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-over 12 ft. tall, set a precedent for monumental altarpieces.
-Mary is much larger = most important
-viewer is suspended in space (looking down at Mary's throne while looking straight ahead at the prophets.)
-use of gold, signfies importance -uses it as highlight
(about 30 yrs after Cimabue's)
-Mary = more solid, stocky
-figures appear more 3 dimensional, more solid, inhabiting real space
-halos overlap faces
-Scrovegni chapel- commissioned by Enrico S. whose fortune came from usury. built chapel to attone for sins. Giotto and Pisano decorated it.
-focus slightly off center.
-broad sweeps of cloth block the viewer from the chaos
- located in Monastery of St. Marco, monks would pass on the way to their cells
-striking color choices
-appearance of an aedicula (framed niche)
-architecture= combo of architectural orders
-members of lenzi family depicted
-"I was once that which you are, and what I am you also will be."
-linear and atmospheric perspective
-painted in 32 giornate (giornata= section of plaster painted in one day)
-spatial organization, solidity of characters, consistent lighting
-political image in Florence
-speculations about homo-eroticism
-boyish, jaunty pose
-vast landscapes, strict profile (allowed to show best side of Frederico, two scars and missing eye), elegant fashions
-back has another painting and records virtues of the couple
-impression of an oculus opening to the sky.
-led to many other illusionistic ceiling paintings
-depicts each member of the Gonzaga family around the room
-illustrates them at their business, other people coming to visit them = statement about their influential status
-early work of M.
-marble carefully selected by M. himself
-interesting dimension of figures - Mary=heroic in size, Christ=small for being her grown son
-story: M. slipped in to carve his name on the strap to claim the work.
-political meaning, florence
-placed next to Palazzo instead of on the cathedral = big hands and head
-classic male nude, but expression is strong
-symbol: right over might
-Sistine Chapel ceiling
-position and musculature of Adam are mirror of God > image created
-classic but robust figures.
-never delivered painting, kept w/ him rest of life.
-no jewelry (unusual)
-diff. portrait position than was usual for the time.
-hazy landscape = mystery
-has more expression than was generally depicted during the time
-in refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie monastery
-perspective, extends to another room
-vanishing point = behind Jesus' head
-disciples - sets of 3
-convergence of perspective lines
-hazy, afternoon light.. idyllic landscape
-titian's focus on the female nude
-nudity v. nakedness
-male patrons could appreciate nude women under the cloak of something more respectable (ie. classical mythology)
-symbolic bits: marriage > cassoni (wedding chests), roses, dog, etc.
-no real location indicated
-weird colors, strange postures
-interesting positioning of figures- not exactly true spatially but heightens the emotion of the piece.
-unnatural proportions for Mary and the toddler? Jesus.
-can't see what she's sitting on, if anything.
-column and sculpture? in the background do not fit into the already skewed perspective.
-jumble of figures and objects together on the panel
-delicate forms against striking colors
-positions and proportions are off balance
-much different from da Vinci's in terms of viewer's position for the scene, contrast, spatial organization, and even the overall emotion.
-more bodies, traditional halo around Christ's head
-deep shadows with pops of color
-small compared to the Italian altarpieces (2' X 4')
-household objects with symbolic meaning: lillies/annunciation, water pot/purity.
-Mary's position=her submission
-donors, left wing
-Joseph, carpentry shop - left wing
-signature above mirror
-symbolism: dog, oranges/wealth, single candle, religious scenes around mirror, wealthy apparel.
-sacred and secular meanings
--likely van Eyck. inscription on frame = his motto + anagram of his name
-single source of illumination
-popular theme due to dramatic nature
-commissioned by crossbowmen's guild (crossbows in upper corners)
-figures = almost life size
-echoed form of Christ's body w/ the swooning Mary
-seemingly personal portraits
-Protestant emphasis (phrases shown from bibile)
-in order: John, Peter, Mark, Paul
-background v. foreground gives subtle meaning to the painting.
-position = recalls iconic images of Christ from the time period
-great attention to detail in texture
-altered hair color - greater resemble popular conception of Christ
-prints were durer's reason for fortune
-careful, detailed lines (impressive and complicated for the medium)
-biblical story (Revelations)
-organization = commotion, forceful
-notice the difference between their dress, bright and sober
-couting money v. prayer book (but inatentively?)
-details: reflection in mirror, textures
-what does it say: wealth root of evil? or the godly living in worldly
-tenebrism = forms emerge from dark background into light
-tension: horse foot, akimbo position, contrast
-no hierarchical positioning or size as with previous religious figures
-didn't follow direction of patron and painted the scene differently
-tenebrism and realism again (except the clothing)
-patrons didn't like the "fleshiness" of angel next to Matthew or the position/style Matthew was depicted in
-dif. depiction of this biblical story, focusing on vulnerability of Susannah
-forms "close" in space to the viewer
-influenced by Caravaggio
-symbolism - mask pendant to face as painting is to nature
-painted herself into an allegory of her profession
-bold and lifelike
-tells story of St. Teresa's vision
-lit from above with hidden windows
-detail, dramatic drapery
-composition=more three dimensional
-action! moment in time
-fierce emotion on face
-detail body - taught muscles, etc.
