Cut into rock cliffs, provided with sheltering porticoes (collonaded porch). Excavation, subtractive space. For nobles, dignitaries.
Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple New Kingdom Egypt. Deir-el-Bahari. 1473-1458 BCE.
Three terraces defined by collonades. Columns faceted in manner suggesting fluted Doric columns. Axially oriented, elevated axis, frontally viewed.
Palace Complex Minoan. Knossos. c 1700-1380 BCE.
Aegean. Reconstructed by Sir Arthur Evans. Entasis columns. Labrynthian, not axially oriented entrances. Megaron, 4 columns in center. Brightly coloured.
Treasury of Atreus Mycenean. Mycenae. c 1330 BCE.
Aegean. Tholos/beehive tomb. Corbelled stone chamber with relief triangle at top. Covered with earthen mound whose weight is used for stability.
Citadel Mycenean. Mycenae. c 1600-1250 BCE.
Aegean. B/n twin peaks protecting it. Architecture puts building in context w/ space around it. Cyclopean walls. Like Lion's Gate w/ large stones in post-lintel construction. Megaron in palace.
Temple of Hera II Classic Greek. Paestum. 450 BCE.
9 Doric columns (low entasis) in front w/ flattened capital. Stylobate & frieze separated by metopes & triglyphs. United into one whole temple. Microcosm of Hera.
Parthenon Classic Greek. Athens. 448-432 BCE.
Doric temple. 8 columns wide by 17 deep, entasis. Tapered cols inward. Ionic: slender col proportion, continuous frieze around exterior of cella wall. Corner columns closer together to fix triglyph problem.
Propylaea Classic Greek. Athens. 437 BCE.
Defined entrance to Athenian Acropolis. Doric outside, ionic inside. Suggested symmetry but defined spaces assymetrically. Double-level gable.
Temple of Athena Nike Classic Greek. Athens. designed 448 BCE. built 420s BCE.
Small temple on Athenian Acropolis. 4 Ionic columns on front and back.
Erechtheion Classic Greek. Athens. 421-407 BCE.
6 Caryatid columns on one side. Ionic. Half dedicated to Athena, half dedicated to Poseidon.
Sanctuary of Asclepius Hellenistic Greek. Kos. 300-150 BCE.
Enclose space with use of stoas. Temples inset in walls as well as freestanding. Axial relationships b/n temples & entrances.
Theatre Hellenistic Greek. Epidauros. 350-2nd c. BCE.
Exceptional acoustic design. Originally 34 rows, extended by 21 in Roman times. View of landscape is integral part of the theatre itself.
Portonaccio Temple Etruscan. Veii. 515-490 BCE.
Simplified Doric. Three cells sided by a double row of columns on the façade. Architrave on cantilevered roof. Stylobate and small front stairs.
Pont du Gard Roman. Nîmes. 20-16 BCE.
Aqueduct bridge crossing Gard river in France. Three rows of true arches carried drinking water into cities.
Temple of Fortuna Virilis Roman. Rome. 2nd c. BCE
Portico of four Ionic columns across and two deep. Five columns on long side and four at rear are engaged along the wall of the cella, expanding internal space. Stairs at front.
Pantheon Roman. Rome. c 125 CE.
Circular with a portico of 3 ranks of Corinthian columns (8 in first rank, two groups of 4 behind) under a pediment opening into rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky.
Arch of Septimius Severus Roman. Rome. 203 CE.
True arch with engaged columns for ornamentation. Commemorative statue to celebrate victory.
Palace of Diocletian Roman. Split, Croatia. 305 CE.
Organization microcosm of city grid or universe. Axis separates palace into diff. sections with different purposes. King's accommodations pushed to back, not fully centered. Oriented towards the sun.
Baths of Diocletian Roman. Split, Croatia. 298-306 CE.
Domed ceiling. Symmetry. Engaged columns for support. Grandeur or baths showed importance of water. Social activity on Roman culture.
Theatre of Marcellus Roman. Rome. 13-11 BCE.
Complete isolation from exterior. Diff from Epidauros, support for seats not on hillside, but on vaulted structure of cut stone and concrete. Doric on bottom, Ionic on second level.
Flavian Amphiteatre Roman. Rome. 80 CE.
True arches stacked w/ engaged columns. Spectacle arena composed of concrete. 'False' floor w/ passageways/entrances built beneath. Outside covered w/ veneer to hide stone masonry.
Trajan’s Forum Roman. Rome. 100-114 CE.
Perimeter. Outside turned into inside. Center marked with statue. Basilica had apses. Axis. Connected to form of Augustus.
Hadrian’s Villa Roman. Tivoli. 117-138 CE.
Ionic columns create perimeter. Concentric circles created w/ columns. Used as hinge for other spaces to organize. Use of concrete to build above water features.
Great Stupa Buddhist. Sanchi. 250 BCE - 250 CE.
Dome-like mound. Center, perimeter, topped w/ chatra (bodi tree). Processions occur inside. Wood/bamboo techniques but carved out of stone. Balance b/n life & death. Axial & cardinally oriented.
