A curved element that spans an opening and supports the structural loads above it. Most often, arches are made of small, wedge-shaped masonry elements called voussoirs. The profile of an arch may vary from semicircular to pointed to almost flat.
Tall columns that marked roads to Buddhist shrines, often inscribed with Buddhist teachings.
A building, generally octagonal, used for the Christian rite of baptism.
In Roman architecture, a hall used for public administration. Refers to rect building w/ central section w/ higher roof (nave), lower aisles on long sides. semicircular projection (apse) on ends. Churches: main entrance, processional axis, altar.
The shrine room in the center of a temple.
In India, a traditional village memorial erected over the grave of an honored person. A structure built to enclose such a memorial and permit circulation around it is known as a chaitya hall.
Masonry that projects slightly from a wall and serves as a support.
Also known as a portal tomb, a megalithic tomb used in ancient architecture.
In Hindu architecture a monumental gateway erected on axis with the temple.
Literally, “private” or “sacred”. Used to describe the sanctuary in a mosque and the family living quarters in an Islamic house.
Roofed or vaulted chamber open on one side, often facing the courtyard of a mosque.
A building associated with a Christian martyr.
An Egyptian tomb with a flat top and sloping sides, built over a grave shaft.
In Mycenaen architecture, a rectangular room having a central hearth and four columns supporting a roof with an atrium opening. More generally, the term applies to a single-cell house in the Aegean region.
A large upright standing stone. May be found singly as monoliths, or as a part of a group of similar stones.
An element of the Doric frieze (wide central part of an entablature), set alternately with triglyphs (channeled blocks). Metope panels contain low-relief carvings.
A temple constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in Ancient Egypt. Designed to commemorate the reign of the pharaoh as well as for use by the pharaoh’s cult after death.
An Islamic house of prayer.
A stone monolith, square in plan, with sides tapering toward a pyramidal top.
A tapering tower with multiple roof levels, built by Buddhists particularly in China and Japan. The word derives from the Sanskrit dagoba, meaning stupa.
Post: An upright structural member; a column. Beam (lintel): A horizontal element that carries structural loads between upright supports.
A massive entrance to an Egyptian temple, with sloping walls and a central opening.
Horizontal structural member in a roof. Purlins support the loads from the roof deck or sheathing, and are supported by the principal rafters and/or the building walls, steal beams, etc.
A rectangular column, engaged in a wall, which is sometimes articulated as an order.
Structure where outer surfaces are triangular and converge at a point.
The direction of Mecca, indicated in a mosque by the mihrab; by extension, the wall in which the mihrab is placed.
An open courtyard in a mosque.
In Greek architecture, a linear building with one or more rows of columns. Stoas could be used for shops, meetings, or exhibitions.
In Buddhist architecture, the mound of earth and stones erected over relics of the Buddha or, by extension, over the remains of a holy person.
Structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities.
A channeled block set between metopes in a Doric Frieze.
Typical Chinese House
Houses tend to occur in ensembles organized around courtyards. Sectioned off for different functions.
An arched ceiling or roof of brick or stone.
A stepped pyramid form used in ancient Mesopotamia as the platform for a religious building.
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