What is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals called?
Who were the people in the First Triumvirate?
1. Julius Caesar
Who were the people in the Second Triumvirate?
1 Marc Antony
3. Marcus Lepidus
What is the vast emigration of Jews into Palestine called?
During the ______ _______, the empire enjoyed 200 years of peace, and Roman civilization flourished. It made safe and efficient travel and communication over vast distances possible.
Pax Romana - "the Roman peace"
What does "Pontifex Maximus" mean?
high priest of pagan god
Who were the Pharisees?
They were not a group of priests, but rather law scholars. As scholars, the Pharisees tried to interpret the Law and make it applicable to everyday life.
Who were the Sadducees?
They were the wealthy elite. They were Hellenized to a greater extent than other Jews, which helped them act as mediators with the Romans in difficult situations. They considered the Pentateuch a legit authority on the Jewish faith.
What idea did the Sadducees reject?
The idea that there was an afterlife, as well as the belief that there was an individual judgment after death.
What was the group of Jews called that withdrew from the world into the desert in order to live a life of prayer and asceticism?
What did the Essenes incorporate into their community?
- a form of baptism
- a communal meal
What is a short exposition concerning Christian morals, doctrine, and customs that was most likely composed in the first century.
What does the Didache cover?
Christian moral life, Baptism, fasting, prayer, the Eucharist, and the developing Church hierarchy
What is an apologist?
One who writes a work in order to defend and explain the Christian religion. The title also refers specifically to a group of Church Fathers who wrote during the second and third centuries.
What is the term given to a number of the earliest Christian writers who came immediately after the Apostles, and some had direct links to the Apostles or to the communities established by them?
What did the Apostolic Fathers write about?
They wrote about religious and moral themes, mainly through epistles addressed to individuals or small communities, rather than the whole Church.
What is a martyr?
A supreme witness given to the truth of the Faith by bearing witness even unto death
Who was one of the most famous martyrs to die under the persecution of Marcus Aurelius?
What did Justin Martyr do?
He worked tirelessly during the Roman persecutions to defend the Church against those pagans who falsely accused her. He respected philosophy, but saw that its truths were mere shadows compared to Christ's teachings.
Who was an Apostolic Father, 3rd Bishop of Antioch, and had authoritative writings that heavily influenced the Church?
** He willingly accepted martyrdom and made it clear that the Christians shouldn't try to save his life.
Who was the first person to use the term, "Catholic Church" and was martyred upon his arrival in Rome in the Coliseum?
St. Ignatius of Antioch
** He elaborated on Incarnation, Passion, death, and Resurrection of Christ
What is the Episcopacy?
The authority of the bishops from the Apostles ... responsible for shepherding and guiding the flock in the various and often dangerous cities and situations in which Christians found themselves
What is an apostate?
one who abandoned their religious faith
What are Christians?
one who professes belief in the teachings of Jesus Christ
Who was the effective and hard working ruler who took particular interest in the military, referred to himself in 3rd person, and was pathologically suspicious of everyone?
Did Domitian support Christianity? Yes or No?
What did Domitian do that defied Christian beliefs?
He levied a tax against Christianity to help build a temple to Jupiter
Who was the favorite adopted son of Hadrian?
**He adhered to Trajan's Rescript
Did Marcus Aurelius reinstitute the practice of anonymous denunciations and allowed mobs to kill Christians?
true and yes
What is the first Sacrament of Initiation that unites the believer to Christ? In this sacrament, a believer is forgiven of original and personal sin, and thus begins a new life in Christ?
What did Hadrian ban from the Jews?
*There was a rebellion after he did this
What did Hadrian state in his rescript?
Christians could not be killed simply for being a Christian
* He was relatively tolerant
How was Trajan's reign considered?
one of the most excellent ones in Roman history
Who treated the poor and orphaned children well and was a great military leader?
Who conquered the Dacians and the loot from the conquest financed his public works?
*He received a letter from Pliny the Younger asking for advice concerning the persecution and punishment of Christians
What did Trajan's Rescript state?
1. Christians deny faith, they can live
2. Anonymous denunciations = not pursued
3. false accusations = executed
4. Christianity was a crime, but clarified the conditions it could be prosecuted
5. anyone who denounced openly who admitted his status should be executed
Who was at first tolerant, but after he defeated the Barbarians and Persians he turns on Christianity and harsh persecution followed?
What is the Agape meal?
It was an early Christian meal that was at first closely related to the celebration of the Eucharist and often preceded this celebration. People started abusing it.
Who are "the instructed". The adults seeking admission to the Church after having met over a long period of time for instruction before being baptized.
What actions earned St. Leo the title "the Great"?
His leadership regarding the heresies of the time and dealings with the barbarians, as well as his administration in the Church.
What titles were given to St. Leo?
- "The Great"
- "Father of the Church"
- "Doctor of the Church"
Who were the Franks?