Cave Temples Buddhist. Karli. 100 BCE.
Subtractive space cut into cave. Carved columns and overhead arches in stone for design, but structure. Barrel shaped ceiling w/ arched ribs. Chaitya halls with stupas at the end that you can circumambulate.
Halls lined in axis. Center of landscape. Sacred mountain. Tapered upwards. Slowly curved inwards at top. Extensive carving on outside, narrow passageway inside.
Pancha Rathas Hindu. Mahabalipuram. c 700 CE.
Stone temples carved to represent post-lintel constructions. Carvings surrounding outside. Using techniques for wood, but much heavier when constructed from stone.
Bribadishwara Temple Hindu. Tanjavur. c 1100 CE.
Sacred mountain marking center, topped with mini-stupa. Axial alignment. Extensive carving outside. Tapering inwards.
Meenakshi Temple Hindu. Madurai. 700 CE.
Extensive carving outside. Tapered inwards. Brightly colored. Axial. Division of spaces and a series of gates to get to them.
Angkor Wat Hindu. Cambodia. c 1120 CE.
Architecture for water retention purposes. Khmer and Indian fusion. Corbelling - no large interiors. Shrine located at center, w/ many layers around it. Axial alignment through all layers.
Fogong Pagoda Chinese. Shanxi Province. 1056.
7 layered cantilevered roof. Center marks significant location. Protects ancient Buddhist relics. Constructed out of wood w/ bracket sets, curved roof. Intense contrast b/n exterior and interior.
Nanchan Monastery Chinese. Shanxi Province. 782.
Followed Yingzao-Fashi. Raised platform with stairs (like Romans). Cantilevered roof w/ bracket sets. Frontally viewed enclosed walls with engaged tapering columns. Tiled roof top. Portico.
Jinci Temple Complex Chinese. Taiyuan. 1023-32.
Hall of Her Sacred Mother, tapered inwards. Cantilevered roof w/ columns around. Raised platform w/ stairs. Frontally viewed. Located around river. Axially aligned. Processional axis. Integrated nature.
Hall of Supreme Harmony Chinese. Beijing. 15th c.
Center of Forbidden City. Raised platform frontally viewed. Axis scheme in moving straight and through gates into king's center. Frontal columns. Cantilevered roof, flared eaves.
Horyuji Temple Complex Japanese. Near Nara. 670-714.
Balance b/n dissimilar objects- fatter/shorter shrine and skinnier taller pagoda. Complimentary. Cantilevered roofs. Raised platforms. Axial plan through gates. Assembly hall, collonaded wall.
Ise Shrine Japanese. Uji-Yamada. 690-present.
Reconstruction of shrine every 20 yrs. Wood frame construction on platform raised above ground, steeped roof. Purlin-like horizontal beams on roof to disperse weight. Axial approach, square enclosures.
Katsura Imperial Palace Japanese. Kyoto. 1616-60.
Tatami dimensions. Incorporation of nature into design w/ open doors. Unmilled wood in building. Tea ceremony houses, secluded. Spare interior. Nature framed to become part of architecture.
Sant' Apollonare Nuovo Early Christian. Ravenna. c 490.
Took on form of Roman basilica. Nave, aisles flanking nave, apse at one end. Axial alignment. Coffered ceiling. Separation of outside and inside like Romans, but for religious purposes.
Old St. Peter’s Early Christian. Rome. 318-22.
Center marking St. Peter's tomb. Basilican plan. Martyrium. Nave used as cemetery, double aisles. Transcept right before apse.
Santa Costanza Early Christian. Rome. c 350.
Martyrium. Center to mark Saint Costanza's tomb. Lower aisle spaces flanking higher nave.
Sant’ Apollonare in Classe Byzantine. Ravenna. 532-49.
Has extra tower not found in Sant' Apollonare Nuovo. Scale larger than Sant' Apollonare Nuovo. Exposed wooded ceiling. Campanile (bell tower) near back.
Hagia Sofia Byzantine. Constantinople. 532-37.
Perforated dome for light, thought exterior hard and solid, interior contrast w/ light and fragile look. Ribbed dome supported by semi-domes and pendentives. Immediately linear.
San Vitale Byzantine. Ravenna. 538-48.
Octagon. Simple arched windows. Tension between exterior and ornate interior. Axial.
San Marco Byzantine. Venice. 830, rebuilt 1063-89.
5 domes with central dome tallest. Domes topped with onion domes and Greek-cross plans. Exterior domes built larger than actual interior space- just for appearance.
Church of the Raising of Lazarus Russian. Kizhi. 1391.
Diminutive dome on stalk marks it as church. Three celled structure. Traditional log-cabin style. Shingle onion dome. Nave, room in front, room in back.
St. Basil the Blessed Russian. Moscow, 1555-60.
Central sanctuary surrounded by chapels. 8 separate chapels (4 octagons, 4 squares) surrounding sanctuary covered by shatyor roof. Really divided inside, small w/ high ceilings. Unified from outside.
