Explain how temperature is an example of a homeostatic feedback control system in your body? Is this a negative or positive feedback system? Explain.
Temperature is an example of homeostatic feedback control system because if the body temperature is higher or lower than normal your body makes it go back to normal. It is a negative feedback system.
Jenny Dip fell off her motorcycle and tore a nerve in her axillary region. She also tore ligaments in her cervical and scapular regions and broke the only bone of her right brachial region. Explain where each of her injuries is located.
She tore a nerve in her armpit as well as ligaments in her throat region and shoulder blade area. Also broke her upper right arm bone.
Virtually no chemical reactions can occur within the body in the absence of enzymes. How might excessively high body temperature or acidosis (acidic blood pH) interfere with enzyme activity?
High temperature and acidosis will harm enzymes which will stop them from being able to to do the job that they are needed to do and can't be done without those enzymes.
Define monosaccharide, disacchharide and polysaccharide and give an example of each. Which of these is the building unit of carbohydrates, and what is the primary function of carbohydrates in the body?
Monosaccharide - simple sugar ex. glucose
Disaccharide - double sugar ex. sucrose, maltose
Polysaccharide - long chain of monosaccharide ex. starch
A monosaccharides are the building units of carbohydrates, carbohydrates act as road signs to guide cellular interactions
The epidermis of the skin is made up of stratified squamous epithelium. Explain why this type of epithelium is much better suited to protect the body's external surface than a simple columnar epithelium.
A simple squamous has many more layers than simple columnar. so therefore it takes a more serious or deeper injury to reach an inside level of body or other tissue.
Lupus is a disease that causes inflammation of the connective tissue. Would a person who has lupus most likely experience localized symptoms or widespread symptoms? Explain why.
Someone with lupus should experience widespread symptoms such as swelling. This is because connective tissue is the most widespread tissue type so it is most likely to happen multiple times than just once.
A homeostatic imbalance can occur when scar tissue forms where neurons were damaged. This can happen when a person has a stroke and brain cells are destroyed. Describe why this creates a homeostatic imbalance.
This creates a homeostatic imbalance because the cells are no longer the original that were there and don't work as well with the old cells.
Mature red blood cells are anucleate cells, that is, they do not have nuclei. They are, however, filled with hemoglobin for binding oxygen. Do you suppose that these cells are anucleate throughout life or did they at one time have nuclei? Explain.
They at one time had a nuclei. But as they matured the nuclei got pushed out because it was no longer needed it was better to have more room for hemoglobin
In the hospital, patients will sometimes receive fluids intravenously (through the vein). These fluids might be 0.9% saline (salt water) which is considered isotonic to the blood cells and other cells. Why is it important to use isotonic solutions?
Isotonic solutions make cells happy and they burst. So if they burst they don;t really function anymore so they are getting rid of the bad blood cells.
Choose any of the 10 body systems and explain how the skin is interrelated with this system in at least two different ways.
The skin protects the bones from physical contact.
It helps the bones to keep their shape.
Choose two diseases (other than cancer and burns) that were presented in class. Compare and contrast how the structure and function of the skin is affected and how a homeostatic imbalance may occur with either disease.
Sclaroderma over produces collagen and vitiligo kills melanocytes. They are both skin diseases. Scleroderma throws the collagen production off its normal path by making too much collagen that isn't needed. Vitiligo kills melanocytes which means that the body has to keep making more and more melanocytes to compensate for the melanocytes its lost and continues to loose.
Compare and contrast the pelvis in males and females. Be sure to explain at least 5 differences.
The female inlet is larger and circular, The pubic arch on a female is more than 90 degrees and the male pelvis is less than 90 degrees. The female just has a larger pelvis in general because woman carry children. The female and male have a similar pelvis because they bare most of the body weight.
Name the six types of synovial joints and give examples of each in body.
Ball and socket - shoulder
Hinge - elbow
Plain - carpals
Pivot - wrist
Condyloid - fingers
Saddle - thumb
Name and explain the four steps of bone fracture repair.
After you fracture or brake a bone it has to be repaired. First a hematoma forms in the fracture. Then it gets replaced by fibrocartilage. The fibrocartilage them forms a bony callus of spongy bone. To be healed completely there becomes a permanent patch of compact bone.
Name and explain the three types of spinal curvatures.
Scoliosis is when the lumbar region has an exaggerated lateral curve. Kyphosis is when there is a curve in the lumbar area that makes a person like a hunch back. Lordosis is when there is an exaggerated curve to the thoracic area making a person lean more forward.
Compare and contrast the structure and function of the pectoral and pelvic girdle.
The pectoral girdle carries the weight of your arm and shoulders while the pelvic girdle bares the weight of your whole upper body. Your pelvic girdle has give to it because of the pubic symphysis but the pectoral girdle is not meant to be moved out of place.
Compare the amount of movement possible in synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic and diarthrotic joints. Relate these terms to the structural classification of the joints; that is, to fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints.
Synarthroses is is when a joint is immovable, like a suture in the skull. Its structural classification is a fibrous joint they are slightly immovable, an example is ribs. Diarthroses is classified as a synovial joint which are movable such as phalanges.
What are the functions of the muscle system?
What is the structure of a muscle cell?
There is a single muscle fiber which is surrounded by the endomysium. A bundle of the muscle fibers is called a fascicle, each fascicle is covered by a ;ayer of perimysium. Then a bunch of fascicles are bound together by a layer of epimysium which forms a muscle cell.
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