scientific study of social behavior and human groups
an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society.
study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change. (chemistry geology, physics)
study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change (sociology, anthropology, psychology)
refers to the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective. (durkheim)
a model for evaluating specific cases.
Ideal type. verstehen
German word for understanding
Macrosociology vs micro
large scale of entire civilizations
study of small groups, often through experimental means
macro and micro sociology
emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain stability. Parsons.
institutions are open, stated, conscious functions. involved the recognized consequences of an aspect of society such as the university role in certifying academic excellence. (merton)
unconscious unintended functions that reflect hidden purposes of an institution. latent function of the university serving as a meeting ground for people to meet
refers to an element or process of a society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability
assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or the allocation of resources, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation.
sees inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization. allied with conflict perspective
generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole.
people are seen as theatrical performers `
stable, macro, punishment reinforces social order, DURKHEIM, PARSONS, MERTON
struggle between groups, macro, inequality, people shaped by power, maintained through force, change is positive, laws reinforce those in power, MARX, DU Bois, WELLS- Barnett
everyday social interaction, micro, nonverbal communication, communication with others, respect or disobey laws based on past experiences, MEAD, COOLEY, GOFFMAN
the use of discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations.
worldwide integration of government politics, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and exchange of ideas.
an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept. EX: someone studying prejudice might consider a persons unwillingness to hire or work with members of minority groups
the relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence with one event leading to the other, EX: being less integrated into society may be related to likelihood of suicide.
change in one variable coincides with change in the o1ther.
refers to the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study
the extent to which a measure produces consistent results.
factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable
the study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation
exposed to the independent variable when the control group is not
specialized language used by members of a group or subculture
deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
the worldwide media industry that standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers
period of maladjustment when the non-material culture is still struggling to adapt to the new material conditions
process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group
a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests.
a norm governing everyday behavior whose violation raises little concern.
has been written down and that specifies strict punishment for violators
generally understood but not recorded
process of introducing a new idea or object to a cuture through discovery or invention
governmental social control
the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives
norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
ways of using material objects, as well as customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality. it holds that language is culturally determined.
collective conception of what is considered good, desirable, and proper or bad, undesirable, or improper
process of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions, occupations, and social relationships
cognitive theory of development
children thoughts progresses through four stages of development (PIAGET)
an aspect of the socialization process within some total institutions in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals
the efforts people make to maintain the proper image and avid public embarrassment
expectations regarding the proper behavior and attitudes of males or females
attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account in his or her behavior (MEAD)
altering the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences (GOFFMAN)
life course approach
research orientation in which sociologist and other social scientists look closely at the social factors that influence people throughout their lives from birth to death
looking glass self
a concept that emphasizes the self as the product of our social interactions (COOLEY)
process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of transition in ones life
rite of passage
ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to the other
the generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children
(MEAD) distinct identity that sets us apart from others
one that regulates all aspects of a persons life under a single authority such as prison, military, or mental hospital
technology advanced society. production of food.
assigned to a person without that person having to work for it
views workers as being motivated almost entirely by economic rewards
designed for a special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency
a close knit community often in rural areas
community, often urban, is large and impersonal with little commitment to group or values
human relations approach
approach to the study of formal organizations that emphasizes role of people, communications, participation's in bureaucracy, informal structure.
construct a model for evaluating specific cases
iron law of oligarchy
principle of organizational life under which even a democratic organization will develop into a bureaucracy
collective consciousness that emphasizes group solidarity,
view that the government should remain neutral toward online content
collective consciousness that rests on mutual independence,
where every employee within hierarchy tents to rise to his or her level of incompetence
technologically sophisticated preoccupied with consumer goods and media images
primary group vs secondary group
small and face to face association VS formal impersonal group where little social intimacy
when incompatible expectations arise from tow or more social positions held by the same person
process of disengagement from role that is central to ones self identity in order to establish a new role and identity
difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations
tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become SO specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems
relative lack of access to the latest technologies among low income groups, minorities,
set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests
process by which a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
phenomenon in which the media provide such massive amounts of coverage that the audience becomes numb and fails to act on the information's, regardless of how compelling the issue
someone who influences opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
anomie theory of deviance
MERTONS theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment OR both
a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms
school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions
theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts
formal social control
social control that is carried out by authorized agents such as police officers , judges, employers
eight types of crime reported annually by the FBI- rape, robbery, murder, assault, burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, arson
informal social control
social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such as laughing, smiles, ridicule
an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why people are viewed as deviants, while others engaged in the same behavior are not
prostitution, gambling, smuggling and sale of drugs
social constructionist perspective
an approach to deviance that emphasizes the role of culture in the creation of the deviant identity
strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
social disorganization theory
increase in crime and deviance to the absence of communal relationships and social institutions such as family school church
societal reaction approach
another name for labeling theory
label used to devalue members of certain social groups
crime that occurs across multiple national borers
questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime
a term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired but illegal goods and services
white collar crime
illegal acts committed by affluent "respectable" individuals in the course of business activities
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