CHAPTER 1 1. Major methods to manage physical and psychological symptoms of speech anxiety. - Self-perceptions/visualization - Competence/skills training - Physiology/deep breathing 2. Additional tips to manage your nervousness both prior to the speech and during. - Think positively - Do not expect perfection - Imagine speaking to one person, not a group - Determine to communicate, not perform - Get a good night?s sleep - Tighten and relax muscles *Most speaker nervousness is not visible to audience. *Preparation is the #1 way to reduce speech anxiety! *People are perceived as credible when they are competent and trustworthy. 3. Common instances of plagiarism. Not verbally citing sources. 4. Quoting vs. paraphrasing. - Quoting: when the speaker repeats the exact words of another person - Paraphrasing: when the speaker had modified the statement by reordering the words and including more of his/her own words but continues to convey the same idea 5. How often we listen compared to other communication skills. Poor listening skills are the biggest reason students do poorly in class. 6. Causes of poor listening, and guidelines to effective listening. Causes of poor listening: - setting - receiver interests - receiver values - receiver assumptions - receiver bias - receiver background and experiences Guidelines for effective listening: - take listening seriously - resist distractions - suspend judgment - develop note-taking skills - do not be diverted by delivery of appearance - focus your listening on main points and evidence CHAPTER 2 1. Two groups of people that have been the most influential to our current understanding of today?s form of public speaking. Ancient Greeks & Ancient Romans 2. Two themes that were associated with our ancestor?s interest in public speaking. 1) It was recognized that skillful, eloquent speakers were more likely to be successful in life (delivery) 2) It was recognized that speakers should conform to a set of ethical guidelines when engaging in public speaking (content) 3. Precepts of Ptah-Hotep. One of the earliest references to public speaking is found in this book ? from the Egyptians 4. The group of people who could not effectively represent themselves in court. Ancient Greeks 5. The most influential Roman scholar to more fully develop the system of public speaking. Cicero 6. Three major divisions Aristotle?s Rhetoric. 1) speaker 2) audience 3) message 7. The purpose of the elocutionary movement. To study the laws that underlie human behavior in public speaking situations in order to learn what kind of speaking style is natural and most effective 8. Three items that the general definition of communication should include. 1) Communication is a process 2) Communication involves the use of symbols 3) Communication involves a sharing or exchange of meanings 9. The working definition of communication that will be used for the purpose of this course. The process of intentionally stimulating meaning in the mind of another *SMCR Model = Source ( Message ( Channel ( Receiver (speaker) (content) (face-to-face) (audience) 10. Three components of the transactional model that make it different from the SMCR model. 1) Feedback - verbal & nonverbal response from receivers (reaction) 2) Context - situational factors that influence communicators & surroundings 3) Interference - factors that block/inhibit message 11. Components of the transactional model and the definition/purpose of each. 1) Feedback - verbal & nonverbal response from receivers (reaction) 2) Context - situational factors that influence communicators & surroundings 3) Interference - factors that block/inhibit message 12. Examples of communication contexts. - Interpersonal - Group - Organizational setting 13. Differences between public speaking and other communication contexts. * Planning and preparation - degree of formality - communication rules 14. What ethnocentrism is. The belief that your worldview is superior to all others 15. Order of the steps in the speech making process. Select topic ( Analyze audience ( (continue throughout speech process) Write specific purpose ( Gather supporting materials ( Develop main points ( Separate speech into major parts ( Write intro & conclusion ( Outline speech ( Visual aids ( Speaking Outline ( Practice the speech ( Deliver speech CHAPTER 3 1. Extemporaneous speaking and how it is different from the other methods of speech delivery. A speech that is carefully prepared and rehearsed, and is presented from a brief set of notes (the exact words are not chosen until the moment of delivery) - use a natural, conversational style of delivery 2. Components of the speaker?s voice: - volume - rate - pauses - vocal variety * articulation: the physical production of sound (emphasize the crisp, consonants) * Eye contact with the audience should be maintained 70-80% of speech 3. How to properly use gestures Should be natural and not call attention to themselves 4. When verbals and nonverbals don?t match in the same message, know which one is believable. Nonverbals are more believable; what we see trumps what we hear CHAPTER 4 1. Differences among the general purpose, specific purpose, central idea - General purpose: a broad-based goal of a speech 1) inform 2) persuade 3) entertain 4) introduce 5) inspire - Specific purpose: a single, clear phrase that focuses on only one aspect of your topic; should state precisely what you wish to accomplish in the speech *diagram on page 47 - Central idea: a concise, one-sentence statement of what the speech is about by stating the main points 2. Guidelines for writing a specific purpose and central idea Guidelines for specific purpose: - must be consistent with general purpose - must be able to be accomplished within time allotted - must be relevant to the audience - must not be too trivial - must not be too technical *aspect of a topic: what main points will be (steps, ways, etc.) (ex. To inform my audience of the three major causes of obesity.) Guidelines for central idea: - aspect of specific purpose + summary of main points (ex. The three major causes of obesity are genetic predisposition, lack of exercise, and poor eating habits.) 