Midterm: Major Works
- University of California - Los Angeles
- Architecture And Urban Design
- Architecture And Urban Design 10a
- Midterm: Major Works
Last Modified: 2011-07-04
Prehistoric. Near Nice. 380,000 BCE.
Early Settlement. Perimeter w/ indicated center around hearth. Separation of outside and inside. Like vault, using rocks to keep horizontal pressure in place.
Prehistoric. Lascaux. 20,000-10,000 BCE.
Early Settlement. Indicated lifestyles of civilization. Depictions of deities (parallel to Catal Huyuk). For form to follow function, form must suggest function.
Prehistoric. Brittany. c 3500 BCE.
Megalithic. Sacred mountain. Definition of a point. Center marking location.
Prehistoric. County Armagh, Ireland. 3000 BCE.
Megalithic. Early indication of shelter. Perimeter. Cave.
Prehistoric. Malta. 2900-1400 BCE.
Early Sacred Site. Post-and-lintel megalithic & Cyclopean masonry. Artificial caves mimicking nature. Axial orientation of each sector. Seems like it grew with a concept in mind.
Prehistoric. Near Amesbury/Salisbury Plains. 2900-1400 BCE.
Early Sacred Site. Observing nature. Perimeter formed. Culmination of construction skills and scientific observation of Prehistoric civilizations. Heelstone, sarsens.
Sumerian. Tepe Gawra. 3800 BCE.
Sacred Site. At the top of a hill representing religion's importance. Two temples, a shrine, and dwelling houses. Major buildings formed U-shaped open court. Pilasters strengthened mud-brick walls.
Sumerian. Uruk. 3500-3000 BCE.
Sacred Site. Greater dignity by being raised on a platform. Base made in part with rubble from previous buildings on the site. Protected by layers of whitewash. Offset axis of entry.
Sumerian. Ur. 2100 BCE.
Sacred Site. 3 long stairways to tower gate at first level. Shorter flights to 2nd & 3rd. Elevated axis. Pilasters. Mimics mountain.
Old Kingdom Egypt. Saqqara. 2630 BCE.
Imhotep. Fitted blocks. First form of pyramid, begun as a mastaba. Building upwards and narrower at top. Axially oriented with cardinal directions. Creates center but also perimeter blocking robbers.
Old Kingdom Egypt. Dahshur. c 2500 BCE.
Collapse at Meidum onion pyramid (too steep) -> bent pyramid's builders changed to lower inclination angle.
Old Kingdom Egypt. Giza. 2551-2528 BCE.
aka Cheops. Largest, rightmost Giza pyramid. Use of corbelling to reduce weight on chambers.
Old Kingdom Egypt. Giza. 2520-2494 BCE.
aka Chefren. Second largest, middle Giza pyramid. Stands on higher ground than Khufu. Fragment of original limestone casing still intact at apex. Mortuary temple w/ offset axis.
Old Kingdom Egypt. Giza. 2490-2472 BCE.
aka Mycerinus. Smallest, leftmost Giza pyramid. Speculated it was built quickly as it's rather imprecise.
Middle Kingdom Egypt. Deir-el-Bahari. 2061-2010 BCE.
Mortuary temple combines axial temple, hypostyle hall, and burial champer into single composition. Ramps, stepped terraces, two levels of collonades. Predecessor of Hatshepsut.
Middle Kingdom Egypt. Beni-Hasan. 2000-1900 BCE.
Cut into rock cliffs, provided with sheltering porticoes (collonaded porch). Excavation, subtractive space. For nobles, dignitaries.
New Kingdom Egypt. Deir-el-Bahari. 1473-1458 BCE.
Three terraces defined by collonades. Columns faceted in manner suggesting fluted Doric columns. Axially oriented, elevated axis, frontally viewed.
Minoan. Knossos. c 1700-1380 BCE.
Aegean. Reconstructed by Sir Arthur Evans. Entasis columns. Labrynthian, not axially oriented entrances. Megaron, 4 columns in center. Brightly coloured.
Mycenean. Mycenae. c 1330 BCE.