- Germanic people who settled in Gaul
- ancestors of modern France
- the 1st Germanic tribe to convert to Christianity
What and when is lauds?
morning prayer- 6 am
What and when is Vespers?
evening prayer- 6 pm
What and when is Compline?
night prayer- 9 pm
What is a way of life characterized by prayer and self-denial lived in seclusion from the world and under a fixed rule with professed vows?
Who was the king of the Visigoths?
Who was the first hermit by fleeing persecution under the Roman Empire Decius?
St. Paul of Thebes
* Hermit in desert areas -- eremitical life
What is Montanism?
Montanus believed that he had private revelations regarding the end of the world. He stated that the Holy Spirit poured out upon him and informed him that the new heavenly kingdom would soon be established...
What is Arianism?
-Christ not God and not equal to the Father
- Christ isn't divine
- Christ is elevated in special status b/c of his holiness
- Jesus is a creature of the Father
What did the Council of Jerusalem settle?
The question between the Jewish Christians and the Gentile converts regarding the observance of the Law. St. Paul won permission to preach Jesus Christ crucified and resurrected w/o forcing circumcision on the Gentile converts.
Which edict restored all property taken from the Church by the empire, and it granted Christians the freedom to practice their religion.
Edict of Milan
*Represented a milestone for the early Christians and the Catholic Faith
Where does the word priest come from?
"priest" is a contraction from the Greek word "presbyter" ... in the early Church.. the presbyters were the church elders
What was the full understanding of the priesthood?
As minister of Divine worship and of the Eucharistic sacrifice subordinate to the bishop to whom he has sworn canonical allegiance, developed over the centuries.
What happened to St. Hippolytus?
He soon started promoting his own extreme position on the nature of the relationship between the Father and Son. He quarreled with Pope St. Zephrinus and when Pope St. Callistus I was elected..St. Hippolytus broke from the Church. When he and Pope St. Pontian were exiled together in Sardinia, he reconciled with the Pope and the Church.
Who wrote The Apostolic Tradition?
Who had apolegetic works, converted from Roman paganism to Christianity, his numerous ways in explaining and defending Catholic Faith won for him the title "Father of Latin Theology"
** He eventually joined the Montanists.
What did Theodosius I do that was very important to the Church?
He cemented the union between the Church and State with his 391 decree declaring Christianity the official religion of the Empire. Heresy became a legal offense before the state, pagan sacrifice was outlawed, and essentially, all other forms of paganism as well.
What do Ecumenical Councils do?
They bring bishops under the leadership of the pope together from all over the world to discuss central issues of the Church.
Who is the only person who can call Ecumenical Councils?
What was the second largest city in the empire with the largest Jewish population?
Who were the major people from Alexandria?
Origen and St. Cyril
What were the major heresies that originated from Alexandria?
Monophysitism and Monothelitism
Where was Antioch?
Which heresy originated in Antioch?
Who were the major people from Antioch?
St. John Chrysostom and Nestorius
Who was credited with authorship of the Athanasian Creed?
What 4 things does the creed stress?
1. Three Divine Persons of the Blessed Trinity
2. The Incarnation of God the son
3. The equality of the Three Divine Persons
4. The relationship between the Divine Persons
What are the 3 key words used?
What's the council called between a metropolitan archbishop and his bishops?
What's the council called with all the bishops of the nation?
Who protested against Arianism the most, even when the entire Eastern Church had fallen to the Arians?
Who was a Latin Church Father during the period of Arian heresy and ardently defended orthodox teachings?
St. Hilary of Poitiers - "The Athanasius of the West"
**he actually took the time to explain to them that many of their arguments were the same
What is the large, black stone in Mecca that is worshiped as a connection between Heaven and Earth by the Arabs called?
What did the Alexandrian school use of St. Cyril's?
It gave special status to the divinity of Christ and the unity of his person.
Who is the Apostles to the Goths?
What did Ulphilas do?
- translated the Bible into Gothic
- he converted to Christianity the Goths, Burgundians, Lombards, and Vandalls
What was in Subiaco that was important?
the cave that St. Benedict withdrew to
Who was St. Benedict?
He was asked to become the abbot of a local monastery in Subiaco. Later, they poison his drink and break.
What was Monte Cassino?
St. Benedict's 13th monastery where he was abbot and he composed the Rule.
What is the community life of a monk called?
What is the hermit life of a monk called?
Who was the last traditional Latin Doctor?
St. Gregory the Great
Who's papacy marked the beginning of the Medieval Age?
St. Gregory the Great
* Founded 7 monasteries
What did St. Gregory the Great do?
He helped spread Christianity to the Lombards and constantly cared for the poor.
He was the "Servant of the Servants of God"
Who created the Gregorian chant?
St. Gregory the Great
Who was a figure of immense cruelty, psychological illness, and paranoia?
What are all the awful things Nero did or forced people to do?
