147 Midterm Study Guide Student: 1. The most effective way of dealing with disease is A. rehabilitation. B. medication. C. prevention. D. surgery. 2. Which of the following is NOT one of the major cardiovascular disease risk factors? A. a sedentary lifestyle B. poor immune function C. smoking D. high cholesterol levels 3. The signs of wellness described in your text A. always appears in the early stages of a wellness program. B. Include an increased appetite for physical activity. C. Contain only signs of physical wellness. D. Are all negative side effects from over exercising. 4. Healthy body composition is best characterized by a A. High proportion of bone, fat, and water and a low proportion of muscle. B. High proportion of muscle, fat, and bone and a low proportion of water. C. High proportion of muscle, bone, and water and a low proportion of fat. D. High proportion of muscle and bone and a low proportion of fat and water. 5. If you have an external locus of control, believing you have a genetic predisposition to cancer can A. Enhance your locus of control. B. Lead to a greater sense of control over your life. C. Reinforce your motivation to take appropriate action. D. Sabotage your efforts to take appropriate action. 6. If you must temporarily stop exercising regularly, which of the following factors should be maintained while the others are curtailed? A. Specificity B. Time C. Frequency D. Intensity 7. Which of the following requires immediate medical attention? A. Heat cramps B. Dehydration C. Heat stroke D. Heat exhaustion 8. The first step in creating a successful fitness program is to A. Set specific fitness goals. B. Plan your fitness program. C. Determine your training intensity. D. Assess your current fitness level. 9. People typically begin to lose muscle mass after age A. 60. B. 50. C. 30. D. 40. 10. The oxidative energy system produces ATP in structures called A. Capillaries. B. Mitochondria. C. Alveoli. D. Tria. 11. All of the following are considered skill-related fitness components EXCEPT A. Coordination. B. Flexibility. C. Agility. D. Balance. 12. Personal safety while exercising can be enhanced by A. Training alone. B. Wearing shoes or clothing with reflective tape. C. Demanding your right-of-way regardless of others. D. Training in isolated areas. 13. Older adults tend to lose muscular strength due to all of the following changes EXCEPT A. muscle cells are smaller in size. B. the number of muscle cells declines. C. muscle cells lose their attachment to the nervous system. D. Sarcopenia increases. 14. Use of anabolic steroids may cause all of the following EXCEPT A. Liver damage. B. Psychological disturbances. C. Greater bone growth and lengthening. D. High blood pressure. 15. The key to a successful behavior change program is A. A plan that sets goals. B. Speed and aggressiveness. C. A qualified therapist. D. Identifying multiple target behaviors. 16. Which is an example of procrastination? A. I better wait until after the semester break to start my program. B. I wanted to exercise today, but my favorite workout clothes were dirty. C. I didn't exercise because my workout partner never called me. D. I hate to have other people see me exercising. 17. Muscular strength is best defined as A. The maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in 10 repetitions. B. The ability to exert force rapidly. C. The ability to exert a sub-maximal force repeatedly over time. D. The maximum amount of force a muscle can produce in a single maximal effort. 18. Exercise may reduce the risk of colon cancer through all of the following means EXCEPT A. Speeding the movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract. B. Increasing concentrations of HDL. C. Reducing blood fats. D. Enhancing immune function. 19. Muscular endurance is the A. Amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. B. Ability to move the joints through a full range of motion. C. Amount of time required to contract a muscle completely. D. Ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscular tension over time. 20. Monitoring your behavior involves recording all of the following EXCEPT A. Your thoughts and feelings at the time. B. Several problem behaviors simultaneously. C. Where the behavior happened. D. What you were doing. 21. Good strategies for evaluating a health and fitness center include all of the following EXCEPT A. Researching different membership options. B. Evaluating the equipment. C. Visiting during the time of day you plan to use the club. D. Signing a long-term contract. 22. When making progress in a strength training program, increase resistance for a particular exercise when you: A. Need less than 1 minute of rest between sets. B. Can complete 3 sets of an exercise. C. Can train every day without development muscle soreness. D. Can complete two more than the target number of repetitions on two consecutive training sessions. 