Aegean. Tholos/beehive tomb. Corbelled stone chamber with relief triangle at top. Covered with earthen mound whose weight is used for stability.
Mycenean. Mycenae. c 1600-1250 BCE.
Aegean. B/n twin peaks protecting it. Architecture puts building in context w/ space around it. Cyclopean walls. Like Lion's Gate w/ large stones in post-lintel construction. Megaron in palace.
Classic Greek. Paestum. 450 BCE.
9 Doric columns (low entasis) in front w/ flattened capital. Stylobate & frieze separated by metopes & triglyphs. United into one whole temple. Microcosm of Hera.
Classic Greek. Athens. 448-432 BCE.
Doric temple. 8 columns wide by 17 deep, entasis. Tapered cols inward. Ionic: slender col proportion, continuous frieze around exterior of cella wall. Corner columns closer together to fix triglyph problem.
Classic Greek. Athens. 437 BCE.
Defined entrance to Athenian Acropolis. Doric outside, ionic inside. Suggested symmetry but defined spaces assymetrically. Double-level gable.
Classic Greek. Athens. designed 448 BCE. built 420s BCE.
Small temple on Athenian Acropolis. 4 Ionic columns on front and back.
Classic Greek. Athens. 421-407 BCE.
6 Caryatid columns on one side. Ionic. Half dedicated to Athena, half dedicated to Poseidon.
Hellenistic Greek. Kos. 300-150 BCE.
Enclose space with use of stoas. Temples inset in walls as well as freestanding. Axial relationships b/n temples & entrances.
Hellenistic Greek. Epidauros. 350-2nd c. BCE.
Exceptional acoustic design. Originally 34 rows, extended by 21 in Roman times. View of landscape is integral part of the theatre itself.
Etruscan. Veii. 515-490 BCE.
Simplified Doric. Three cells sided by a double row of columns on the façade. Architrave on cantilevered roof. Stylobate and small front stairs.
Roman. Nîmes. 20-16 BCE.
Aqueduct bridge crossing Gard river in France. Three rows of true arches carried drinking water into cities.
Roman. Rome. 2nd c. BCE
Portico of four Ionic columns across and two deep. Five columns on long side and four at rear are engaged along the wall of the cella, expanding internal space. Stairs at front.
Roman. Rome. c 125 CE.
Circular with a portico of 3 ranks of Corinthian columns (8 in first rank, two groups of 4 behind) under a pediment opening into rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky.
Roman. Rome. 203 CE.
True arch with engaged columns for ornamentation. Commemorative statue to celebrate victory.
Roman. Split, Croatia. 305 CE.
Organization microcosm of city grid or universe. Axis separates palace into diff. sections with different purposes. King's accommodations pushed to back, not fully centered. Oriented towards the sun.
Roman. Split, Croatia. 298-306 CE.
Domed ceiling. Symmetry. Engaged columns for support. Grandeur or baths showed importance of water. Social activity on Roman culture.
Roman. Rome. 13-11 BCE.
Complete isolation from exterior. Diff from Epidauros, support for seats not on hillside, but on vaulted structure of cut stone and concrete. Doric on bottom, Ionic on second level.
Roman. Rome. 80 CE.
True arches stacked w/ engaged columns. Spectacle arena composed of concrete. 'False' floor w/ passageways/entrances built beneath. Outside covered w/ veneer to hide stone masonry.
Roman. Rome. 100-114 CE.
Perimeter. Outside turned into inside. Center marked with statue. Basilica had apses. Axis. Connected to form of Augustus.
Roman. Tivoli. 117-138 CE.
Ionic columns create perimeter. Concentric circles created w/ columns. Used as hinge for other spaces to organize. Use of concrete to build above water features.
Buddhist. Sanchi. 250 BCE - 250 CE.
Dome-like mound. Center, perimeter, topped w/ chatra (bodi tree). Processions occur inside. Wood/bamboo techniques but carved out of stone. Balance b/n life & death. Axial & cardinally oriented.
Buddhist. Karli. 100 BCE.
