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All living cells share these key components:
o Nucleic acids (DNA) to store
o Genetic information for protein synthesis
o Proteins to perform diverse tasks (and ribosomes to make proteins)
o Outer cell membrane to maintain a suitable internal environment
o Ability to acquire energy from the environment for ATP formation and the 3 types of cellular work.
o Pro-karyote= before nucleus (no nucleus=no membrane around the DNA)
o Domain Bacteria
-Some cause disease in humans, but most are beneficial
-Often live in extreme conditions, such as environments that are very hot, salty, or acidic
o Single-celled or
o Multicellular, large, more sophisticated cells
o Eu-karyote= real nucleus (with membrane around the DNA)
Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Animalia, Protists
-Use sunlight to produce sugars via photosynthesis
-Single-celled for multicellular-Decompose and digest dead organisms
-Eat and digest other organisms
-Single-celled or multicellular
-Catch-all category for all remaining eukaryotes
-Includes many kingdoms
o The eukaryotic cells powerhouse
o All eukaryotes have mitochondria for making lots of ATP: plants, animals, fungi, protists
o Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria
o DNA, Double membrane, free ribosomes in the mitochondrial fluid
o Solar energy collectors/converters
o Convert solar energy into energy-rich sugars in photosynthesis
o Prokaryotes do not have chloroplast
o Occurs only in plants and algae
o Ribosomes, DNA, Double membrane
Mitochondria and chloroplast both:
o Posses their own DNA, ribosomes, and a double membrane- as if they were independent organisms engulfed by a bigger cell by endocytosis
o Larger cells, compartmentation by multiple inner membranes for “multi-tasking”
Bacteria and archaea
-Small cells; lack internal compartmentation
-(i.e., have no membrane around the DNA, no mitochondria, no chloroplast, no golgi apparatus, no rough or smooth ER)
-Different species specialize in unique biochemical pathways
o Mitochondria and chloroplast
-Are each surrounded by a double membrane
-Have their own DNA and ribosomes and divide within the eukaryotic cell
Endosymbiont Theory (Part 2)
o Ancestor of eukaryotic cells (ER, Nucleus, Nuclear envelope) -> Ancestor of all non-photosynthetic eukaryotes (adding in: Engulfed non-photosynthetic prokaryote becomes a mitochondrion, mitochondrion) ->Ancestor of all photosynthetic eukaryotes (adding in: mitochondrion, chloroplast, engulfed photosynthetic prokaryote becomes a chloroplast)
Unique plant cell features:
o Chloroplast (for photosynthesis)
o Cell wall and central vacuole (for structural support)
Burning of sugars with oxygen produces energy-poor waste products carbon dioxide and water
CO2 is converted to sugars and other molecules by producers via photosynthesis -> sugars are absorbed by consumers that eat plants -> within the cells of producers and consumers, sugars are broken down, providing cellular energy and releasing CO2->
Sunlight (solar energy) is harnessed through photosynthesis by producers (=plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria); all consumers rely on energy-rich molecules (with C-H bonds) synthesized by producers
Sun -> energy enters the system as sunlight -> solar energy is converted to chemical energy by producers via photosynthesis -> energy leaves the system as heat or chemical energy from food is used by consumers to power body functionsà then energy leaves the system as heat
Identify the reason why sugars (and not ATP) are used for longer
-ATP is too unstable to serve as an actual storage form of energy
-Therefore, C-H bonds in energy-rich molecules like sugars are instead used for energy storage- and the sugars need to be broken down again later to ATP.
Predict the formula of sugars composed of more than one monosaccharide.
Know the examples of mono-, di-, and polysaccharides from lecture.
Monosaccharaides: glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharides: table sugar (transport sugar in plants)= sucrose (1 glucose + 1fructose)
-Milk sugar=lactose (1glucose+ 1 galactose)
Polysaccharides: cellulose and glycogen
Relate high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to human sugar transporters and to fructose mal- absorption.
HFCS formula: 55% fructose/ 45% glucose; since humans taste buds highly sensitive to fructose, mix tastes sweeter than natural 1:1 mix from sucrose (table sugar)
-Lactose intolerance: not digesting milk well
-Lactose intolerance is the original human condition fro adults from the time of hunter-gatherers
-In those ancient human population that raised dairy cows, adults who were lactose intolerant had a lesser chance of survival and reproduction
Relate the structures of starch, glycogen, and cellulose to their respective digestibility, their functions, and the organisms and tissues in which they occur. ·
-Starch: energy storage carbohydrate in plants)
-Glycogen: energy storage carbohydrate in animals
-Cellulose: cell wall for structural support in plants
Relate the structures of the starches amylose and amylopectin to the respective speed of their breakdown.