-naturalism and tenebrism
-detail in texture
-muted color palette
-multiple identifiable portraits: princess, maids of honor, king and queen, and artist
-whatever the purpose, V. claims honor for himself as an artist by depicting himself in the scene (courtier dress and with castle keys in sash)
-commemorating life and influence of Marie de Medici who ruled as regent for her son.
-drama and importance brought to the scene with figures from classical Greek mythology. vague and vast landscape
-"rigorously ordered and highly idealized classical landscapes" = popular at the time
-figures framed by the crumbling masonry
-zig zag leads the viewer into the scene
-highlights the nostalgia/simplicity of living in the countryside
-soft but vibrant colors and forms
-"the sun king"
-fleur-de-lis, ermine fur, billowing robe and curtain, high-heeled shoes, showing off legs vs. aging face and direct gaze
-scientific and humanistic interests
-figures are animated/engaged
-identifiable portraits but not positioned/depicted in the usual manner
-impasto=heavy application of pigment
-rich colors, chiaroscuro (range from light to dark)
-well-dressed, dignified> declared bankruptcy that year
-tired eyes and skin
-strong diagonal lines to organize the space
-colors are more striking against the stark black and white
-nice chair and clothes >success as an artist - success due to the type of painting she is working on in portrait
-delicate ruff against bold brushstrokes for skirt and torso.
-paint brush and pallette v. violin and bow
-somewhat crowded by the number of objects surrounding the three figures
-some of the objects (book, skull, etc.) can be taken as memento moris
-sky takes up majority of canvas but details draw focus to the land below
-tiny people spreading linens (primary occupation of the townspeople)
-a bit less idealized than the French Baroque landscapes.
-painting behind her = the last judgement
-juxtaposition > genre scene becomes more religious in meaning
-vanitas (pearls and gold in front of her) = reminder of the transience of life
-Memento mori: bee, snail, butterfly, etc.
-rich color, complementary
-memento mori/ vanitas
-beautiful clarity in the textures of the dif. objects.
-tazza = the chalice that has been tipped over
-spatial organization and depth (orange peel reaching out to viewer)
-dream world - putti, wealthy couples, statue (right) = Venus whose island is Cythera
-no category in the Royal Academy of Painting gallery > created new category: fete galante (elegant outdoor entertainment)
-sensuous, yet playful
-"frothy" foliage and clothing
-meant to portray Marie Antoinette in a more responsible, kindly individual.
-black-draped cradle = deceased child
-she is posed regally but her children surround her with more relaxed positions
-play things are left on the floor as the boy carries books under one arm, dressed smartly, prepared to gain education and prepare for a responsible life as an adult.
-emotional moment, dramatic spotlight
-drame bourgeois = middle tragedy = melodrama > moral/civic lessons communicated through everyday scenes
-subject from classical antiquity
-"good mother" theme, popular with 18th cent. patrons
-classical construction softened by warm lignt and graceful figures
-virtues of antiquity (i.e. masculinity, patriotism, stoicism)
-muscular angularity compared with the sweeping softness of the women's forms
-powerful, moment in time
- based on a story from antiquity
-portraits included of people who weren't present at the time
-figures gathered in a shape that leads the eye through the scene
-dramatic clouds and colors
-focus on Mifflin's wife although he was famous
-clothes are elegant and nice but not overly decorated or pretentious
-Sarah is weaving a silk fringe> indicates her stability as a wife as well as no need to rely on British imports
period of creativity and learning
thrived because of patronage
characteristics: classicism, humanism, naturalism
wealthy and influential people commissioned artwork and contributed to the Renaissance's growth.
influenced art through the topics/ scenes they commissioned
preserved themselves in history by inserting their portraits into the subject of the artwork
from Italian term meaning "set against"
position of setting parts of the body in opposition to each other around a central axis (typically one leg bent and shoulder dropped on opposite side)
effect created according to perspective.
objects appear to recede into the background or project into space in the foreground. usually based on a flat surface.
painting created by laying pigment on top of wet plaster - highly skilled fresco artists were in high demand during the renaissance.
giornatta = section of plaster that could be painted in one day
ideals: education can perfect through study of models and a value system of personal responsibility/effort
about the time: catholicism=religion, birth of universities, invention of the printing press
plural - singular=putto
little angel children, cherubic babies
latin- "remember that you must die"
an object found in a Vanitas... with symbolic meaning
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