deals with questions that pertain to changes, improvements, and judgements. what SHOULD states do? value based.
Approach to CP Research: Predictive
use data and precedent to formulate theories about the future in politics. what will happen?
Approach to CP Research: causal, "positive"
focusing on relationships between events, circumstances. what are causes/correlations?
Theoretical Schools in Comparative Politics: rationalist (interests)
individual actors, decisions made based on individual interests. asks who gains, who loses?
Approach to CP research: descriptive
Theoretical Schools in Comparative Politics: structuralist (institutions)
formal and informal rules that shape human behavior rules. asks what are the rules and how are they enforced?
Theoretical Schools in Comparative Politics: culturalist (identity)
social groups and shared cultural connections. asks what are the identities and what type of behavior do they influence? content?
quantitative research method
uses numerical data for analysis (gdp, population data, etc)
pro: good for covering many nations, allows for wide comparisons
con: not in depth, does not show whole picture which may lead to misperception
qualitative research method
deals with historical events, cultural descriptions, etc... things that cannot be expressed with numbers or quantities
pro: lends much fuller picture of a nation/state, allows for conclusions to be drawn from a strong foundation
con: research much more demanding, language barriers, time consuming, only allows for limited number of examinations --> limits possible comparisons.
all countries will develop and eventually become capitalist democracies unless otherwise deterred
shift emphasizing causality, explanation, and prediction; places greater emphasis on the political behavior of individuals as opposed to larger political structures and on quantitative over qualitative methodology; modernization theory predominant
rejection of 'grand theory' criticism of modernization theory as biased and inaccurate; diversity of methods and political approaches, emphasizing issues such as gender, culture, environment, and globalization.
aristotle (384-322 bc)
first separated the study of politics from philosophy; used comparative method to study the greek city-states, empirical study of politics for a practical purpose in "the politics"
state system: pre-modern (pre-1500's)
? Personal and commercial relations defined lives of people ? State borders not precisely defined ? Broader range of authority only vaguely defined ? Armies did not represent broader authority ? No common legal system ? No ?nations?
state system: early modern (1500's-1800's)
1. Economic and scientific progress in Europe ? Need for people and goods to quickly move across large territories 2. Warfare became more costly ? Rulers needed more revenues from subjects 3. 1648 Peace of Westphalia ? Beginning of sovereignty: rulers of states were able to determine the religion of their own lands
Modern Period (since 1800s): The Rise of the Nation-state
? Until the 19th century, the nation was an elite concept ? Increased trade and mobility led to the homogenization of people in state territories ? Printing presses and mass education led to the standardization of language ? End result: the nation becomes a mass concept; mass citizenship emerges
State vs. Government v. Regime v. Civil Society
state=permanent/long-lasting set of institutions that play host to the regime/government
regime= type of government system occupying the state (i.e. democracy, autocracy, monarchy)
Gov't= individual actors in leadership positions at any given time
civil society= non gov't actors (INGOs, CO's) citizenry
1648 Peace of Westphalia
defined modern sovereignty, rulers of states were able to determine the religion of their own lands
Strong States/Weak States/Failed States
strong state= high legitimacy, high capacity. able to fulfill basic tasks (defend territory, make/enforce rules, collect taxes, manage economy)
weak state= cannot execute such tasks very well
failed states= collapse of structures, total loss of power (afghanistan prior to 2001, somalia)
? State ability to carry actions within its borders independently from external rivals and authorities ? Infringement: UN, EU, Human rights, Environmental activists infringe on member states
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