Dome of the Rock Islamic. Jerusalem. 687-91.
Early Shrine. Octagon with wooden dome. Intricate, geometric foliage designs. Center - sacred place. Circular aisle defined by columns.
House of the Prophet Islamic. Medina. c 622.
Early Shrine. Prototype for mosques having sahns. Open central court for sermons, gatherings, prayer.
Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil Islamic. Samarra, Iraq. 848-52.
Hypostyle Mosque. Perimeter enclosing space. Prominent minaret (tower) references ziggurat. Burnt-brick. Haram in sahn.
Great Mosque Islamic. Cordoba, Spain. 833-988.
Hypostyle Mosque. Large haram with polychromed arches, superimposed arches connect columns.
Iwan Mosque. Vaulted/dome on three sides. Axial. Entrance marked by pair of minarets. Enter sahn, end of which is main iwan.
Masjid-i-Shah Islamic. Isfahan, Iran. 1611-1630.
Iwan Mosque. Honeycomb vaults within Iwan. Entrance marked by pair of minarets. Triangle bit shifts axis.
Friday Mosque Islamic. Fatehpur Sikri, India. 1568-71.
Iwan Mosque. Large sahn. Mix of Islamic and Indian styles (ornate).
Shezade Mosque Islamic. Istanbul. 1545-48.
Domed Mosque. Symmetric geometry of balanced volumed of interior space and exterior massing punctuated with minarets. Two squares: sahn, haram.
Mosque of Süleyman the Magnificent Islamic. Istanbul, 1550-57.
Domed Mosque. 4 minarets. Mosque at center. Sahn.
Selimiye Mosque Islamic. Edirne, 1568-75.
Domed Mosque. 4 slender minarets. Mosque at center. Arched supports. Dome has 8 pillars, 6 freestanding, 2 engaged in qibla wall.
Taj Mahal Islamic. Agra. 1631-47.
Pool creates a vertical symmetry to entire structure, has horizontal and vertical symmetry. White marble. 4 minarets. Axis of approach subdivided into squares (similar to Palace of Diocletian, Hall of Supreme Harmony)
The Alhambra Islamic. Granada. 13th-14th c.
Reflecting pool like Taj Mahal's creates illusion of symmetry. Stylized w/ repeating geometricized patterns. Corbelled arch. 3D geometric patterns. Ornate interior, plain exterior.
Jericho. Early City. 8000 BC.
Huge walls to protect water supply. Perimeter to create barrier. Various stages of enclosure. Fortified city of hunters/gatherers.
Catal Hüyük. Early City. 6500-5700 BC.
Very dense w/o streets. No perimeter. Mudbrick walls and post/lintel timber housing. Houses contained shrines to worship deities. Themes of prehistoric cave art still pertinent.
Khorsabad. Assyrian (Mesopotamian). 720 BCE.
King's accommodations located at very back, so can prepare for enemies & for protection. Orthogonal arrangement. Architecture for glory of king, not god. Has a step pyramid.
Persepolis. Persian (Mesopotamian). Founded 518 BCE.
Perimeter for protection. Took many ideas from conquered cultures. Hypstyle halls & Egyptian gates. Influences for stone architecture in India.
Athens: Acropolis & Agora. Greek. Built to look jumbled but lines point towards statue. Site plan encourages you to walk through whole building & experience landscape. Located in front of sacred mountain. Organized around procession way.
Ancient Corinth. Greek. Founded c 10th century BCE; destroyed 146 BCE.
In front of sacred mountain, but must turn back on Mother Goddess to enter Temple of Apollo.
Rome. Roman. Founded 8th century BCE.
Hastily built and not orderly, but when burnt down and rebuilt, very orthogonal plan. w/ decumanus and cardo main streets.
Pompeii. Roman. Founded 8th century BCE; buried 79 CE.
Grid plan city. Heavy wall outside. Streets ran parallel and perpendicular to forum. Baths, exercise facility & theater. Triumphal arch @ N. entrance.
Timgad. Roman. c 100 CE.
Orthogonal plan. Grid plan city. Decumas and cardo main streets intersecting at forum at center. Walled enclosure with 4 entrances.
Ancient Corinth. Roman. Re-founded, 44 BCE.
Romans reorganized buildings to be more frontal and axial. Reversed Temple of Apollo. Added buildings to fill in space.
Mohenjo Daro. South Asian. c 2700 BCE, abandoned c 1500 BCE.
Collection of water of supreme importance. Advance drainage system. Houses organized around central courtyard.
Angkor Wat. Cambodia. c 1120 CE.
Layers & multiple gates. Water retention. Axial.
Chang'An. China. From 6th century CE.
Highly organized orthogonal plan. Cardinal directions. Main system divided into smaller neighborhoods. Like Timgad.
Beijing. China. From 2400 BCE.
Axial. Procession through many gates to center where king is. Perimeter separated Forbidden City from outer commoners.
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