23. Isometric exercise is best described as applying force A. With movement. B. While a muscle is lengthening. C. Without a change in length of the muscle. D. At a constant speed. 24. Which of the following is NOT an immediate response to exercise? A. Increased ventilation (breathing) B. Increased blood flow to the liver and kidneys C. Increased heart rate D. Increased blood flow to the skin 25. A recommended amount of resistance and number of repetitions for improving muscular strength is A. 40–60% RM and 1–5 repetitions. B. 70–80% RM and 1–5 repetitions. C. 40–60% RM and 15–20 repetitions. D. 90–100% RM and 10–15 repetitions. 26. Which one of the following statements relating to gender and strength training is true? A. Women tend to lose inches and increase strength as a result of resistance training. B. Men are about 10% stronger in upper body strength when compared to women. C. Testosterone levels in women are about two times higher than in men. D. Men have a larger proportion of muscle mass in the lower body than women do. 27. Which of the following best describes emotional wellness? A. Finding principles by which to live your life. B. Being open to new ideas. C. Getting regular medical checkups. D. Taking time to explore your thoughts. 28. Heart disease is linked most closely with A. Poor flexibility. B. Poor reaction time. C. Low cardio-respiratory fitness. D. Low muscular strength. 29. Which of the following is NOT a recommended strategy for strength training safety? A. Rest between sets of exercises. B. Hold your breath to stabilize the body during heavy lifts. C. Use an alternate grip when acting as the sole spotter. D. Wrap thumbs around the bar when gripping a barbell. 30. All of the following are benefits of regular exercise and physical fitness EXCEPT A. Improved self-image. B. Decreased risk of diabetes. C. Decreased muscle mass. D. Increased resistance to fatigue. 31. During a weight training program, the rate of strength gains will depend on all of the following EXCEPT A. A person's age. B. Heredity. C. Equipment used. D. Motivation. 32. The number of different exercises in a complete weight training program for general fitness is usually about A. 12–14. B. 8–10. C. 2–3. D. 5–6. 33. Muscular force exerted as a muscle shortens is best classified as A. Isotonic. B. Isometric. C. Concentric. D. Eccentric. 34. Which of the following supplements is a synthetic derivative of testosterone? A. chromium picolinate B. insulin C. creatine monohydrate D. tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) 35. The order in which the steps in a behavior change program are implemented is A. set goals, devise plan, make contract, analyze data, monitor behavior. B. monitor behavior, analyze data, set goals, devise plan, make contract. C. analyze data, monitor behavior, devise plan, set goals, make contract. D. devise plan, make contract, set goals, monitor behavior, analyze data. 36. Overuse or overtraining injuries are MOST likely to occur when you A. increase the frequency of exercise before increasing the intensity of exercise. B. train 3 days per week. C. warm up prior to exercise and cool down after exercise. D. increase the intensity of exercise before increasing the time (duration) of exercise. 37. The recommended time (duration) for cardiorespiratory endurance exercise is _____ minutes. A. 20–60 B. 5–10 C. 60–120 D. 10–20 38. Recommended treatment of minor soft tissue injuries such as bruisesincludes all of the following EXCEPT A. rest. B. massage. C. ice. D. elevation. 39. A low level of motivation or commitment to change an unwanted behavior may be due to A. a lack of negative effects from the unwanted behavior. B. a strong social support system. C. a strong inner drive. D. a high level of self-confidence. 40. The maximal improvement in the body's ability to transport and use oxygen that people can realistically expect as a result of training is about A. 60–70%. B. 40–50%. C. 15–30%. D. 5–10%. 41. Muscular strength is the A. amount of force a muscle can produce repeatedly over 60 seconds. B. ability to move the joints through a full range of motion. C. amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort. D. ability to sustain a given level of muscular tension over time. 42. When you are ready to increase resistance for an exercise in a weight training program, about how much weight should you add if you are currently lifting 100 pounds? A. 20 pounds B. 5 pounds C. 10 pounds D. 1 pound 43. The leading cause of preventable death among Americans is A. obesity. B. diet. C. smoking. D. physical inactivity. 44. Training intensity for weight training is determined by A. number of sets. B. amount of time lifting. C. amount of weight lifted. D. number of repetitions. 45. The amount of overload needed to maintain or improve one's fitness level is determined in terms of all of the following EXCEPT A. intensity. B. specificity. C. time (duration). D. frequency. 