Subtractive space cut into cave. Carved columns and overhead arches in stone for design, but structure. Barrel shaped ceiling w/ arched ribs. Chaitya halls with stupas at the end that you can circumambulate.
Hindu. Bhubaneshwar. 1050-1150 CE.
Halls lined in axis. Center of landscape. Sacred mountain. Tapered upwards. Slowly curved inwards at top. Extensive carving on outside, narrow passageway inside.
Hindu. Mahabalipuram. c 700 CE.
Stone temples carved to represent post-lintel constructions. Carvings surrounding outside. Using techniques for wood, but much heavier when constructed from stone.
Hindu. Tanjavur. c 1100 CE.
Sacred mountain marking center, topped with mini-stupa. Axial alignment. Extensive carving outside. Tapering inwards.
Hindu. Madurai. 700 CE.
Extensive carving outside. Tapered inwards. Brightly colored. Axial. Division of spaces and a series of gates to get to them.
Hindu. Cambodia. c 1120 CE.
Architecture for water retention purposes. Khmer and Indian fusion. Corbelling - no large interiors. Shrine located at center, w/ many layers around it. Axial alignment through all layers.
Chinese. Shanxi Province. 1056.
7 layered cantilevered roof. Center marks significant location. Protects ancient Buddhist relics. Constructed out of wood w/ bracket sets, curved roof. Intense contrast b/n exterior and interior.
Chinese. Shanxi Province. 782.
Followed Yingzao-Fashi. Raised platform with stairs (like Romans). Cantilevered roof w/ bracket sets. Frontally viewed enclosed walls with engaged tapering columns. Tiled roof top. Portico.
Chinese. Taiyuan. 1023-32.
Hall of Her Sacred Mother, tapered inwards. Cantilevered roof w/ columns around. Raised platform w/ stairs. Frontally viewed. Located around river. Axially aligned. Processional axis. Integrated nature.
Chinese. Beijing. 15th c.
Center of Forbidden City. Raised platform frontally viewed. Axis scheme in moving straight and through gates into king's center. Frontal columns. Cantilevered roof, flared eaves.
Japanese. Near Nara. 670-714.
Balance b/n dissimilar objects- fatter/shorter shrine and skinnier taller pagoda. Complimentary. Cantilevered roofs. Raised platforms. Axial plan through gates.
Assembly hall, collonaded wall.
Japanese. Uji-Yamada. 690-present.
Reconstruction of shrine every 20 yrs. Wood frame construction on platform raised above ground, steeped roof. Purlin-like horizontal beams on roof to disperse weight. Axial approach, square enclosures.
Japanese. Kyoto. 1616-60.
Tatami dimensions. Incorporation of nature into design w/ open doors. Unmilled wood in building. Tea ceremony houses, secluded. Spare interior. Nature framed to become part of architecture.
Early Christian. Ravenna. c 490.
Took on form of Roman basilica. Nave, aisles flanking nave, apse at one end. Axial alignment. Coffered ceiling. Separation of outside and inside like Romans, but for religious purposes.
Early Christian. Rome. 318-22.
Center marking St. Peter's tomb. Basilican plan. Martyrium. Nave used as cemetery, double aisles. Transcept right before apse.
Early Christian. Rome. c 350.
Martyrium. Center to mark Saint Costanza's tomb. Lower aisle spaces flanking higher nave.
Byzantine. Ravenna. 532-49.
Has extra tower not found in Sant' Apollonare Nuovo. Scale larger than Sant' Apollonare Nuovo. Exposed wooded ceiling. Campanile (bell tower) near back.
Byzantine. Constantinople. 532-37.
Perforated dome for light, thought exterior hard and solid, interior contrast w/ light and fragile look. Ribbed dome supported by semi-domes and pendentives. Immediately linear.
Byzantine. Ravenna. 538-48.
Octagon. Simple arched windows. Tension between exterior and ornate interior. Axial.
Byzantine. Venice. 830, rebuilt 1063-89.
5 domes with central dome tallest. Domes topped with onion domes and Greek-cross plans. Exterior domes built larger than actual interior space- just for appearance.
Russian. Kizhi. 1391.
