The ______ was a professional association created in 1919 & funded by private contributions, which was integral in getting agencies of justice to work together and getting the work of the CJ system recognized.
Chicago Crime Commission
The term CJ system was first used after the finding of the ______ .
American Bar Foundation Project
____, ____, _____ are the 3 main components into which the contemporary CJ system is gen. divided.
Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system
In procedural order the _____ comes first in the formal CJ process.
What are the stages for police officers in the gate keeper role?
Initial contact, investigation, arrest and custody
At what stage of the formal cj process does the defendant enter a plea of guilty or not guilty?
What levels of offenders of the wedding cake model have typically committed serious offenses, received a prison term, but not media attention?
The _____ justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime thru the judicious use of criminal sanctions and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law?
The _____ perspective sees the CJ system as a mechanism of caring for and treating people who can't manage themselves and assumes people are at the mercy of the social, economic and interpersonal conditions.
ehaBetween 1976 and 1999, 566 were executed in the US and 82 awaiting execution were exonerated. This is a concern of advocates of the _____ perspective.
Which justice perspective would advocate diversion programs or mediation programs for juvenile offenders?
What crimes are included in the UCR?
Criminal homicide, motor vehicle theft and arson
_____ is a public order crime?
The UCR indicates that police clear slightly more than ____% of all reported Part 1 crimes each year?
_______ is the data source relies on a multi-stage sample of housing units to collect info about citizen's encounters with criminals.
National Crime Victimization Survey
One of the most important sources of self report data is the _____ study, conducted annually using approximately 2.5000 high school seniors.
monitoring the future
______ is the type of study that provides the best measure of unreported crimes.
Self report study
Self report surveys are conducted most often on ____.
____ is the country with the highest homicide rate.
The ____ region of the US has the highest property and violent crime rates.
African Americans make up about ____% of the gen. pop. yet account for _____% of violent crime arrests.
Substantive criminal law is primarily concerned with ______.
defining crimes and their punishments
_____, _____ are the goals that underlie the broad purposes of criminal law.
Preventing and controlling unacceptable behavior and protecting citizens
An advantage of a legal system based on the principle of stare decisis is that _______.
the system promotes stability and certainty in legal decisions
____, ______, and ______ are sources of criminal law.
Common law, statues and case decisions
Laws that are created and retroactively enforced are know as ______.
ex post facto laws
The term actus reas refers to the _____.
Criminal negligence is a form of _____.
The insanity standard that solely considers whether the accused is able to distinguish right from wrong is the ____.
The main source of procedural law is the ______.
bill of rights
The ____ in early English society required that every person in a village be responsible for protecting the settlement from thieves.
The Justice of the peace was created in _____ under the watch system of policing to assist the shire reeve in controlling the country.
English police officers are know as _____.
The first technological breakthru in policing came in the area of ______.
August Vollmer contributed to police professionalism by instituting university _____.
training for young officers
The defining event that helped shape police reforms in the 19902 was the beating of _____.
The US Att. Gen. heads the ____.
US Dept. of Justice
The FBIs primary objective is to ________.
protect the US from terrorist attacks
______ is the term used to describe the use of computer software to conduct analysis of behavioral patterns in an effort to link open cases to know perps.
_____ is an example of crime fighting technology in the Chicago CLEARNMAP program.
_______ is a computerized fingerprint system.
AFIS Automated fingerprint identification system
Most police agencies are organized in a _____.
Most municipal police departments determine promotion ______.
eligibility by time in rank
The major purposes of police patrol are: ______, ________, and ______.
deterring crime thru police presence, aiding individuals who can't help themselves and facilitating the movement of traffic and people
The neighborhood canvas is part of the ________.
general coverage stage of the investigation
According to research by the ______ the likelihood of the police making an arrest when responding to _______.
PERF, crime in progress is 33%
3 reasons behind the evolution of community policing are: _______, _____, _____
citizen frustration with police detachment, inability of patrol to reduce a certain type of crime and desire to improve the public image of the police
______ links police effectiveness to productive interaction with the community being served.
Community oriented policing
The police operation that best exemplifies community oriented _______.
policing is the hiring of bilingual officers to patrol ethnic neighborhoods
_____ is the police support unit that is responsible for investigating allegations of police misconduct.
The Internal Affairs Division IAD
Approximately ____% of police depts. now have a college requirement.
_______ is the term that describes the experience of black officers who must deal with the expectation that they will show lenience to members of their own race, while at the same time experiencing overt racism from their police colleagues.
Today, almost ____ % of local police officers are African American, Hispanic or other non-white ethnic groups.
Approximately ____% of all sworn law enforcement officers in the US are minority women.
The term "blue curtain" describes _______.
the secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequence of the police subculture
An officer who approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, checks everyone's ID, and arrests everyone who is underage would typify the ______ style of policing.
An officer that approaches a group of teenagers standing in a parking lot, checks them for gang symbols, and calls into the station to ascertain if any of them have active warrants, arresting those with a warrant, exemplifies _____ style of policing.
The _____ police style emphasizes problem solving and is therefore well suited for community policing.
The _____ police style is associated with the preference to ignore issues to concern or treat them informally, unless the social or political order is being jeopardized.
The overload hypotheses suggests that community crime rates may shape officer discretion. This is an example of an _____.
The pattern that research reveal regarding officers involvement in use of force incidents is _______.
a small portion of officers account for a sizable portion of abuses
Deadly force is force that is likely to cause _____.
death or significant bodily injury
When the Supreme Court hears cases pertaining to search and seizures, they draw mainly on the ____ amendment.
A warrant can't be issued unless it is based upon _____ typically defined as a reasonable belief
The major legal issue in most consent searches is whether the police can prove that ________
the suspect gave consent voluntarily
The basic principal of the law of the electronic surveillance is that ______ and other devices that violate privacy are contrary to the _____.
wire-tapping, 4th Amendment
If a suspect waives his or her ______ and statement they make is admissible in a court of law.
The 5th Amendment protects an individual's right to freedom from ______.
The ______ decisions made the exclusionary rule applicable to the federal court system.
weeks v US
The exclusionary rule has also been extended to include derivate or secondary evidence also called ______.
Fruit of the poisonous tree
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