46. A typical resting heart rate for a normal individual is around A. 100 bpm. B. 60bpm. C. 30 bpm. D. 200 bpm. 47. Compared with men, women have A. more muscle tissue in the upper body. B. higher speed of nervous control of muscle. C. the same capacity for increases in strength. D. larger muscles fibers. 48. An example of an activity that primarily uses the immediate energy system is A. in-line skating. B. walking. C. running a marathon. D. weight lifting. 49. The primary determinant of behavior in people with a strong internal locus of control is found in A. themselves. B. the environment. C. fate. D. their family and friends. 50. All of the following are components of health-related fitness EXCEPT A. speed. B. flexibility. C. cardiorespiratory endurance. D. muscular strength. 51. The small blood vessels that connect the arteries and veins and distribute blood to all parts of the body are the A. arterioles. B. vascules. C. capillaries. D. venules. 52. The typical American diet is A. too low in sugar. B. too low in calories. C. too high in unhealthy fats. D. too high in fiber. 53. Which of the following sources of fitness information is probably LEAST likely to provide useful advice? A. a person who looks physically fit B. articles by credible experts in fitness magazines C. a certified teacher of an exercise or fitness class D. a qualified personal trainer 54. Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the cardiorespiratory system? A. to transport oxygen B. to produce ATP C. to transport nutrients D. to pick up waste products 55. All of the following workouts meet the American College of Sports Medicine criteria for cardio respiratory training EXCEPT A. two 20-minute sessions of bicycling. B. six 5-minute sessions of spinning (group stationary cycling). C. four 10-minutes sessions of jogging. D. one 45-minute session of walking. 56. Which of the following best describes spiritual wellness? A. possession of a set of beliefs that give meaning to life B. an ability to share feelings with others C. prevention of injuries D. participation in community work 57. Inappropriate stress management can lead to all of the following EXCEPT A. an inefficient immune system. B. fatigue. C. sleep disturbances. D. decreased susceptibility to diseases. 58. Setting realistic specific goals can help you change unwanted behavior by A. making the ultimate goal seem more manageable. B. forcing you to take on the harder steps first. C. reducing the number of rewards you can receive. D. taking your focus off your ultimate goal. 59. The MINIMUM number of training days per week for gaining strength is A. 6–7. B. 2–3. C. 5–6. D. 3–4. 60. A type of body weight exercise that emphasizes control of movement is called A. plyometrics. B. isotonics. C. isometrics. D. Pilates. 61. All of the following are true of free weights, in comparison with weight machines, EXCEPT that they A. allow a greater variety of exercises. B. are more widely available. C. allow more dynamic movements. D. Requires less skill. 62. An exercise in which the individual jumps from a platform to the ground and then back up on the platform is an example of which of the following? A. eccentrics B. speed loading C. isokinetics D. plyometrics 63. Tobacco use is A. responsible for a relatively small number of deaths each year. B. found in 50% of the American population. C. associated with 8 of the top 10 causes of death in the United States. D. strongly associated with liver disease. 64. All of the following are treated with R-I-C-E (rest, ice, compression, elevation) EXCEPT A. muscle strain B. joint sprain C. blister D. tendonitis 65. A disease that develops and continues over a long period of time is a(n) A. chronic disease. B. terminal disease. C. infectious disease. D. subclinical disease. 66. ___________ supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart. A. Coronary arteries B. Ventricles C. Atria D. Coronary veins 67. As a person's cardiorespiratory endurance increases, the A. resting blood pressure increases. B. resting heart rate decreases. C. amount of blood pumped per heartbeat decreases. D. blood volume decreases. 68. The latest version of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends ________ for the promotion of health. A. exercising 1 or 2 days per week B. some type of resistance training every day C. burning about 150 calories per day through physical activity D. high-intensity exercise 69. Alveoli serve what function in the lungs? A. They prevent dust and pollens from entering the lungs. B. They help to expand and contract the lungs. C. They allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen. D. They ensure that air flows completely through the lungs. 70. An example of an appropriate reward for achieving a behavior change goal would be A. eating your favorite food. B. buying an expensive outfit. C. drinking alcohol. D. seeing a movie. 71. The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) is designed to A. establish a proper exercise intensity level. B. identify potential exercise resources. C. determine exercise safety. D. help set exercise goals. 