Beliefs or ideologies lag behind social structures in accommodating change.
What is a "traditional" gender ideology?
Men and women who believe that women should be predominantly home-orientated and men should be predominantly work-orientated, even if the woman works outside of the home.
What is an "egaltarian" gender ideology?
Men and women who believe that both should be equally work and/or home oriented, an that both should share the work of the home.
What is a "transitional" gender ideology?
Men and women who believe that it's acceptable for women to work and for men to 'help out' at home, but that the home is the women's primary responsibility and work is the men's primary responsibility.
What is the 'upstairs/downstairs' myth?
That women think they are dividing the chores equally by having the men take care of the "downstairs" (the garage, the shed, the basement). The women actually end up doing the most work because the "upstairs" counts as the kitchen, the bedrooms, and the bathrooms.
What is "gender strategy"?
A plan of action to solve the conflicts between gender ideology and real life.
In Hochschild's study what percentage of the men said they shared the housework equally?
in Hochschild's study what percentage of men said they did less than half the housework but more than one third of the work?
In Hochschild's study what percentage of men said they did less than a third of the housework?
On average how much more housework does the woman do than the man?
How is class transmitted from generation to generation?
Access to education, school isn't just something that provides skills but it allows us to show we can afford school. People who don't go to collage aren't taken seriously.
What are the three dimensions of childrearing patterns?
Organization of daily life, language use, and social connections.
What is "concerted cultivation?"
When parents are active in structuring their child's live. (Parents signing them up for soccer, piano lessons, etc.)
What is "accomplishment of natural growth?"
The belief that children need to develop naturally. They shouldn't be forced to take swim lessons, they should hang out with their friends and play basketball with them.
What do parents who believe in the accomplishment of natural feel powerless too?
They feel powerlessness in dealing with institutions such as school and the medical system. They feel that if their child get's a bad grade the child should just accept it and try to do better next time.
The sense of family in 2000 is declining. What are most people worried about?
Gay marriage, high divorce rates, too few new births.
What aspects of the family were European colonists worried about?
They worried about 'moral decline' .
What is moral decline?
In the colonists eyes it was children behaving badly because the father's were not beating their kids enough.
What aspects of the family were 19th century people worried about?
They were worried about 'race suicide' and 'the woman question'.
What is the woman question?
In the 1900's with more industrialization and schooling women were not needed as much in the home as they were used to. The question was for what they should do with the extra time they have. Should they get a job? Or should they stay home?
What is race suicide?
When people marry people out of their race so there is not one pure race.
What aspect of the family did post-war people worry about?
They worried about the 'generation gap'.
What is the generation gap?
There were many babies being born and more children than adults, and more grandparents than adults.
In 2000 what percentage of African American families contained 3 or more children?
In 1980 what percentage of African American families contained 3 or more children?
In 2000 what percentage of Hispanic families contained 3 or more children?
In 1980 what percentage of Hispanic families contained 3 or more children?
In 2000 what percentage of white families contained 3 or more children?
In 1980 what percentage of white families contained 3 or more children?
In what year were divorce rates the highest ever? And with how many divorces per 1,000?
In 1980, with 23 divorces per every 1,000 married women.
What is the divorce rate today?
In 2010, there are 19.5 divorces per every 1,000 married women.
Which country has the highest divorce rates?
The United States of America.
How fast is the elderly population increasing?
4 times as fast as the population as a whole.
Historians argued that it used to be that divorce was...
..."the functional substitute for death"
In the olden days if divorce was not used, why would people marry and remarry quite often?
Because morality rates were low, and their spouse died.
What percent of families have children and both the mother and father work outside the home?
What percentage of mother's work today?
What was an exception for divorce back in the medieval times?
If someone's partner was infertile.
What is a "familial mode of production"?
A self-sufficient, farming family.
In what period was the familial mode of production popular?
From the first colonies in the US until industrialization.
What is a "labor market mode of production?"
People work for wages and buy goods and services with currency. There is a separation of the home and the workplace.
