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Internal state that arises in response to a disequilibrium in an animal’s physiological needs
Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body
External stimulus or reward that motivates behavior although it does not relate directly to biological needs
Preprogrammed tendency that is essential to a species’ survival
The learning theory that stresses the role of observation and the imitation of behaviors observed in others
Maslow’s view that basic human motives form a hierarchy and that the needs at each level of the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next level can be achieved; these needs progress from basic biological needs to the need for self-actualization.
An eating disorder in which an individual weighs less than 85 percent of her or his expected weight but still expresses intense fear of becoming fat
An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by measures to purge the body of excess calories.
An eating disorder characterized by out-of-control binge eating without subsequent purges
The motivational state of excitement and tension brought about by physiological and cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli
The time and energy parents must spend raising their offspring
Socially learned program of sexual responsiveness.
Unwanted sexual violation by social acquaintance in the context of a consensual dating situation
A projective test in which pictures of ambiguous scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about them.
An assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behavior and thinking
Judgment about the causes of outcomes.
Psychologist who studies various aspects of the human work environment, such as communication among employees, socialization or enculturation of workers, leadership, job satisfaction, stress and burnout, and overall quality of life
A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair and equitable relationships with other relevant persons; also, a model that postulates that equitable relationships are those in which the participants’ outcomes are proportional to their inputs.
A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts and job performance to result in desired outcomes
A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant
A peripheral-feedback theory of emotion stating that an eliciting stimulus triggers a behavioral response that sends different sensory and motor feedback to the brain and creates the feeling of a specific emotion
A theory stating that an emotional stimulus produces two co-occurring reactions—arousal and experience of emotion—that do not cause each other.
The theory that emotional experiences arise from autonomic arousal and cognitive appraisal
A theory stating that the experience of emotion is the joint effect of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal, which serves to determine how an ambiguous inner state of arousal will be labeled.
The processes through which people change the intensity and duration of the emotions they experience.
Individuals’ overall evaluation of life satisfaction and happiness
A movement within psychology that applies research to provide people with the knowledge and skills that allow them to experience fulfilling lives.
The pattern of specific and nonspecific responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium and tax or exceed its ability to cope
An internal or external event or stimulus that induces stress
A transient state of arousal with typically clear onset and offset patterns.
A continuous state of arousal in which an individual perceives demands as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them
A sequence of internal activities triggered when an organism is faced with a threat; prepares the body for combat and struggle or for running away to safety; recent evidence suggests that the response is characteristic only of males.
A response to stressors that is hypothesized to be typical for females; stressors prompt females to protect their offspring and join social groups to reduce vulnerability
The pattern of nonspecific adaptational physiological mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing threat by almost any serious stressor
Physical disorder aggravated by or primarily attributable to prolonged emotional stress or other psychological causes
In stress research, the measure of the stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period.
An anxiety disorder characterized by the persistent re-experience of traumatic events through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations, or dissociative flashbacks;
The process of dealing with internal or external demands that are perceived to be threatening or overwhelming
Variable that changes the impact of a stressor on a given type of stress reaction
Efforts made in advance of a potentially stressful event to overcome, reduce, or tolerate the imbalance between perceived demands and available resources
The belief that one has the ability to make a difference in the course of the consequences of some event or experience; often helpful in dealing with stressors
Resources, including material aid, socioemotional support, and informational aid, provided by others to help a person cope with stress.
The field of psychology devoted to understanding the ways people stay healthy, the reasons they become ill, and the ways they respond when they become ill
A general condition of soundness and vigor of body and mind; not simply the absence of illness or injury
A Navajo concept referring to harmony, peace of mind, goodness, ideal family relationships, beauty in arts and crafts, and health of body and spirit.
A model of health and illness that suggests links among the nervous system, the immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing, and environmental domains of health
Optimal health, incorporating the ability to function fully and actively over the physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, social, and environmental domains of health
The development and implementation of general strategies and specific tactics to eliminate or reduce the risk that people will become ill.
Acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a syndrome caused by a virus that damages the immune system and weakens the body’s ability to fight infection
Human immunodeficiency virus, a virus that attacks white blood cells (T lymphocytes) in human blood, thereby weakening the functioning of the immune system; HIV causes AIDS
A condition in which muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, and blood pressure decrease and breathing slows.
A self-regulatory technique by which an individual acquires voluntary control over nonconscious biological processes
The research area that investigates interactions between psychological processes, such as responses to stress, and the functions of the immune system
A complex pattern of behaviors and emotions that includes excessive emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience, and hostility; hostility increases the risk of coronary heart disease.
