it was free to other religions.
Added a sultan, or authority, to the Islam world, but kept the caliph as a figurehead. Their interference with Christian Pilgrims led Pope Urban II to call for the First Crusade in 1095.
Authority of Islam under Turkish rule, especially militant.
Battle between the Muslims and Christians in 1071 which led the Christians to call for Crusades.
People of the Book
Monotheist religions like Jewdaism and Christianity were considered superior to polytheist religions in the Muslim world, and more socially accepted.
Large bodyguard of Mohammad, and very much a warleader. Cousin to Mohammad who shows much loyalty, and is later put as caliph from 634-644. Fought the Wars of Expansion during this period and turned the empire from being nomadic to being an empire.
Ruled from 644-656, from the Ummayya family. Got all parts of the Quran and put them together into the existing book.
Cousin of Mohammad who marries his daughter. Ruler from 656-661 who fought the Battle of the Camel against Mu'Awiyah, who surrenders when he lets him, making everyone hate him so that a fellow Shi'a kills him.
Islamic code of law, which includes no alcohol, pork, gambling, or Muslim slavery. Includes the Koran, Sunnah, and Figh.
The first are things inspired by the prophet, told to you by god but not written down. The second are the judgements that Islamic scholars say that Allah would want.
A judge, more like a professor, who argues about whether Figh should be put in place or not.
Mehmet the Conqueror
Sultan of the Ottoman empire from 1451-1481. He led the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
An elite, highly loyal soldier in the Turkish guard.
Lasted from 1299 to 1923, with Turkish rule created by the Ottoman Turks in the 13th century and lasted until the end of World War I; although initially small it expanded until it superseded the Byzantine Empire
Advanced in pharmacology (the practice of making drugs from plants), understood the concept of quarantine, and gained the concept of innoculation, or giving someone a disease in order to keep them from being hurt by it, from the Chinese.
They provided a place for conversation and male sociability. Some people resisted them because it can be physically harmful, it is an innovation and breaks the Islamic law, they encouraged political discussion, and they disagreed with patron beliefs.
Four Pillars of the Ottoman Government
1. Grand Vezir-President over general affairs with the empire, and supervisor of civil administration.
2. Judges-Responsible for administration of justice who nominate each other.
4. Secretaries-Draw up Sultan's plans.
Islamic legal authority who could veto laws seen as 'non-Islamic'.
Land granted by the Ottoman sultans which acted as compensation for military service.
To keep their from being fights for position of sultan, this would happen to all the half brothers, sons of the sultan, as well as babies and young boys in the Harem.
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