An enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience
A type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to induce a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response.
A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future.
? Example experiment
measuring dog’s saliva
Unconditioned response (UR)
A response that does not have to be learned (reflex).
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
A stimulus that induces a response without any prior learning (such as a reflex).
Conditioned response (CR)
A stimulus that induces a response only after learning has taken place.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
A response that has been learned.
Promoted objective observation of overt behavior as the only valid indicator of psychological activity
The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus.
A process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus.
Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
Counter conditioning and Systematic Desensitization
An acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of the object.
Consequences of behavior determine its survival
R MODEL : STIMULI AND RESPONSE observable
Systematic Desensitization (SD)
a ?cognitive-behavioral? method of treatment for phobias using the principle of ?counter conditioning?.
A cognitive model of classical conditioning; it states that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected.
ALBERT BANDURA?S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
O-R MODEL : STIMULI, ORGANISMIC EVENTS, AND RESPONSE
Law of Effect
By studying cats? attempts to escape from a puzzle box, Thorndike was able to formulate his general theory of learning?that any behavior leading to a ?satisfying state of affairs? will more likely occur again, while any behavior leading to an ?annoying state of affairs? will less likely occur again.
STIMULI AND RESPONSE ? observable
A process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior.
Seemed to prove that direct reinforcement and punishment is unnecessary for learning?that we do not need to be shaped directly, our behavior is influenced by observational learning/cognitive processes.
F. SKINNER?S FORMAL LEARNING THEORY based on Thorndike?s Law of Effect
STIMULI, ORGANISMIC EVENTS, AND RESPONSE
revealed the influence of modeling of aggressive behavior
revealed the influence of modeling of aggressive behavior
A stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
The increase in the probability of behavior’s being repeated following the administration of a stimulus
The increase in the probability of behavior’s being repeated following the removal of a stimulus
Punishment that occurs with the administration of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behavior reoccurring
Punishment that occurs with the removal of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behavior reoccurring
A type of learning in which the desired behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently
A schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior occurs
A schedule in which reinforcement is available after a specific unit of time
A schedule in which reinforcement is constantly provided upon each occurrence
A schedule in which reinforcement is applied at different rates or at different times
Partial-reinforcement extinction effect
The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement
The use of operant-conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones
A visual/spatial mental representation of an environment
Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement
A unit of knowledge transferred within a culture
Learning that occurs when behaviors are acquired or modified following exposure to others performing the behavior
The imitation of behavior through observational learning
Learning that occurs when people learn the consequences of an action by observing others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
Neurons that are activated during observation of others performing an action
A decrease in behavioral response following repeated exposure to nonthreatening stimuli
An increase in behavioral response following exposure to a threatening stimulus
Long-Term potentiation (LTP)
The strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated
The nervous system’s capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge
The common failure to notice large changes in environments
The act of recalling stored information to use it
Modal Memory Model
The three-stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form
Short-term Memory (STM)
A limited-capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period
Long-term Memory (LTM)
The relatively permanent storage of information
Working Memory (WM)
An active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use.
Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember
Serial Position Effect
The ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle.
The system underlying unconscious memories
The processes involved when people remember specific info
The cognitive info retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared
Memory for one?s personal past experiences
Memory for knowledge about the world
A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
Remembering to do something at some time in the future
hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use information
Anything that helps a person remember
Encoding Specificity Principle
Any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience
hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long-term memory
Neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval
Similar to Phobia treatments… counter conditioning
Memory for the physical environment
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma
The pattern of forgetting over time
When prior info inhibits the ability to remember new info
When new info inhibits the ability to remember old info
Temporary inability to remember something that is known
The inattentive/shallow encoding of events
Deficits in long-term memory that result from disease/injury/trauma
condition in which people lost past memories
inability to form new memories
Vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising/emotional arousing event
Memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the circumstances involved with a memory
type of misattribution; when a person thinks they have come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea and failed to identify the source
Development of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information
false recollection of episodic memory
changing of memories over time in ways consistent with prior beliefs
State of biological/social deficiencies
Maslow?s arrangement of needs
State that is achieved when one?s personal dreams/aspirations have been attained