As compared to Type A behavior pattern, a less competitive, less aggressive, less hostile pattern of behavior and emotion.
The syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, often experienced by workers in high-stress jobs
The psychological qualities of an individual that influence a variety of characteristic behavior patterns across different situations and over time
Enduring personal quality or attribute that influences behavior across situations
The observation that personality ratings across time and among different observers are consistent while behavior ratings across situations are not consistent
Theory of personality that shares the assumption that personality is shaped by and behavior is motivated by inner forces
The psychic energy that drives individuals toward sensual pleasures of all types, especially sexual ones
A state in which a person remains attached to objects or activities more appropriate for an earlier stage of psychosexual development
The assumption that mental and behavioral reactions are determined by previous experiences
The domain of the psyche that stores repressed urges and primitive impulses
The primitive, unconscious part of the personality that represents the
internalization of society’s values, standards, and morals
The aspect of personality that represents the internalization of society’s values, standards, and morals
The aspect of personality involved in self-preservation activities and in directing instinctual drives and urges into appropriate channels.
The basic defense mechanism by which painful or guilt- producing thoughts, feelings, or memories are excluded from conscious awareness
Mental strategy (conscious or unconscious) used by the ego to defend itself against conflicts experienced in the normal course of life
An intense emotional response caused by the preconscious recognition that a repressed conflict is about to emerge into consciousness
The part of an individual’s unconscious that is inherited, evolutionarily developed, and common to all members of the species
A universal, inherited, primitive, and symbolic representation of a particular experience or object
A branch of psychology that views the person as a constellation of compensatory internal forces in a dynamic balance
A person’s mental model of his or her typical behaviors and unique qualities
A concept in personality psychology referring to a person’s constant striving to realize his or her potential and to develop inherent talents and capabilities
Complete love and acceptance of an individual by another person, such as a parent for a child, with no conditions attached
The use of psychological (especially personality) theory to describe and explain an individual’s course through life.
The extent to which people believe that their behaviors in particular situations will bring about rewards
People’s general expectancy about the extent to which
the rewards they obtain are contingent on their own actions or on
A generalized evaluative attitude toward the self that influences both moods and behavior and that exerts a powerful effect on a range of personal and social behaviors
The process of developing, in anticipation of failure, behavioral reactions and explanations that minimize ability deficits as possible attributions for the failure
A theory proposing that self-esteem helps people cope with the inevitability of death
Conceptualization of the self as an individual whose behavior is organized primarily by reference to one’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions, rather than by reference to the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others.
A self-report questionnaire used for personality assessment that includes a series of items about personal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
A method of personality assessment in which an individual is presented with a standardized set of ambiguous, abstract stimuli and asked to interpret their meanings; the individual’s responses are assumed to reveal inner feelings, motives, and conflicts.
Disruptions in emotional, behavioral, or thought processes that lead to personal distress or block one’s ability to achieve important goals.
The area of psychological investigation concerned with understanding the nature of individual pathologies of mind, mood, and behavior.
The label given to psychological abnormality by classifying and categorizing the observed behavior pattern into an approved diagnostic system.
The current diagnostic and statistical manual of the American Psychological Association that classifies, defines, and describes mental disorders.
The experience of more than one disorder at the same time.
Mental disorder in which a person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does experience subjective distress; a category dropped from DSM-III
Severe mental disorder in which a person experiences impairments in reality testing manifested through thought, emotional, or perceptual difficulties; no longer used as diagnostic category after DSM-III.
The legal (not clinical) designation for the state of an individual judged to be legally irresponsible or incompetent.
The causes of, or factors related to, the development of a disorder.
Mental disorder marked by psychological arousal, feeling of tension, and intense apprehension without apparent reason.
An anxiety disorder in which an individual feels anxious and worried most of the time for at least six months when not threatened by any specific danger or object.
An anxiety disorder in which sufferers experience unexpected, severe panic attacks that begin with a feeling of intense apprehension, fear, or terror.
An extreme fear of being in public places or open spaces
from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing.
A rational reaction to an objectively identified external danger that may induce a person to flee or attack in self-defense.
A persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that is excessive and unreasonable, given the reality of the threat.
A persistent, irrational fear that arises in anticipation of a public situation in which an individual can be observed by others.
Phobia that occurs in response to a specific type of object or situation.
A mental disorder characterized by obsessions—recurrent thoughts, images, or impulses that recur or persist despite efforts to suppress them—and compulsions— repetitive, purposeful acts performed according to certain rules or in a ritualized manner.