72. Which of the following is an example of controlling environmental stimuli that provoke a target behavior? A. posting your exercise log in a prominent place B. asking a roommate to swim with you 3 times per week C. studying in the library instead of near the student union snack bar D. buying a new CD after completing 2 weeks of a behavior change program 73. Strength training helps in the prevention and management of chronic disease by A. increasing systolic blood pressure. B. increasing LDL cholesterol. C. decreasing bone density. D. improving glucose metabolism. 74. Excess loss of body fluid is called A. heat cramps. B. heat stroke. C. heat exhaustion. D. dehydration. 75. The three leading causes of death in the United States are A. cancer, diabetes, and cirrhosis. B. diabetes, osteoporosis, and cirrhosis. C. heart disease, stroke, and cancer. D. hypertension, stroke, and heart disease. 76. Which of the following statements about cycle training is FALSE? A. It is also known as periodization of training. B. It can help build fitness to a greater degree than standard training regimens. C. It includes lower-intensity workouts on some days. D. It increases the risk of injury. 77. Regular endurance exercise reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes by all of the following means EXCEPT A. reducing metabolic rate. B. burning excess sugar. C. maintaining healthy body fat levels. D. increasing insulin sensitivity. 78. Systemic circulation carries blood to all organs of the body EXCEPT A. the brain. B. the lungs. C. the liver. D. the heart. 79. Muscle soreness is caused by A. breakdown of muscle tissue by chemicals. B. loss of myofibrils. C. lactic acid buildup. D. increased androgen levels. 80. Which of the following is NOT a cause of the decrease in muscle strength often associated with aging? A. osteoporosis B. sarcopenia C. lack of a strength training program D. inactivity 81. A muscle fiber is A. a motor nerve attached to muscle cells. B. an individual muscle cell. C. an enzyme that facilitates metabolism within muscle cells. D. a protein structure within muscle cells. 82. A type of isotonic exercise used by athletes during training to simulate movement during sprinting or throwing is called A. eccentrics. B. plyometrics. C. variable resistance. D. speed loading. 83. Compared to an older athletes, the VO2max of a sedentary college student is A. much higher. B. much lower. C. about the same. ??? 84. Healthy body composition is developed best by the combination of A. weight training, stretching, and endurance exercise. B. sensible diet, resistance training, and stretching. C. sensible diet, stretching, and endurance exercise. D. sensible diet, resistance training, and endurance exercise. 85. The best way to lose body fat is through A. crash diets. B. exercise alone. C. diet pills and supplements. D. sensible diet and regular exercise. 86. Cardio-respiratory endurance is developed best by activities that A. involve continuous rhythmic movements of large-muscle groups. B. gently extend joints beyond their normal range of motion. C. involve working with weights or against resistance. D. alternate between brief periods of maximal exertion and rest. 87. Cardio-respiratory endurance is best measured in terms of A. blood pressure. B. minutes per mile. C. maximal oxygen consumption. D. maximal pounds lifted. 88. Which of the following is NOT a result of inactivity and aging? A. loss of bone tissue B. muscles that contract more slowly C. nerves disconnecting from muscles they control D. increase in fat-free mass 89. The best treatment for chronic diseases is A. prevention. B. medication. C. supplements. D. surgery. 90. During systole, the heart is A. filling with blood. B. contracting. C. suffering an attack. D. at rest. 91. Donna is about 25 pounds overweight, has tried a variety of diets and has repeatedly failed to maintain weight loss. She defends her weight with the explanation that almost all of her relatives are overweight and none has ever been successful with attempts to lose weight. Donna can best be described as A. having an external locus of control. B. being a victim of heredity. C. having an internal locus of control. D. being unmotivated. 92. Which of the following is NOT a component of the cardio-respiratory system? A. the blood vessels B. the brain C. the heart D. the lungs 93. To gain muscular strength and endurance for general fitness, the rest interval between sets should last A. 3–5 minutes. B. more than 5 minutes. C. 1–3 minutes. D. less than 1 minute. 94. Which of the following statements about a warm-up session is FALSE? A. It helps spread synovial fluid throughout joints and protect joint surfaces. B. Muscles work better when their temperature is slightly above resting level. C. It can enhance performance and reduce injuries. D. Warm-up activities are usually of high intensity. 