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Biologically determined through chromosomes.
Reproductive Strategies:Evolutionary Perspective
Sire lots of offspring (ex, large testicles or sexual displays)
Try to prevent other males from doing the same thing
Alerting males to receptivity (ex, estrus: genital swelling)
Ensuring the survival of offspring (choose best mate)
Reproductive Strategies: Cross cultural perspective
Careful selection of fathers
Rely on female friends and family members to raise offspring
Cultural and Socially constructed views on sex. Universal basis for organizing group activities and allocating roles to individuals.
Rights and duties individuals have b/c of their perceived gender category.
people who are related at birth.
Ones related by marriage.
Social groups based on kin relationships
A married couple with children
Group related to the nuclear family
People living within the same house
Three Functions of marriage
(1) Form social bonds needed for child-bearing
(2) Define rights and obligations
(3) Creates new alliances and relationships
Functions of Families
(1) Humans are dependent on adult-care for many years
(2) Provides physical and emotional needs of children
Traditional definition of marriage
A union between a man and woman who bear legitimate children
Implications of marriage
(1) One man and one woman
(2) Goal of procreation
(3) Nuclear Family
Problems with definition of marriage
(1) Denies same sex/plural marriages
(2) Denies non-traditional marriage (ex, Nuns being married to God)
(3) No such thing as illegitimate children
(4) Insists on a sexual relationship between partners
(5) Non-nuclear family
(1) Governed by rules of society
(2) Identify who is acceptable for marriage
(3) Identify who is not acceptable for marriage
Rules prohibiting individuals to marry among their own group or category. Related to conversation of Incest
Exogamous Rules and Incest
(1)Innate Repulsion (unlikely)
(2) Biological Degradation
(3) Familiarity breeds disinterest
(4) Does not form social alliances
Rules requiring individuals to marry members of certain social groups or categories
This is informally practiced in all cultures
Four Possibilities for Spouses
Forms of Polygamy:
(4) Group marriages
Relatively rare (25% of world population)
Also rare among primate species
One individual with multiple spouses in order to gain physical [sexual,procreation]
Two types: Polygyny and Polyandry
Most common form of polygamy
-One individual married to multiple wives
-Not practiced by all men in a society
Where is polygyny found?
-Areas where females dominate subsistence
-Female dominated population ratio
-Females marry at a younger age
One individual with multiple husands
rare-- practiced by 1% of world population (Nepal, India, Tibet)
Why Polyandry occurs?
- female infanticide
-shortage of land
committed relationships without formalized ritual
-increasingly common in Western cultures
Couples who live with or near the husband's parents
-70% of all societies
Couples who live or near the wive's parents
-13% of all societies
Housing for 17% of all societies
(1) Ambilocal Residence [residence optional between husband's or wive's kin]
(2) Bilocal [couples move back and forth between both sets of parents]
(3) Neolocal [couples live apart from both sets]
(4) Avanculocal [couples live with maternal uncle of the husband]
Mothers bear the burden of raising children economically and through nurture.
Determine the family relationships that are most important and develop a strong social bond.
Residence whose compostition is culturally variable but lived in by people who cooperate for some purposes and shared resources.
Brothers live in single household with their own nuclear families and parents
Sisters who live in a single household with their own nuclear families and parents.
Mix of families that live with families and parents.
Composed of older men and the families of their sister's sons.
Relationships created between families or kin groups by intermarriage
-establishes social and economic bonds
-common among the wealthy and the elite.
Idea that who marries is important
Economics of marriage
-Exchange of goods and wealth
-bride-wealth and bride service
The husband's family pays the wive's family(reimburses the family wive's family for loss of member)<gives husband's family the right to offspring
-common in patrilocal societies
-very commone (>50%)
-goods depend on culture
Husband much work for the wive's family
2nd most common form of payment
The wife brings her inheritence with her to the wedding
--alleviates the burden of taking on a new family member\
Occurs in all human cultures (varies in level of difficulty)
-Is rare among unilineal tribal societies (bridewealth gives up rights to children)
Why U.S. has highest divorce rate?
-Women no longer require the help of a partner
-culture dependent on individual and separate lives
Widower marries the female relative of a deceased wife
Widower marries the male relative of deceased husband
Death and marriage
In some cultures the death of husband ensures the death of the wife
-widow cannot support herself economically
-Sati (dowry death) common in rural India
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