- murdered his mother
- banished his wife
- forced Seneca to commit suicide
- beat his second wife
- tortured several Christians and elicited a false confession
- arrested large numbers of Christians and killed them
Who was the first to declare Christianity unlawful?
Who was Octavia?
Nero's first wife who was banished.
What was the vox populi? "Voice of the people"
A time when Christians were accused of terrible things by the local people and were blamed for natural disasters. Angry crowds often looted and destroyed places of worships.
What's material heresy?
when you enter into heresy through ignorance of the truth, misunderstanding, or non-comprehension of particular aspects of the faith
What type of heresy is someone morally culpable for?
Who was a great military leader, a diplomat, and a good administrator?
Attila ... king of the Huns
*He was defeated by the Romans/Visigoths
Who speaks to Attila before he attacked Rome?
Pope Leo I
What is a Muslim holy war waged in the name of religion against "infidels" called?
Who was a noblewoman who sought out Christianity? Her entire household was also scourged and then attacked by vicious animals.
Who was Saint Perpetua's slave who gave birth to a child while in prison?
How did Saint Perpetua die?
She had to be stabbed to death because she wasn't dying fast enough.
Which saint combated heresies, especially Gnosticism, emphasized the episcopacy, Sacred Scripture, and Tradition?
* He was killed under Septimus Severus
Who was Origen?
- he wasn't a saint
- became the head of the first "Catechetical School in Alexandria"
- school combined Catholic doctrine with an investigation into the sciences and philosophy
Was Origen a priest? Yes or no.
What's Origen's story?
He was invited to speak publicly on the Gospel by the bishops of Caesarea and Aelia in Palestine. His bishop (of Alexandria) was mad b/c Origin didn't receive permission from HIM. He was punished and ordered to never preach on the Scripture again. He went to Palestine and was ordained a priest. His bishop said it was invalid. He moved to Caesarea and founded a new school.
Who traveled to Rome to discuss date of Easter and was arrested afterwards at a pagan festival and was accused of being Christian?
How was St. Polycarp executed?
He refused to denounce his faith so they tried to burn him at the stake, but he would not catch fire, so they killed him with a sword.
What's the Koran?
It entails everything that the Archangel Gabriel stated to Muhammad. Muslims believe that the Koran is not Muhammad's work, but that of God and that it is higher than the New Testament.
Where was it that Muhammad was hailed as a religious leader? And was immediately invited to be the new ruler?
The writer who writes about Nero's actions.
Who was St. Stephen?
The first martyr... he was stoned to death
Where was the Official Canon declared at?
What are the marks of the Church?
one, holy, catholic, and apostolic
Who wrote THE CONFESSIONS?
Whose brother is St. Gregory of Nyssa?
What was St. Gregory's mission?
To oppose Arianism and defend the popular title Theotokos "Mother of God"
What is Jerome's famous quote?
"Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ"
Who is Jerome?
The secretary for Pope ST. Damsus I. He translated the ENTIRE bible into Latin so that it would be widely accessible to the world. (Vulgate)
**He translated the Scriptures in a very strict manner holding himself to the most accurate method.
What was the concern of the Council of Nicaea?
Arianism and the Nicene Creed
What was the concern of the Council of Ephesus?
Nestorianism and Mary as Mother of God
What did St. Anthony do to help monasticism?
He indirectly influenced Western monasticism through his impact on St. Athanasius.
What did St. Boniface succeed in doing?
He converted the Germans, he also laid the foundation of a church based on a monastic model that would continue to flower for the next three centuries. He also revitalized the faith among the Franks.
Which heresy believed in secret "knowledge", the Demiurge, the Divine Being, pneumatikoi, sarkikou, and the psychkois? They also believed that Jesus had no body.
Which heresy believed that Jesus' Passion and death came about through the machinations and a dualism between law and love?
*Believed that the real Jesus of Love had no connection to the Old Testament
** He manipulated St. Paul's teachings.
Which heresy stated man can be redeemed and sanctified without grace, denied the existence of original sin, and the sacraments were unnecessary?
What does Monothelitism state?
Only ONE WILL in Christ, but maintains that he possesses TWO natures.
What does Donatism reject?
The validity of sacraments celebrated by priests and bishops who had formally betrayed their faith.
Which heresy stated that sharing secret knowledge with certain humans would release these light particles to their original proper sources.
** "hearers" and "elect" could partake in gnosis
Who did Mani use to emphasize the struggle between darkness and light?
Which heresy believed that their leader had private revelations regarding the end of the world and that he had the Holy Spirit pour out of him?
leader = Montanus
What is the date for the Council of Jerusalem?
What is the date for Nero's Persecution?
What is the date for the Edict of Milan?
What is the date for when St. Augustine is Baptized?
What is the date for the Council of Chalcedon?
What is the date when Christianity was made the official religion of the empire?
What is the date for the Council of Nicaea?
What is the date for the Council of Ephesus?
When was the fall of Rome?
What are the first six Ecumenical Councils in order?
5. Constantinople II
6. Constantinople III
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