studies the basic formulations of christian belief and how they relate to one another
Showing from Scripture that your view is accurate according to Scripture
Intratextual reading of Scripture
Adopting Scripture on its own terms rather than bringing outside concepts to the text
use reasoning ability to draw conclusions from Scripture as long as they do not contradict clear teaching of some other passage of Scripture and God is given the final authority
Man's reason is the sole criterion for truth
Place of mystery in theology
If two truths taught from Scripture cannot be brought together by our reason, then we leave them alone to mystery
Two ideas are true, but we do not fully understand how they fit together
direct opposition between things compared
Successive unfolding of gods revealed purpose
God's revelation is always in deed and in word. He reveals things about Him through the means of language.
Textual Horizon (1st of 3)
Where we start with any text in Scripture.
Epochal Horizon (2 of 3)
Where is the text in the unfolding story of Scripture?
Where is the text in light of the whole canon of Scripture?
Events, persons or statements in the Old Testament are seen as types pre-figuring or superseded by antitypes, events or aspects of Christ or His revelation described in the New Testament
Concept of a Miracle
Unusual or extraordinary events caused by God's power that are demonstrations of God's covenant Lordship.
Opera ad intra
Works that terminate within God’s own being...doctrine of the Trinity...acting within Himself.
Opera ad extra
Works that terminate outside God’s own being...creation, providence in governing all things.
Idea that natural processes cause natural phenomenon - Relies on empirical data - Used by Aristotle
Day to day ruling and overseeing creation. Normal occurrences.
Unusual & rare workings of God's Providence (miracles)
Process theism’s conception of divine action
God tries to lure and persuade to action and is unable to guarantee the outcome.
everything is divine, but also a divine aspect outside of the universe
Libertarian or indeterministic view of human freedom
A person is free if only he can choose to do otherwise.
Compatibilistic view of human freedom
Calvinist View….God is sovereign over all things and man is responsible for his actions. As long as those conditions/causes do not coerce the agent, the agent is free.
The eternal plan of the covenant Lord. Before the creation of the world, He determined to bring about everything that happens.
God’s plan with respect to His overall plan/decree.
God’s plan related to the eternal condition of moral agents used in relation to human beings and their eternal destiny.
God’s positive choice of individuals to salvation.
God’s choice of some to suffer eternal lostness.
Open-theistic View on Providence
Argues that God doesn't know the future decisions of his creation and that he changes his mind.
Arminian (Ad Hoc) view of Divine Providence
God's plan encompasses all things but is based on foreknowledge of what we will do if created.
Calvanist view of God's Providence
God's plan encompasses everything, is immutable and is set from eternity past.
Election before creation in priority, not time.
Election after the fall. (limited atonement).
Election after atonement (Amyrauldian)
Preservation in God's Providence
God’s continuous activity, his active supervision by which he maintains in existence all things that he has created.
Concurrence in God's Providence
The powers of nature do not work by themselves, but God is immediately at work in every act of the creature...God fully in control, man fully responsible.
Government in God's Providence
God has a purpose in all that he does in the world and he providentially governs or directs all things in order that they accomplish his purposes.
Direct contact with events.
Indirect contact with events using a means to an ends
Indirect causation of events
What is the difference b/w the "proximate cause" and agency theory of felony murder?
Proximate cause: liable for deaths of innocent victims caused by someone other than co-felon
Agency: killing must be by felon or his agent
Asymmetrical relation of God’s planning of good and evil
God directly causes all good things and indirectly permits all evil things. In other words, God stands behind good things in a different way from how he stands behind evil.
View of God's foreknowledge that teaches that because GOd knows what every creature would do in any given set of circumstances, he therefore foreknows everything that will happen in the world by bringing about the situations in which all creatures act.
God's knowledge of all things past present and future in a single moment. Since God is outside of time, He sees all of time at once, and He sees it as present
Simple Foreknowledge (human choice)
God elects those who He foreknows will believe
Sovereignty and freewill are to be based on the doctrine of creation
Defense of God intended to show that He is innocent of any wrongdoing in allowing evil to exist. It is not intended to explain evil.
Logical Problem of Evil
God's existence is inconsistent with existence of evil.
-contradiction between God being good and omnipotent and the fact that evil exists
The RELIGIOUS form of the problem of evil
*when one's own experience calls into question the goodness or greatness of God *this threatens the relationship between the person and God
The evidential problem of evil
1. It's very likely that instances of pointless suffering exists 2. If Gods exists, all suffering has a point 3. Thus, it is very likely that God does not exist
The belief that things are divided into two different elements or opposing parts, such as a good and evil
God created material world to be evil yet spirit is good and body is bad
Creatio ex nihilo
God created out of nothing.
sin = self centeredness. Adam was not a real individual. The fall is the story of us all
Liberal View of Genesis 1-3
Genesis is legendary, symbolic or mythical.
Reasons for the historical nature of Gen 1-11
Biblical genealogies take Adam and Eve as historical. Jesus and Paul assume their historicity No Adam and Eve means no perfect humans who then fell, which destroys the Christian position
Sees time gap between Gen. 1:1 and 1:2, during which time world recovers from chaos of initial creation, documented by verse 2
Evolution within species so that a Saint Bernard could come from an original predecessor but could not become a whale.
Evolution between species so that a single-celled organism could feasibily, through many intermediate species, become man
The interpretation of the Bible according to evolutionary theories, purporting that God used evolution as His means of creation
God had complete involvement in supernatural ways but God did it over long periods of time (not literal 24 hour periods)
proponents of intelligent design are too complex to have evolved from natural selection
Day-Age Theory Creationism
"6 days of creation" becomes "6 ages of creation"
Days aren't necessarily 24 hour days, but large geological epoch because parts of bible say a day to God is 1000 years (which translates into forever
Literary Framework Hypothesis
Meant to tell a story or convey a meaning rather than a historical account.