3. Three goals for effective informative speaking. - Communicate info clearly - Communicate info accurately - Make info relevant to audience 4. Differences among the four types of informative speeches 1) Objects - about anything visible and tangible (people, places, things) 2) Processes - include any series of steps or stages that lead to a specific result or product (usually how-to speeches) 3) Events - about events including occasions, incidents, or episodes 4) Concepts - include any belief, theory, idea, notion, or principle (anything not a process, object, or event) 5. Guidelines for effective informative speaking. - Do not overestimate what audience knows - Relate the subject directly to the audience - Do not be too technical - Avoid abstractions - Personalize your ideas 6. How to avoid abstractions in your informative speech. Compare or contrast the concept with something the audience is already familiar with (i.e. ?it is like this? or ?it is different in this way?) Topic General Purpose Specific Purpose Central Idea CHAPTER 5 1. The difference between audience-centeredness and egocentrism. -Egocentrism suggests that the speaker simply expresses his or her views in terms of their own interests, values, beliefs, and experiences regardless of the nature of the audience - Audience-centeredness means that you adapt your message to the needs, interests, values, and beliefs of the receivers 2. Interest versus relevance statement. - Interest: simply holding the audience?s attention - Relevance statement: outwardly conveys why the audience should listen and why they need to know this information 3. Demographic factors and how to determine which demographics are the most important for effectively analyzing the specific audience. - Age - Sex - Race -Ethnic background - Religion *Group membership 4. Aspects you need to learn about your audience in order to effectively analyze it. - Why they are there - What their knowledge is on the topic - What their interest is in the topic - What attitudes they hold towards the topic - How they have responded in the past 5. Why and how to adapt to feedback during your speech. If the speaker is receiving confused looks, stop and ask, ?Would you like me to explain this further before moving on?? (Be confident enough to change speech if needed audience needs it) CHAPTER 6 *Source criteria: that info is credible (scholarly) & current 1. The difference between the types of sources and types of supporting material. - Sources: tangible places, where the info comes from 1) Scholarly: peer-reviewed (ex. journals) 2) Web-based: not usually good 3) Reference: encyclopedias, dictionaries (broad info summaries) 4) Interviews/surveys 5) Brochures/movies/television programs - Supporting material: 1) Facts: info that is true and cannot be disputed 2) Statistics/examples/stories/definitions/personal experience 3) Expert testimony: person must be dealing with subject matter on which they are an expert and have the acceptance of peers in field 4) Peer testimony: an individual that has first hand experience seeing or doing your topic matter 2. Types of supporting material and the functions of each. 1) Facts: cannot be disputed so provide powerful support for the speaker 2) Statistics: makes a number become real and tangible 3) Expert testimony: they possess a large amount of knowledge and lend that credibility to the speaker 4) Peer testimony: lends a ?first-handed? credibility 5) Examples: help a speaker clarify complex concepts; the audience can ?visualize? the info presented 6) Stories: they can be used as extended examples 7) Definitions: clarify technical terms/unfamiliar 8) Personal experience: lends a real life perspective 3. Criteria necessary to use a website as a source. - Author?s name & credentials or sponsoring organization is available - The date the information was placed on the site can be found *Potential problems: there may be too much info available, problematic search strategies 4. When statistics are necessary in a speech. Anytime it is necessary to quantify your ideas 5. When it is/is not necessary to cite sources. -When to cite: 1) Direct quotes from a source 2) Paraphrased material 3) Borrowed formats, structure of speech 4) Illustrations, diagrams, graphs of others - When not to cite: 1) Reporting original (own) ideas 2) Common knowledge 6. What is considered common knowledge. Information that cannot be disputed, like facts. 7. Quoting vs. paraphrasing. - Quoting: when the speaker repeats the exact words of another person - Paraphrasing: when the speaker had modified the statement by reordering the words and including more of his/her own words but continues to convey the same idea 8. Components necessary for all verbal citations. - Date of the source - Name of the source 9. Criteria necessary for citing all types of sources. - Date - Source - Supporting material 10. The three-step process in citing supporting material. 1) Preview the evidence: ease your audience into what it coming next 2) Cite the evidence: put your citation in this 3) Explain the evidence
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