What are the five types of families?
Colonial/Agrarian, African-American slave, Victorian middle-class, the Companionate Family, and the dual-earner family
What does history have to do with family?
Historical conditions shaped family life. For example, the economy, social policies, and laws impacted how a family worked together.
What are public goods?
Things that may be enjoyed by people who did not pay for the good or produce the good themselves.
What are examples of public goods?
social security money, welfare checks, food from a food pantry, public museums
What is the "public family"?
One adult or two adults who are related by marriage, partnership or shared parenthood, who is/are taking care of dependents and themselves.
What is the "private family"?
Two or more individuals who maintain an intimate relationship that they expect will last indefinitely, or in the case of parent and child, until the child reached adulthood, and live in the same household and pool their income and household labor.
What is the "Life Course Theory" based on?
Based on the understanding the intersection of "individual time" with "historical time"
What would be an example of a life course theory?
9/11 terrorist attacks, Berlin Wall coming down, attacks on Pearl Harbor
What is blueprint 1 for marriage and family and when was it used?
"Family Duty" during the 19th century
In the "Family Duty" blueprint what was marriage considered?
Marriage was considered an institution with clear rules and obligations.
In the "Family Duty" blueprint what was the primary emotional bond?
The bond between a mother and child.
In the "Family Duty" blueprint how were husbands viewed?
Husbands were seen as "outside" of the family- in the workforce, but also held authority over the family.
What is blueprint 2 for marriage and family and when was it used?
"Companionship" 1920 to 1970
What is the "companionate family"?
It held that husbands and wives were to be "friends and lovers" and that parent and children should be "pals". The new ideal stressed the couple relationship and family togetherness as the primary source of emotional satisfaction and personal happiness.
What did the companionate family give rise to?
A suburban lifestyle.
What invention was key in allowing a suburban lifestyle.
What is "companionship marriage"?
An emphasis on affection, friendship, and sexual gratification.
What was another name for companionship marriage?
the "breadwinner-homemaker" family
What did postwar economic prosperity produce?
the "Baby Boom"
In what decade was there the highest rates of marriage and youngest ages of first marriage?
What was the theory of functionalism created by Talcott Parsons?
The belief that anytime there was a social change, major institutions would adapt to this change.
Give an example of the functionalism by Talcott Parsons.
When there was more industrialization, people had less and less children because they did not need a lot of children to work on the farm.
What were the three reasons the Talcott Parsons gave for the need for only one breadwinner in the family?
It allowed for functional specialization, there was an instrumental role, and there was an expressive role.
What is the "instrumental role"?
The role in the family of earning a living for the rest of the members of the family.
What is the "expressive role"?
The role in the family of keeping the rest of the family members emotionally stable.
What resulted from the movement of marriage as an "institution" to marriage "as companionship".
It placed tremendous pressure on marital satisfaction.
What resulted from men starting to work outside of the home? (in relation to men)
Overworked and overstressed men because the family was dependent on their income.
What resulted from men starting to work outside of the home? (in relation to women)
Women were homebound and they had less to do because they had fewer children and fewer chores.
Why was there isolation in the nuclear family?
Because the suburbs were separate from community life and it was somewhat expensive for one person to sustain the whole family in the suburbs.
What is blueprint 3 for marriage and family?
What is "individualized marriage"?
An emphasis on self-development, flexible roles, and open communication.
What was the internal criteria for marriage in 1974?
Personal fulfillment, emotional satisfaction, and less obligations to other people
Why was there a movement to individualized marriage?
Because there was an increased standard of living, economic change, and different views of personal fulfillment.
For the poor what was considered personal fulfillment?
Getting married to somebody you love.
Why was there an increase in the standard of living?
Because if a marriage is unsatisfying people can easily get divorced and the wife can now work so there was no reason for her to stay in a bad marriage.
What did teenage jobs provide?
Independence from parents, and they could start dating.
What did the rise in more accessible higher education result in?
A later age for people giving birth because they wanted to finish college first before they have children.