A mood disturbance such as severe depression or depression alternating with mania
A mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of depression over an extended time, without the manic high phase of bipolar depression.
A mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania
A component of bipolar disorder characterized by periods of extreme elation, unbounded euphoria without sufficient reason, and grandiose thoughts or feelings about personal abilities.
A general pattern of nonresponding in the presence of noxious stimuli that often follows after an organism has previously experienced noncontingent, inescapable aversive stimuli.
A disorder in which people have physical illnesses or complaints that cannot be fully explained by actual medical conditions.
A disorder in which individuals are preoccupied with having or getting physical ailments despite reassurances that they are healthy
A disorder characterized by unexplained physical complaints in several categories over many years
A disorder in which psychological conflict or stress brings about loss of motor or sensory function.
A personality disorder marked by a disturbance in the integration of identity, memory, or consciousness.
The inability to remember important personal experiences, caused by psychological factors in the absence of any organic dysfunction.
A disorder characterized by a flight from home or work accompanied by a loss of ability to recall the personal past.
A dissociative mental disorder in which two or more distinct personalities exist within the same individual; formerly known as multiple personality disorder.
Severe form of psychopathology characterized by the breakdown of integrated personality functioning, withdrawal from reality, emotional distortions, and disturbed thought processes.
False or irrational belief maintained despite clear evidence to the contrary
factors predispose an individual to a certain disorder but that environmental stress factors must impinge in order for the potential risk to manifest itself.
A chronic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of perceiving, thinking, and behaving that seriously impairs an individual’s ability to function in social or other settings
A disorder defined by instability and intensity in personal relationships as well as turbulent emotions and impulsive behaviors.
A disorder characterized by stable patterns of irresponsible or unlawful behavior that violates social norms.
A disorder of childhood characterized by inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity
A developmental disorder characterized by severe disruption of children’s ability to form social bonds and use language
The negative reaction of people to an individual or group because of some assumed inferiority or source of difference that is degraded.
Treatment for a psychological disorder that alters brain functioning with chemical or physical interventions such as drug therapy, surgery, or electroconvulsive therapy.
Any of a group of therapies, used to treat psychological disorders, that focus on changing faulty behaviors, thoughts, perceptions, and emotions that may be associated with specific disorders.
A mental health professional whose specialized training prepares him or her to consider the social context of people’s problems.
A member of a religious order who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders, often combining spirituality with practical problem solving.
An individual who has earned a doctorate in psychology and whose training is in the assessment and treatment of psychological problems.
Psychologist who specializes in providing guidance in areas such as vocational selections, school problems, drug abuse, and marital conflict.
An individual who has obtained an MD degree and also has completed postdoctoral specialty training in mental and emotional disorders; a psychiatrist may prescribe medications for the treatment of psychological disorders
An individual who has earned either a PhD or an MD degree and has completed postgraduate training in the Freudian approach to understanding and treating mental disorders.
The term used by those who take a biomedical approach to the treatment of psychological problems to describe the person being treated.
The term used by clinicians who think of psychological disorders as problems in living, and not as mental illnesses, to describe those being treated
The movement to treat people with psychological disorders in the community rather than in psychiatric hospitals.
The form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Freud; an intensive prolonged technique for exploring unconscious motivations and conflicts in neurotic, anxiety-ridden individuals
A technique by which the therapist guides a patient toward discovering insights between present symptoms and past origins.
The therapeutic method in which a patient gives a running account of thoughts, wishes, physical sensations, and mental images as they occur.
The process of expressing strongly felt but usually repressed emotions.
resistance The inability or unwillingness of a patient in psychoanalysis to discuss certain ideas, desires, or experiences.
The psychoanalytic interpretation of dreams used to gain insight into a person’s unconscious motives or conflicts.
The process by which a person in psychoanalysis attaches to a therapist feelings formerly held toward some significant person who figured into past emotional conflict.
Circumstances in which a psychoanalyst develops personal feelings about a client because of perceived similarity of the client to significant people in the therapist’s life.
The systematic use of principles of learning to increase the frequency of desired behaviors and/or decrease the frequency of problem behaviors.
A technique used in therapy to substitute a new response for a maladaptive one by means of conditioning procedures.
A behavioral technique in which clients are exposed to the objects or situations that cause them anxiety.
A behavioral therapy technique in which a client is taught to prevent the arousal of anxiety by confronting the feared stimulus while relaxed
A therapeutic technique in which a therapist demonstrates the desired behavior and a client is aided, through supportive encouragement, to imitate the modeled behavior
A type of behavioral therapy used to treat individuals attracted to harmful stimuli; an attractive stimulus is paired with a noxious stimulus in order to elicit a negative reaction to the target stimulus.