-Amylose: the long, unbranched strands (in e.g., beans) are slowly digested
-Amylopectin: the highly branched (e.g., in rice, white flour, or baked potatoes) is quickly digested (amylopectin is even more rapidly digested than the free sugar sucrose)
-Energy stored as fat: sugars and some starches, saturated fats, low fruit/vegetables
-Energy burned: lowly digested carbs, unsaturated fats, high fruit/vegetables
-To eat and store more when saturated fats and sugars were abundant presumably once was an important survival mechanism
-Glycogen= quickly mobilized and quickly exhausted: good for sprint/mental tasks
-Fat= slowly mobilized and more lasting: god for extended exercise/marathon
-On “atkins diet” (low carbohydrate diet): glycogen stores shrink and can result in “low energy”
oxygen is needed to release energy from our food
Predict the relative rates of photosynthesis and respiration in a green leaf.
Overall photosynthesis rates and respiration rates should be the same
Apply the model of the hydroelectric dam to photosynthetic ATP formation by ATP synthase.
-Water stands for the protons (H+), the turbine stands for the ATP synthase, and the lit-up light bulb stands for the ATP produced
-Cellular respiration burns sugars with O2 to CO2 and water, extracting energy to make ATP for cellular work
Predict changes in the binding capacity of hemoglobin for O2 and CO2.
-Hemoglobin in red blood cells transports O2 from the lungs to body cells that burned energy-rich C-H bonds from food to CO2 and H2) in cellular respiration to produce ATP; CO2 from the body cells in then transported back to the lungs by hemoglobin (red blood cells)
o Carbon source: CO2
o Carbon product: sugar (C-H bonds)
o H (electron + H+) source: water
o Ultimate energy source: sunlight
o Final energy rich products: sugar (C-H bonds)
o Carbon source: food molecules with C-H bonds
o Carbon product: CO2
o H (electron + H+) source: C-H bond
o Ultimate energy source: C-H bonds
o Final energy rich products: ATP
Identify the roles of oxygen and water in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Oxygen produced in photosynthesis comes from H2O
-Both mitochondria and chloroplast produce ATP
-ATP is produced not only in cellular respiration, but also as an intermediate in sugar production in photosynthesis
Compare and contrast anaerobic and aerobic respiration with respect to location, speed, energy yield and the involvement of oxygen.
-O2: present: Aerobic= oxidative respiration
-No O2 present: anaerobic respiration= fermentation
Relate fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers to anaerobic and aerobic respiration, respectively.
-Fast-twitch glycolytic fibers (for sprint) use glycolysis- quick, but does not provide much ATP energy
-Slow-twitch oxidative fibers (with many mitochondria for extended exercise) use oxidative respiration- slower, but yield much more ATP energy
Identify the role of photosynthesis in the production of oxygen and ozone (and in the evolution of multi-cellular terrestrial life), as a CO2 sink, and as a producer of food, fuels, and materials.
-Oxygen: photosynthesis is the source of O2 on our planet. Without this O2, multi-celled organisms (that depend on aerobic respiration) would not have arisen, and life would be restricted to single-celled bacteria
-Ozone layer: without O2 in the atmosphere, the ozone (O3) layer would not have formed. O3 shields against the most intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which contributed to allowing evolution of life into the terrestrial environment.
o C3 plants need less energy
o Advantage in less sunny, more moisture
o One cycle
o C3 plants will be most successful in less sunny but moisture environments
o C4 plants fix CO2 with leaf pores, C4 plants do not need to open their leaf pores as widely as C3 plants to do photosynthesis
o C4 plants need more energy (sunlight) to make sugars than C3 plants
o C4 plants will be most successful in sunnier and drier environments
o C4 plants need more energy from sunlight than C3 plants
o C4 plants lose less water than C# plants through their leaf pores
o Needs less water
o Advantage in dry, sunny climates
Relate the concepts of glycemic index of different carbohydrates and glycemic load to human health.
-Glycemic index (GI)= rapidity of conversion to glucose
-Glycemic load (GL)= GI* amount of food consumed
-High GL ->chronic elevated blood glucose
-Low GL ->balanced blood glucose level
o Regular soft drinks
o White bread
o White rice
o Baking potatoes
o White flour
o Whole fruit
o Multi-grain/whole grain bread
o Whole grains
o Sweet potatoes
results of chronic high blood sugar
Diets with high GL can lead to chronic high blood glucose level and result in insulin insensitivity + lifestyle-related diabetes (type 2)
Compare the location of the electron transport chain/ATP synthase and carbon-conversion cycles in photosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration.
Locate light reactions and Calvin cycle to chloroplast grana and stroma, respectively.
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