What happened with the birthrate after 1970?
The birthrate plunged
What happened to the age of marriage after 1970?
People married on average 4-5 years later.
What happened to the divorce rate during the 1960's and 1970's?
What did Sarah Ruddick argue in 1995?
That father's were just as capable as mothers to take care of children.
What is "mothering"?
The capacity to nurture and respond to the needs of infants.
What did some sociologists believe that made mother's better at child care than men?
Because mothers experience the pregnancy and breast feeding process so they are automatically more in tune with their child.
What do father's do when their child has a problem.
Instead of only comforting their child they help the child figure out solution.
What is "hegemonic masculinity"?
It refers to the belief in the existence of a culturally normative ideal of male behavior. (Men are supposed to be 'tough')
What is "compensatory masculinity"?
If a man cannot work he will drive a big car or work out more to try to compensate for his lost manhood.
What taboo dealing with girls hurts in a father's relationship with his daughter?
As a father, men like to play and rough house with their children but when a daughter becomes a teenager they cannot touch them without it being awkward.
What was the importance of the 1990's?
It was the first period in American history in which corporate profits were "uncoupled" form wages.
Wage gap between the more-educated and less-educated men in the 2000's has:
What gender is hit hardest recently by unemployment.
How many jobs have been lost since 2008?
Of the 8 million jobs lost since 2008 what percentage have been male jobs?
What percentage of men aged 22 - 54 are unemployed?
What type of calls are up 150% because of an increase in male unemployment?
hotline calls for domestic violence
What percentage of the housework do unemployed men do?
Why do men do even less housework after they are unemployed if they have so much more time.
To hold onto the little masculinity that they have left.
What are "life chances"?
The resources and opportunities that people have to provide themselves with material goods and favorable living conditions.
What is the percentage chance of making it into the upper two quintiles of wealth with a post-secondary educaiton?
What is the percentage chance of remaining in the bottom two quintiles without a post-secondary education?
What were the four main reasons for a sharp increase of women in the workforce in the 1970's?
increase in divorce rate, decline in amount of children being born, huge layoffs, service sector jobs on the rise
In 2004 what percent of married women with school-aged children were in the labor force?
76% of women
Why did service sector jobs cause a need for women in the workforce?
Because jobs that involved nursing and education were mainly female role jobs.
What caused the instrumental shift from companionship to independent marriage?
A rise in the amount of women who were going into the workforce.
What is the main norm now for women working?
It is very common nowadays for women to work outside the home from young adulthood to retirement.
How much money does a woman make for every dollar a man makes?
What are "involuntary part-time workers"?
People who usually don't have the credentials such as a degree to secure a full time job. This means that grown men and women could be found working at McDonalds not because they want to, but because other jobs are scarce.
What are the three downfalls to part-time work?
Less job security, less pay, rare access to health benefits.
What is "role overload"?
The state of having too many roles with conflicting demands.
What is "spillover"?
Stressful events in one person's daily life that often spillover into other parts of his/her life.
Women are more like to feel spillover from...
...home into work
Men are more likely to feel spillover from...
...work to home
When women feel spillover what are they more likely to do?
Women are more likely to take off from work to care for a sick child.
When men feel spillover what are they more likely to do?
Men are more likely to withdraw from family life to fulfill work demands.
What are the two reasons that the current work/family situation is referred to as a 'stalled industrial revolution'?
Because the economy has changed so that most families cannot survive on one income, yet workplaces do not accommodate people with children that well. Also, even though women work outside the home just as much as men now, they are still expected to take care of the children.
What is the average price per child at a day care center per week and per year?
per week: $200, per year: $10,000
What is the average cost of a nanny per child per week and per year?
per week: $300-$600, per year: $15,000-$32,000
What are the two ways parent accommodate to expensive childcare?
Each parent works a different time shift (so one is always with the kids) and more women are turning down job opportunities.
What percentage of countries in the world give a paid maternity leave?
80% of countries.
What are the three main models of parental leave? And what countries use them most?