95. According to the Surgeon General's report on physical activity, which of the following statements is FALSE? A. Women receive more benefits than men from regular exercise. B. People of all ages benefit from regular physical activity. C. A modest increase in daily activity can improve health. D. More vigorous or longer durationactivity can lead to greater health. 96. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is defined as A. the stored form of glucose. B. the stored form of fats. C. the building block of proteins. D. the basic form of energy used by cells. 97. Olympic-caliber athletes may be able to increase their metabolic rate by A. 100%. B. 2000%. C. 1000%. D. 500%. 98. A capacity to think critically is an example of A. interpersonal and social wellness. B. emotional wellness. C. intellectual wellness. D. spiritual wellness. 99. Activities that would predominantly use fast-twitch muscle fibers are A. walking and jogging. B. bike riding. C. hiking. D. sprinting 100. Regular physical activity is linked to all of the following EXCEPT A. increased creativity. B. improved mood. C. reduced anxiety. D. lower endorphin levels. 101. What percentage of Americans are not physically active at all? A. 5% B. 15% C. 50% D. 25% 102. In weight training, a set is a A. group of similar exercises. B. group of exercises. C. group of repetitions. D. single muscle contraction. 103. During the initial phase of an exercise program, a beginner should A. exercise at the high end of the target heart rate range. B. perform short but intense bouts of activity. C. exercise 5–7 days per week. D. exercise at the low end of the target heart rate range. 104. Specificity of training is best shown by which one of the following examples? A. running to develop flexibility B. weight training to develop cardiorespiratory endurance C. bicycling to develop back strength D. doing push-ups to develop chest and shoulder endurance 105. If heat loss exceeds the body's ability to warm itself, ________ can result. A. frostbite B. wind chill C. oxidation D. hypothermia 106. Fast-twitch muscle fibers are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A. fatigue resistance. B. rapid contraction. C. anaerobic energy system. D. use in sprinting. 107. When choosing a target behavior to change, you maximize your chances of success by A. starting with something simple like snacking on candy. B. starting with a complicated behavior first. C. combining behaviors such as starting exercise and stopping smoking. D. changing all your negative behaviors at once. 108. The two upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before passing it to the lower chambers are called A. atria. B. septum. C. valves. D. ventricles. 109. The most serious threat to one's health in the early 1900s was A. cancer. B. stroke. C. infectious disease. D. coronary heart disease. 110. A good resistance training technique for developing explosive strength is A. plyometrics. B. isometrics. C. isokinetics. D. eccentric loading. 111. Which one of the following is NOT increased by endurance training? A. number and size of mitochondria B. functional stability of cells and tissues C. number and size of free radicals D. insulin sensitivity 112. In addition to pulse counting, one may also monitor exercise intensity by using A. time of exercise. B. ratings of perceived exertion. C. heart rate reserve. D. frequency of training. 113. To improve muscular endurance, it is best to A. use medium resistance with a medium number of repetitions. B. do resistance exercises for each muscle no more than 2 days per week. C. use light resistance with many repetitions. D. use heavy resistance with few repetitions. 114. The six dimensions of wellness include all of the following EXCEPT A. environmental, or planetary, wellness. B. dietary wellness. C. spiritual wellness. D. emotional wellness. 115. Injuries such as low-back pain are reduced if the spine is properly aligned by strong muscles in the A. abdomen and hips. B. feet. C. shoulders and chest. D. neck. 116. As the result of regular endurance exercise, resting heart rate is often A. up to 10 beats per minute higher. B. up to 10 beats per minute lower. C. 10–20 beats per minute lower. D. 10–20 beats per minute higher. 117. All of the following are energy-containing nutrients EXCEPT A. proteins. B. fats. C. vitamins. D. carbohydrates. 118. Hypertrophy is defined as A. an increase in muscle fiber number. B. an increase in muscle fiber size. C. a decrease in muscle fiber number. D. a decrease in muscle fiber size. 119. Self-efficacy is A. a person's belief in their ability to successfully take action and perform a specific task. B. beyond an individual's control. C. the figurative "place" considered responsible for events in a person's life. D. unrelated to behavior change. 120. A diet high in calories and fat and low in fiber can lead to all of the following EXCEPT A. stroke. B. pneumonia. C. cancer. D. heart disease. 121. Isokinetic exercise is best described as applying force A. at a constant speed. B. without movement. C. while a muscle is lengthening. D. with movement. 