God's command in Genesis 1:28 requiring that man "subdue" or have stewardship over the earth.
Image vs. likeness
If anything, image is representation and likeness as similarity two terms that are virtually synonymous and should not be taken as technical terms.
Views of the image of God
We are made after the divine ‘type.’ Rationality and free will which inhere in human beings. We are visible little icons of God in the image….likeness refers to us acting like God. In ancient Eastern cultures, the only image of God was the king himself. But the Bible makes clear that אדמ is the image of God, or all of humanity and not just one person.
Structure vs. function distinction in Hoekema
Distinction between the image of God as part of our makeup and the likeness of God as part of our function, i.e., we are made like God in some ways and we act like God in others.
Roman Catholic view of image and likeness
Image = rationality Likeness = holiness
Good and evil are equal and opposite of each other. God and Satan, the prime movers of good and evil respectively, eternally oppose one another with relatively similar results.
idea by Descartes that the human is separated into mind and matter, the physical and spiritual. enlightened idea
The view that all mental states can be reduced to firing neurons.
Reductive vs. Non-Reductive Physicalism
Reductive: (1) Humans are entirely physical entities AND (2) mental states are nothing over and above brain states.
Non-Reductive: (1) Humans and entirely physical entities AND (2) mental states are not wholly reducible to physical states.
Theological reflection on what it means to be a human person.
Men and women are equal but with different roles and authorities.
Men and women are equal with no authority or role differences.
The belief that man consists of two parts, the body (evil) and the soul (good). There are two separate or at least distinct substances that make up the human being.
The soul along with the body is inherited from the parents
God creates souls at the moment of conception
Realism as related to original sin
Augustine's view that all of humanity was really present in Adam when he sinned, and therefore all have sinned
Origin of human soul: Creationism view
the soul is created and implanted sometime between inception & birth
humans have a material and an immaterial aspect, but we must neither separate them nor thing of them as a composite of different parts. we must view human persons in their unified totalities as embodied souls.
Being governed by oneself.
The belief that human existence continues after the death of the body because there is more to the human existence than the physical body.
The sinful state and condition in which every human being is born by virtue of their relationship to Adam imputed to us. Even though it comes from Adam and we have it from the beginning of our existence as persons, it is still our sin.
the grace that comes before the actual work of grace, first defined by St. Augustine
literally means "the call before"
Our sinful disposition is hereditary, and it infects our whole being and its development...we have an inclination toward evil.
All of our actions are rooted in this sinful disposition….concrete acts of wrongdoing.
Before God as judge, we are legally guilty of our sin, under the wrath of God.
Not as bad as we could be, nor without a conscience, nor unable to do good, but the Corruption of original sin extends to every aspect of human nature. On our own we can do no spiritual good or be good in terms of a relationship with God. There is not present in human beings, by nature, love to God as the motivating principle of his life.”
The inability of the sinner to turn himself to God or for anything that is pleasing or good in God’s sight.
humans have complete free will, and thus the power to be holy. Holiness of the church is the result of the holiness of the members.
As the first human, Adam acted as the legal representatve of the rest of humankind. Adam chose (disobedience) for us.
Man's nature was weakened but not bound by the sin of Adam, man can choose God apart from God's intervention. (No total depravity)
Brought into prominence by Scofield, is the view that the body, soul and spirit all refer to different substances.
(Arminianism), which, in its simplest form, argues that the human will cooperates with God's grace in order to be regenerated. God working with us in salvation
Belief that god is sovereign agent in salvation and that god is the only one at work in salvation, he chooses who to save and who to damn.
Imputation of sin - Augustinian view
We were all seminally present in Adam, and all were "apart" of the original sin.
The grand story to make sense of all the little stories which is the Bible itself. Over--arching view of the world which seeks to be the basis for a comprehensive world view.
The first steps towards the Christian life are ordinarily taken by the human will and that Grace supervened only later.
Belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid.
human beings were born innocent, without the stain of original or inherited sin. He believed that God created every human soul directly and therefore every human soul was originally free from sin.
theory that human beings are propagated as whole beings, both materially and immaterially (including both body and soul)
the soul is transmitted along with the body through the process of natural generation
God created all human souls at the same time, prior to Genesis 1, and attaches a soul to a human being at the moment of conception. In other words, all the souls that will ever be were created and pre-existent before Adam.
Hoekema Structure View
Distinction between the image of God as part of our makeup
Hoekema Function View
likeness of God as part of our function
Roman Catholic Likeness
In the original state of righteousness in which man was created, man had the likeness of God
But then comes the Fall of man and with the Fall of man that original righteousness is lost, and therefore man in his fallen condition no longer stands in the likeness of God.
Roman Catholic Image of God
The image of God, however, though impaired and disrupted by the fall, still exists even in the fallen state and so is not entirely lost.
The soul was of an entirely different essence than the body. These two entities had nothing to do with one another. The body, they believed, was the prison of the soul.
mind and body are separate yet intertwined, mental functions are mind's sovereign domain, separate from body functions. Rational mind is divine and separate from body.
Everything, including all mentality, can be reduced to (understood at the level of description of) physics.
Physical description is accurate as far as it goes, but there is more that is going in than can be described in these reductive terms.
Secret Knowledge: knowledge of transcendence arrived at by way of internal, intuitive means
the existing universe contains two radically distinct kinds of being or substance — matter and spirit, body and mind.
God’s sovereign plan whereby in eternity He has already decreed all that is to happen in the entire universe, which He created.
defines the specifics of God’s eternal plan, i.e., God’s foreknowledge in election, the manifestation of His call (summons) and justification in time and the glorification of His elect in eternity
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