Pro-natalist (France), Laissez-faire (United States), and Social Welfare State (Norway)
In the Pro-natalist model how many weeks of leave does a parent get and what percentage of wages are they reimbursed?
16-26 weeks of leave at 100% of wages.
In the Laissez-faire model how many weeks of leave does a parent get and what percentage of wages are they reimbursed?
Up to 12 weeks and 0% of wages.
In the Laissez-faire model what are the two clauses to parental leave?
It is only guaranteed for people who are working for a company with fifty or more people, and you can return to work, but you might not necessarily have the same job.
In the Social welfare state model how many weeks of leave does a parent get and what percentage of wages are they reimbursed
52 weeks of parental leave (mother or father) at 80% pay.
What do children in a social welfare state model have up to they are age five?
Publicly provided childcare.
What type of family were people part of in the colonial times?
A nuclear family
What is a "nuclear family"?
A family consisting a married father and mother who have children.
How many children did colonial families often have?
Why didn't households contain multiple generations of the family?
Because grandparents often did not live long enough to see their grandchildren.
Who lived with the family in colonial times?
Boarders, slaves, and indentured servants.
What is, "Couverture"?
it is a marriage law that made it so that when a man married a woman he would own everything that belonged to her.
What could a woman not do once she married?
She could not own property, discipline her children, or write her own will.
Who would a woman want to take her children when she died? And why?
Her sister because siblings were closer to each other than they were to their parents, because there parents were always working.
What did high death rates lead to?
Husbands or wives marrying at twice because their partner would die.
What were children viewed as during the colonial period?
How old would children be before they were expected to help provide for the family?
What type of schooling did colonial children receive?
None, if anything their father would teach them the bible.
What did all colonial children have when they were born, and how could they get rid of it?
All colonial children were born with 'original sin'. The only way to get rid of it would be strict discipline, beatings, and moral training.
How did most people travel to America during the colonial period?
as indentured servants
How long was an indentured servant bound to a family?
for seven years
What could indentured servants not do?
They could not marry or participate in political life.
How could you be a free man back in the colonial days?
You could either be rich and buy your way into the colony or you could be a man with a wife and family.
What were colonial families viewed as?
miniature versions of the larger community
Who would be the head of the colonial family?
What were the roles of the colonial father?
Economic control over the household, decision making for the household, and the moral authority of the household.
What are "separate spheres?"
The idea that public life and private life are kept separate.
Why would colonial teens leave home as apprentices?
Because it would be too expensive to raise all the children under one roof, and the teens could gain skills to help with work.
What were correctional institutions like during the colonial period?
Criminals would be placed in the homes of respected families in the community where the head of the household would reform them.
Why was a private family non-existent?
Because since there were so few rooms, 6-10 people would share two rooms so there was never any privacy.
What would happen if there was adultery in the family?
There would be a public shaming, for example, members of the community would bang pots and pans on the window of the home of the person being shamed.
What are the four parts of Cherlin's model of social classes?
Income, status, job security, and life chances.
What makes a family upper-class or upper-middle class?
To be in the top quintile, have high earnings, wealth, and prestige.
What is just as important as a high income to the upper-class?
To have a lot of non-tangible wealth. Such as an expensive house, a boat, stocks, etc.
What types of jobs do the upper-class tend to have?
They tend to be CEO's, or senior managers of large corporations, banks, and law firms.
What is typical of most upper-class wives?
They tend to have a higher education, but they still stay home to take care of the children.
What makes a family middle-class?
A secure, comfortable income, and living well above the subsistence level?
What types of things can a middle-class family afford?
A car, college education for children, a house, etc.
What types of jobs do middle-class people tend to have?
They are managers, lower-level professionals and medium sized business owners.
What do most middle-class workers have?
Job benefits and a college education.
What makes a family working class?
They have an income that provides reliability for minimum needs for a modest lifestyle.
What is typical for most working-class families to have?
A modest home or apartment, one or two cars, and they can afford some college for their children.
What types of jobs are typical for working-class people?