Diminutive dome on stalk marks it as church. Three celled structure. Traditional log-cabin style. Shingle onion dome. Nave, room in front, room in back.
Russian. Moscow, 1555-60.
Central sanctuary surrounded by chapels. 8 separate chapels (4 octagons, 4 squares) surrounding sanctuary covered by shatyor roof. Really divided inside, small w/ high ceilings. Unified from outside.
Islamic. Jerusalem. 687-91.
Early Shrine. Octagon with wooden dome. Intricate, geometric foliage designs. Center - sacred place. Circular aisle defined by columns.
Islamic. Medina. c 622.
Early Shrine. Prototype for mosques having sahns. Open central court for sermons, gatherings, prayer.
Islamic. Samarra, Iraq. 848-52.
Hypostyle Mosque. Perimeter enclosing space. Prominent minaret (tower) references ziggurat. Burnt-brick. Haram in sahn.
Islamic. Cordoba, Spain. 833-988.
Hypostyle Mosque. Large haram with polychromed arches, superimposed arches connect columns.
Islamic. Samarkand, Uzbekistan. 1399.
Iwan Mosque. Vaulted/dome on three sides. Axial. Entrance marked by pair of minarets. Enter sahn, end of which is main iwan.
Islamic. Isfahan, Iran. 1611-1630.
Iwan Mosque. Honeycomb vaults within Iwan. Entrance marked by pair of minarets. Triangle bit shifts axis.
Islamic. Fatehpur Sikri, India. 1568-71.
Iwan Mosque. Large sahn. Mix of Islamic and Indian styles (ornate).
Islamic. Istanbul. 1545-48.
Domed Mosque. Symmetric geometry of balanced volumed of interior space and exterior massing punctuated with minarets. Two squares: sahn, haram.
Islamic. Istanbul, 1550-57.
Domed Mosque. 4 minarets. Mosque at center. Sahn.
Islamic. Edirne, 1568-75.
Domed Mosque. 4 slender minarets. Mosque at center. Arched supports. Dome has 8 pillars, 6 freestanding, 2 engaged in qibla wall.
Islamic. Agra. 1631-47.
Pool creates a vertical symmetry to entire structure, has horizontal and vertical symmetry. White marble. 4 minarets. Axis of approach subdivided into squares (similar to Palace of Diocletian, Hall of Supreme Harmony)
Islamic. Granada. 13th-14th c.
Reflecting pool like Taj Mahal's creates illusion of symmetry. Stylized w/ repeating geometricized patterns. Corbelled arch. 3D geometric patterns. Ornate interior, plain exterior.
Huge walls to protect water supply. Perimeter to create barrier. Various stages of enclosure. Fortified city of hunters/gatherers.
Very dense w/o streets. No perimeter. Mudbrick walls and post/lintel timber housing. Houses contained shrines to worship deities. Themes of prehistoric cave art still pertinent.
King's accommodations located at very back, so can prepare for enemies & for protection. Orthogonal arrangement. Architecture for glory of king, not god. Has a step pyramid.
Perimeter for protection. Took many ideas from conquered cultures. Hypstyle halls & Egyptian gates. Influences for stone architecture in India.
In front of sacred mountain, but must turn back on Mother Goddess to enter Temple of Apollo.
Hastily built and not orderly, but when burnt down and rebuilt, very orthogonal plan. w/ decumanus and cardo main streets.
Grid plan city. Heavy wall outside. Streets ran parallel and perpendicular to forum. Baths, exercise facility & theater. Triumphal arch @ N. entrance.
Orthogonal plan. Grid plan city. Decumas and cardo main streets intersecting at forum at center. Walled enclosure with 4 entrances.
Romans reorganized buildings to be more frontal and axial. Reversed Temple of Apollo. Added buildings to fill in space.
Collection of water of supreme importance. Advance drainage system. Houses organized around central courtyard.
Layers & multiple gates. Water retention. Axial.
Highly organized orthogonal plan. Cardinal directions. Main system divided into smaller neighborhoods. Like Timgad.
Axial. Procession through many gates to center where king is. Perimeter separated Forbidden City from outer commoners.
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