The study of the constantly evolving characteristics and organization of the Earth's surface.
The part of systematic geography that deals with the social, economic and behavioral processes that differentiate different locations.
The part of systematic geography that studies natural processes occurring at the Earth's surface creating the physical setting of human activities.
The science that describes the variability in space and time of heat and moisture states of the Earth's surface.
The science of Earth surface processes and landforms and how it is constantly being altered under human and natural factors.
Coastal and Marine Geography
Combines the study of geomorphic processes (evolution of the surface) with application to coastal and marine usage and development.
Geography of Soils
The study of how different soil types are distributed and soil properties as well as the processes of soil formation (relates to geomorphology).
The study of the distribution of organisms at varying spacial and temporal states as well as the processes that produce these distribution patterns.
A field that incorporates the study of the location, distribution and movement of water.
The four great realms of the Earth (Atmosphere, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and Biosphere).
The gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth and receives heat and moisture from the surface and redistributes it. It also supplies important elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, all of which are needed to sustain life.
The outermost solid-rock layer of the earth that provides the platform for most Earthly life-forms. It is a shallow layer of soil in which nutrient elements are available. It is sculpted into landforms such as hills, mountains and plains.
The liquid realm of the Earth. It is principally the mass of water in the world's oceans, but also includes the solid ice and glaciers, the gaseous vapor water and water found in the ground and soil.
The realm of the Earth that encompasses all living organisms. Because life-forms use all four realms to survive, this realm depends on the other three.
Includes the surface of the lands and the upper 100m or so of the ocean. On land it is the interactions among the biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, with the hydrosphere represented by precipitation and lakes, rivers, and ponds.
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