Manual jobs, with less benefits. Layoffs are more common.
What makes a lower-class family?
They have a tenuous connection to the economy- reliability to provide a decent life in question.
What decides the poverty line?
The USDA calculation of the "Economy Diet"
What amount of money does the typical family spend on food.
The average family spends one-third of it's income on food.
What is considered the actual monetary income of the poverty line?
Anything below $22,000.
What is a downside to "concerted cultivation?"
Children have unrealistic expectations of the working world. Children are brought up with the idea that they can be whatever they want to be, but there always has to be someone to do the blue-collar jobs.
In what year did arguments over the effects of slavery on contemporary African-American families arise?
Who wrote an "infamous report on African-American families"?
What did Daniel Maynihan call an African-American family?
a 'tangle of pathology'
What type of family did Daniel Maynihan say an African-American family was?
a matriarchal family
What did Daniel Maynihan claim as proof that African-American families were no good?
they are descendants of slave families
In 1970 what percentage of African-American families were single-mother families?
In 1970 what percentage of the population was a single-mother family?
During the 20th century the marriage rate of blacks...
exceeded that of whites
Who wrote the most comprehensive history of African-American families in the U.S.
What type of African-American families were popular after slavery and emancipation?
What was the primary cause for family disruption during the slave period?
Having family members be sold so families would be broken up unwillingly.
What were the four new characteristics of the "modern" American family.
Marriage was based on mutual respect and affection, wife seen as morally superior, children were supposed to be cared for, number of children per family declined.
What is 'separate spheres'?
The husband is supposed to got to work and the wife is supposed to stay at home and take care of the family and make a nice home for the husband and wife to come back from work to.
How was wife beating viewed during the 19th century?
It was illegal.
What is the 'tender years rule'?
If a divorce happened all children under 13 would be sent to live with their mom because the mother was considered morally superior. Also, all girls would live with their mother no matter their age.
How did the 'tender years rule' come about and where?
Because of a court case from 1839.
In the "Century of the Child" children were now considered ____________________ when born.
What is 'tabula rasa'?
The idea of a blank slate. Children were believed to be born like this rather than how they used to be thought of as born with original sin.
What is the 'Married Women's Property Act' and when was it passed?
It overturned couverture which allowed women to keep their property that they brought into the marriage. It was passed in 1848.
What is 'Parens Patriae'?
Came to apply to the states right to intervention into the cases of children with neglectful parents.
What were the laws in the 19th century based on?
The notion that the family was an expression of divine law. Also, human's were made in God's image.
What did the laws applying to African-American slaves assume?
That they were less than human and inherently immoral and requiring a masters' hand.
What is 'slaveocracy'?
The form of law and government that protected master's rights in slave holding states.
What was considered the second closet relationship someone could have with another?
the relationship between a slave and their master
What are 'broad marriages'?
A marriage during the slave period in which you would be married but your spouse might live on a different plantation. Because of this many married slaves would never be able to see their children.
What were considered the two main functions of African-American slaves?
To work on the plantation and produce more slaves.
What were female slaves considered?
The producers of their master's property.
What put slave women in a 'double bind'?
They wished they could be free, and they could leave if they tried very hard, but they could not bring their children. Therefore, the woman would stay on the plantation to be with her children.
Why were female slaves considered 'unrapable'?
Because of the idea that black women are inherently immoral. And since white women were supposed to have no sexual desires the husbands would rape their female slaves to relieve themselves.
What was the main thing that slave father's did not have?
A relationship with their children.
What were the two main paradoxes of slavery?
Slave parents were viewed as incapable of taking care of their own children, yet many of the master's children's were raised by an adult, female slave. If sexual abuse was considered immoral and punishable by law, why was it acceptable to rape slaves if they were considered immoral to begin with?
What is 'collective childrearing'?
When a slave would be separated from their child and she would ask a man or a woman on the plantation that the child was living on, to take care of them.
What is 'fictive kin' and how does it relate to slavery?
If a slave was asked to take care of someone else's child and the child would consider them a relative.
