- California State University - Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
- Kinesiology 303
- Midterm 1
Last Modified: 2011-07-14
exchange of gases (O2 and CO2
2) maintain Ph/control blood acidity
humidifies, warms, and filters air
2)Macrophage: Engulf particles that reach alveoli
*FROM HIGH CONCENTRATION TO LOW CONCENTRATION!
V=Vt x f
Pulmonary Ventilation = Tidal volume x frequency
V= 0.5 L/breath x 15 breath/min
V=3.5 L/breath x 50 breaths/min
Increased airway resistance due to constant airway narrowing
*Results in decreased expiratory airflow
2)Emphysema- airway collapse and increased resistance
Partial pressure of O2 in atmosphere is HIGHER than the P.P. of 02 in alveolar air and blood. Therefore, it must move DOWN concentration gradient.
***ONE WAY VALVES PREVENT BLOOD FROM MOVING BACKWARDS WHEN TRAVELING FROM CAPILLARIES TO HEART!
Arteries: 100 mmHg
more acidic "bohr Effect" b/c more H+ ions from glycolysis
Facilitates more 02 UNLOADING
Facilitates tighter bonding of O2 and Hb with LESS O2 unloading
**This makes sense because a high pH makes the graph move 'higher' or to the left!
MORE O2 UNLOADING.
facilitates tighter bonding
Occurs ~50% VO2 max
SHIFTS GRAPH TO RIGHT!!
Our lungs are overbuilt!
*Reduction in the simulation from the sympathetic nervous system and increased stimulated parasympathetic system.
2) Removal of CO2 waste from tissues
3) Regulates body temperature
*Includes atrial systole and diastole followed by, ventricular systole and diastole. Recorded by EKG
2/3 blood is ejected from ventricles per beat
Refill with blood
CO= heart rate (HR) x Stroke Volume (SV)
beats/min x L/beat
SV= EDV - ESV
2) Average aortic Blood PRessure: pressure the heart must pump against to eject blood.
3) Strength of the ventricular Contraction/ Contractility: increase Ca2+ in cytoplasm
-Direct sympathetic stimulation of heart
- Increase in contractility is due to greater Ca2+ into cytoplasm
2) Redistribution of blood flow from inactive organs to active muscle
2)improves survival from heart attack
*Reduces amount of myocardial damage from heart attack
*In a study done in 1999 by Fulco et al., they discovered women have more capillaries, oxidative metabolism, and more mitochondria.
B) ^ Blood viscosity
C) ^ Heart Rate
D) ^ Stroke Volume
E) ^ Peripheral Resistance
Holds LESS blood
LESS ejection fraction
holds MORE blood
HIGHER ejection fraction
*Used as indication of health
Women: 110/70 mmHg
* HIgh value may be indication of heart disease
Determines rate of blood flow through the systemic circuit
MAP= DBP + 0.33(SBP-DBP) *estimate
2) Secondary Hypertension: Cause= result of some other disease process "secondary" to another disease
Total vascular resistance=sum of resistance to blood flow by systemic circulation
MAP= CO x TVR
-Baroreceptors (Pressure Receptors) in aorta and carotid areries
Increase BP = Decrease SNS activity
Decrease BP = Increase SNS activity
2) Force production for postural support
3) Heat production during cold stress
Myosin (Part of thick filament)
Includes: Z line, M line, H zone, A band, I band
the actin filament over the myosin filament,
which results in a reduction of Z line to Z line of
This results in a formation of cross-bridges
between actin and myosin filaments (power
impulse (action potential) reaches the muscle
membrane and leads to muscle shortening by
release of acetylcholine into synaptic cleft.
2. Acetylcholine binds to receptors on motor
end plate, leads to depolarization that is
conducted down transverse tubules, which
causes release of Ca+2 from sarcoplasmic
2. Ca+2 binds to troponin, causes shift in tropomyosin to uncover active sites, and cross-bridge forms strong binding state.
3. Pi released from myosin, cross-bridge movement occurs. (Pi=inorganic phosphate)
4. ADP released from myosin
5. ATP attaches to myosin, breaking the crossbridge
and forming weak binding state.
*Result: Deprivation of muscle homeostasis and impairs force production.
Accumulation of free radicals
Reduced motor drive to muscle from CNS
fast glycolytic fibers
non oxidative metabolism
fast-oxidative glyoclytic fibers
*Maximal force per cross sectional area
-10-20% higher in fast fibers (IIa, IIx) compared to slow fibers(types I)
-Force production related # of myosin cross bridge.
~Fast fibers contain more cross bridges per cross sectional area
*Resistance exercise is extremely important
eg- nautilus equipment
2) Chronic Hypertrophy
-Results from fluid accumulation/edema in the interstitial spaces of muscle and only lasts a short time
*Microscopic tears in muscle fibers/connective tissues
*Result: pain within 24-48 hours after strenuous exercise
-Membrane damage occurs
-Calcium leaks out of SR and collects in mitochondira *Inhibits ATP production
-Results in inflammatory process
-edema and histamine stimulate pain receptors
Balance achieved between the demands placed on the body and the body's response to those demands (EX-exercise)
PRODUCES DESIRED EFFECT
reverses the initial disturbance in homeostasis
**99% of items in our body work on negative feedback!
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