A general treatment strategy involving changing behavior by modifying its consequences
A type of psychotherapeutic treatment that attempts to change feelings and behaviors by changing the way a client thinks about or perceives significant life experiences.
A comprehensive system of personality change based on changing irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions such as severe anxiety
A therapeutic approach that combines the cognitive emphasis on thoughts and attitudes with the behavioral emphasis on changing performance
The therapy movement that encompasses all those practices and methods that release the potential of the average human being for greater levels of performance and greater richness of experience.
A humanistic approach to treatment that emphasizes the healthy psychological growth of the individual based on the assumption that all people share the basic tendency of human nature toward self-actualization.
Therapy that focuses on ways to unite mind and body to make a person whole.
The branch of psychology that investigates the
effects of drugs on behavior
A surgical procedure performed on brain tissue to alleviate a psychological disorde
An operation that severs the nerve fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain with the diencephalon, especially those fibers in the thalamic and hypothalamic areas; best known form of psychosurgery.
The use of electroconvulsive shock as an effective treatment for severe depression.
The improvement of some mental patients and clients in psychotherapy without any professional intervention; a baseline criterion against which the effectiveness of therapies must be assessed.
A therapy interdependent of any specific clinical procedures that results in client improvement.
A statistical technique for evaluating hypotheses by providing a formal mechanism for detecting the general conclusions found in data from many different experiments.
The components that psychotherapies share that
contribute to therapeutic effectiveness.
The branch of psychology that studies the effect of social variables on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions, and motives; also studies group and intergroup phenomena
The process by which people select, interpret, and remember social information
The process by which a person comes to know or perceive the personal attributes.
A social–cognitive approach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate causal explanations.
A theory that suggests that people attribute a behavior to a causal factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occurred but was absent whenever it didn’t occur.
The dual tendency of observers to underestimate the impact of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors on a person’s behavior.
An attributional bias in which people tend to take credit for their successes and deny responsibility for their failures
A prediction made about some future behavior
or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is
A socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group
Behavioral guideline for acting in a certain way in a certain situation.
The expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable and appropriate attitudes and behaviors.
The tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes,
and values of other members of a reference group
Group effects that arise from individuals’ desire to be correct and right and to understand how best to act in a given situation.
Group effects that arise from individuals’ desire to be liked, accepted, and approved of by others
The convergence of the expectations of a group
of individuals into a common perspective as they talk and carry out
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the decisions that would be made by the members acting alone.
The tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undesirable input so that a consensus may be reached, especially if it is in line with the leader’s viewpoint.
The learned, relatively stable tendency to respond to people, concepts, and events in an evaluative way.
Deliberate efforts to change attitudes.
A theory of persuasion that defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognitive processes to elaborate upon a message and therefore follow the central and peripheral routes to persuasion.
The theory that the tension-producing effects of incongruous cognitions motivate individuals to reduce such tension.
The idea that people observe themselves to figure out the reasons they act as they do; people infer what their internal states are by perceiving how they are acting in a given situation.
A change in behavior consistent with a communication source’s direct requests.
Expectation that favors will be returned—if someone does something for another person, that person should do something in return.
A learned attitude toward a target object, involving negative affect (dislike or fear), negative beliefs (stereotypes) that justify the attitude, and a behavioral intention to avoid, control, dominate, or eliminate the target object.
The process by which people organize the social environment by categorizing themselves and others into groups.
A group with which people identify as members
A group with which people do not identify.
People’s tendency to favor members of their own group over members of other groups.
Generalization about a group of people in which the same
characteristics are assigned to all members of a group.
Prejudice that exists outside an individual’s conscious awareness.
The prediction that contact between groups will reduce prejudice only if the contact includes features such as cooperation toward shared goals.
Behaviors that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual
Behavior that is carried out with the goal of helping other people.
Prosocial behaviors a person carries out without considering his or her own safety or interests.
Cognition-based and goal-directed aggression carried out with premeditated thought, to achieve specific aims.
Cognition-based and goal-directed aggression carried out with premeditated thought, to achieve specific aims.
According to this hypothesis, frustration occurs in situations in which people are prevented or blocked from attaining their goals; a rise in frustration then leads to a greater probability of aggression.
The idea that people perform altruistic behaviors because they expect that others will perform altruistic behaviors for them in turn.
Willingness to assist a person in need of help.
In emergency situations, the larger the number of bystanders, the less responsibility any one of the bystanders feels to help.
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