Why about naming practices relates to slavery?
Wealthier slaves would pay to have a child's last name changed so it was their's rather than their masters'.
How were slave babies named?
Their first name was decided by the master and their last name would be the same as their masters'.
What is 'jumping the broom'?
The mindset that when you get married, even if you don't live together you are still married at heart.
What legal action would many slaves take once they were freed?
Slaves would buy marriage contracts and adoption contracts even if they are already married and if the child is their own to make it "real".
Who referred to the current work/family situation as a 'stalled industrial revolution'?
What are the two reasons for the 'stalled industrial revolution'?
The economy has changed so most families cannot survive on one income, yet the workplace has not changed to accommodate this. Also while the gender balance in the labor force has changed, the gender balance in the home is still the same.
What are the five things on Gerson and Jacobs' work policy wish list?
a 35 hour work week, overtime pay for managers, overtime for salary jobs, benefits for part-time workers, flexible work time, subsidized childcare.
What is the most signifigant job policy trend in the United States.
Today 23% of workers in the United States are able to change their what?
start and end times for their job
What are the three negative things that employees with flex time report less of?
Negative spillover from their jobs to their family lives, fewer mental health difficulties, fewer marital problems.
What is "ethnomethodology"?
A branch of social sciences which is concerned with exploring how people interact with the world and make sense of reality.
What was Garfinkle's famous study about?
It was about a transgendered man who was born with male parts but acts like a woman.
Why is "doing gender" unavoidable?
Because of the roles that men and women must fill. Women cannot date men shorter than them, women cannot date younger guys, and even the different bathrooms.
Why is "doing gender" more evident in times of social change?
Because there are questions such as in a couple who should earn more and who get's the child after a divorce.
What is "gender ideology"?
A set of beliefs about how one should feel or act based on what gender they are.
What are the three main 21st century family trends.
Elderly living longer, rise of "young adulthood" phase of life, dual-earner family
What are the three new family forms that resulted from the dual-earner family?
the beanpole family, boomerang children, multigenerational families
What did Burgess define the nuclear family as?
The modern "norm".
Why did the amount of members in a household increase during the depression?
Because young adults and the elderly would have to move back in with their parents because they couldn't afford to live on their own.
What shape did family trees in the 1900's look like?
What is a "beanpole family"?
The modern family. Historically, families have usually had more children than parents resulting in family trees that looked like parents. Now that the amount of children per generation has gone now, family trees are beginning to look tall and thin, with few people in each generation. (family tree resembles a beanpole)
What are "boomerang children"?
People that go to college and than go back to live in the same home as their parents.
How many grandparents are responsible for the basic needs of their children?
2.4 million children
What is the problem though with grandparents raising their children's children?
They cannot be legally recognized as the child's guardian.
What percentage of pre-schoolers are raised by their grandparents?
21% of pre-schoolers
What was the percentage increase in three generation households from 1990 to 2000?
34% increase in three generation households
What amount of the people living in a three generation household are grown children?
two-thirds are grown children
What amount of the people living in a three generation household are grandparents?
one-third are grandparents
What is considered the main factor for lengthening young adulthood?
education (most jobs now require a college degree)
What percentage of 16-24 year olds currently have a job?
46% of 16-24 year olds
Of the people aged 16-24 years old, how many will be able to earn enough money to live on their own.
1 in 3 people
What amount of parents report their grown children living at home after they graduate from college?
1 in 7 parents
What is a reason that it is more socially acceptable for grown children to be living with their parents?
Most parent-child relations are closer than they were in previous generations.
What are considered "the sandwich years"?
The time in a person's life when they are middle aged such as 30-50 years old where they are giving money to support their children and their parents.
What are the four strains in the rise of the multigenerational family?
The "sandwich generation", the decline in the "golden years", worry about failure to launch, and delayed childbearing for younger family members
Why is there now a decline in the "golden years" for our elders?
Because it is nearly impossible to be able to live comfortably on the money that someone has in their retirement fund.
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