Midterm I: RE & SE 300
- University of Wisconsin - Madison
- Educational Pyschology & Research
- Educational Pyschology & Research 300
- Midterm I: RE & SE 300
Last Modified: 2011-06-02
--limitation imposed by loss/reduction of functioning
--interfere with person's attainment in education, social, or vocational potential (growth and development)
--made the first individualized education plan for Victor
-to interest him in social life
-to improve his awareness of environmental stimuli
- extend his range of ideas (introduce him to games and culture)
-teach to speak
-teach communication using symbol systems like pictures and written words
--education and treatment for people with mental retardation, not just custodial care
--Curriculum of School of Deaf aligned with the curriculum of public school system
--Deaf children are NOT deviants
•Late 1800’s to mid 1920’s: Students were often institutionalized.
•Shift from education to custodial care.
•Institutions became self-sufficient.
•Isolated people with disabilities from the public.
--parental advocacy : The ARC, Learning disabilities Association, etc.
--self-advocacy : People First
issues for the families who institutionalized their children with disabilities in the early 20th century
–Families couldn’t afford to keep children with disabilities.
–Lack of public educational services available.
–Sociopolitical culture of the time promoted institutionalization.
--blacks allowed in public schools for education
--paved way for development of special education and rights to the disabled in America
--state of Pennsylvania must guarantee free public education to all children with mental retardation between ages 6 and 21
--extended Pennsylvania decision to include all children with disabilities
--disability consumer groups demanded people with disabilities become fully integrated into mainstream society
1.) serve individuals with severe disability
2.) promote consumer involvement
3.) program evaluation
4.) provide support for research
5.) advance civil rights for people with disabilities
--a person with a disability:
1.) has a mental/physical disability substantially limiting 1 or more major life activities
2.) has record of impairment
3.) is regarded as having an impairment
--applies to school and workforce
--set stage for IDEA
--required all states to provide free and appropriate education to all students
--later renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
1.) Free appropriate education
2.) appropriate evaluation ---important for mislabeling which can lead to inappropriate services based on inaccurate diagnosis.
3.) individualized education programs
4.) least restrictive environment
5.) parent and student participation--consult to eval in initial placement of child, help design IEP, help school understand child, meeitngs)
6.) procedural safeguards
monitoring progress (on IEP goals, on state and district-wide assessments
---important for mislabeling which can lead to inappropriate services based on inaccurate diagnosis.
least severe to most severe
general ed classrooms
general ed classroom with consultive services
general ed with instruction and services
general ed with resource room services
full-time special ed classroom
special facilities (non-public school)
--forbids discrimination against persons with disabilities in public and private sectors
--covers any person with impairment substantially limiting major life activities
--guarantees civil rights to diverse arenas: transportation, telecommunications, services of local/state governments etc
examples: dress, language, religion, social customs
socially imposed, how you are perceived.
--black, white, hispanic, asian, native american etc
--group membership based upon choice
--Not White; in the US the racial category 'White' comprises the majority group. Any racial category, besides white is to be a member of the minority group
4. asian or pacific islander
5. native american or alaskan native
--Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
--Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
2. demonstrate low performance on some measures of adaptive behavior
--areas assessed vary by age of individual:
3+: communication, self-care, social skills
6+: home living skills, health and safety, application of academic skills in life, leisure skills
14+: work skills
--perinatal: gestational disorder, neonatal complications
--postnatal: infections and intoxicants, environmental factors
--prepares students for situations they will encounter upon leaving school
--academic skills are applied to everyday practical living conditions
--examples: making change, following directions in cookbook, washing clothes, filling out job application, personal hygiene
--functional academics are often at the core of instructional programs for students with mild to moderate MR
--application of functional curriculum in natural settings rather than stimulated setting
--minimizes difficulty in generalization
--research says: students with MR learn more efficiently and retain more if instruction occurs in natural setting.
--example: ordering from menu at restaurant, mailing a package, grocery shopping
--intellectual functioning is within the normal
--learning problems are not caused primarily by another disability
--student exhibits a discrepancy between expected academic performance and actual academic performance
--discrepancy is approximately 2+ years behind
--school districts can now use response intervention to determine if the child has a specific learning disability [does the student respond to empirically validated, scientifically based intervention? if the child does not then a learning disability is presumed to be present]
-1. states and local school districts can choose between using the achievements/abilities discrepancy or response to intervention
2. scientific, research-based educational interventions
3. not one formal definition or strategy
4. exposure to increased levels of instructional intervention
5. ongoing progress monitoring
6. multiple tiers of increasingly intense student intervention
7. no longer "wait to fail"
2. school staff implement specific, research-based interventions to address the student's difficulties. Focus on specific area of need.
3. school staff implement more specialized, intense instruction based upon the specific learning needs of the student
4. student is identified as having a learning disability. Special Ed services begin
visual processing disorder
auditory processing disorder
--biochemical abnormalities (diet, allergic reaction, difficulty synthesizing vitamins)
--writing and copying numbers/shapes
--appropriate word choice
--response to question
--understanding complex sentence structures
--phonology (sound formation)
--pragmatics (functional use of language in social settings)
--fail more classes
--fail minimum competency examinations
--have lower gpa in high school
--higher rate of absenteeism
--be served in restrictive settings
--fail to graduate high shcool
--have more encounters with a juvenile justice system
--expelled at high rate
--unemployed at higher rate than any other disability area 4 years after leaving HS
--high risk for becoming homeless
--difficulty in keeping a job
--6x more like to have multiple pregnancies at young age
2. an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers
3. inappropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstances
4. a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
5. a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
2. intensity: how severe the behavior is
3. duration: how long the behavior has been occurring
4. age-appropriateness of behavior
--oppositional defiant disorder
**less likely to be identified in males
**more likely to be identified in males
● 2.An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
● 3.Inappropriate types of behaviors or feelings under normal circumstances.
● 4.A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
● 5.A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
*doesn't include schizophrenia or socially mal-adj
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