122. A landmark event or new information A. can initiate a desire to change an unwanted behavior. B. can serve as a locus of control. C. will produce obstacles for changing your behavior. D. will be part of a behavior change program. 123. Which one of the following statements about monitoring exercise heart rate is true? A. Count your pulse for one minute. B. Count your pulse immediately after stopping exercise. C. Press firmly on the carotid artery. D. Use your thumb, not one or more of your fingers. 124. Excess alcohol consumption is NOT A. associated with acts of violence. B. just a concern for older individuals. C. an important factor in accidental deaths. D. a factor in 6 of the top 10 causes of death. 125. An exercise stress test can determine if you have A. symptoms of heart disease. B. joint problems. C. excess emotional stress. D. excess body fat. 126. Activities that would predominantly use slow-twitch muscle fibers are A. weight training. B. walking and jogging. C. shot putting. D. jumping and sprinting. 127. The benefits of a healthy diet include the following EXCEPT A. reduced risk of emphysema. B. reduced risk of heart disease. C. reduced risk of diabetes. D. healthy body weight/composition. 128. People who stop exercising can expect to lose up to 50% of their fitness improvement within A. 1 week. B. 1 month. C. 2 weeks. D. 2 months. 129. The failure of the brain's temperature regulatory center is involved in which of the following? A. heat stroke B. heat cramps C. heat exhaustion D. dehydration 130. A motor unit is made up of A. a motor nerve connected to a tendon. B. a tendon and a muscle fiber. C. a motor nerve connected to muscle fibers. D. fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers. 131. The storage form of carbohydrate in the liver, muscles, and kidney is A. lactic acid. B. adenosine triphosphate. C. glycogen. D. glucose. 132. In addition to heavier resistance, an advanced weight training program focusing on strength development would use ________ than a program focusing on general fitness. A. more sets and more reps B. more sets and fewer reps C. fewer sets and fewer reps D. fewer sets and more reps 133. Which of the following is FALSE regarding physical activity? A. Activity should be in the form of a formal, continuous exercise program. B. A little physical activity is better than none. C. It can be increased through common daily activities. D. Regular activity, regardless of intensity, makes you healthier. 134. Metabolic rate increases if A. muscle mass decreases. B. fat mass decreases. C. muscle mass increases. D. fat mass increases. 135. Compared to free weights, weight machines are considered all of the following EXCEPT A. more convenient to use. B. safer. C. easier to use. D. better for developing explosive strength. 136. The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity is A. cardiorespiratory endurance. B. adaptive capacity. C. muscular endurance. D. anaerobic capacity. 137. Which is an example of blaming? A. I did not have time to dry my hair before work, so I'll walk tomorrow. B. My workout partner did not call me to go to the fitness center. C. I'll start my walking program when I get some sunscreen. D. I'll begin my exercise program when next semester starts. 138. Slow-twitch muscle fibers are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT A. use in endurance activities. B. rapid contraction. C. fatigue resistance. D. oxidative energy system. 139. Physical activity can be defined as A. strength training. B. muscular movement of the body that requires energy to produce. C. aerobic exercise. D. any condition that elevates the heart rate. 140. A stress barrier to a behavior change plan A. should be ignored. B. will remain throughout the changing process. C. will help motivate you to do your best. D. may require you to learn a stress-management technique. 141. A program that includes 40 minutes of brisk walking each day is best characterized as A. lifestyle physical activity. B. a moderate fitness program. C. overtraining. D. a vigorous fitness program. 142. Which of the following is TRUE regarding exercise intensity? A. Fitness benefits occur when a person exercises harder than his or her normal level of activity. B. The appropriate intensity is the same for all people. C. To develop flexibility, a person must stretch the muscles to the same length each time. D. The intensity level required to obtain health benefits is greater than that needed to improve fitness. 143. Flexibility is best described as A. the ability to move the joints through their full range of motion. B. the ability to move rapidly during exercise. C. the ability to move without pain during exercise. D. sustained motion without resistance. 144. Men have higher rates of death than women from all of the following EXCEPT A. injuries. ?? B. homicide C. Alzheimer's disease ?? D. suicide. 145. A key to improving fitness is to A. exercise very hard. B. exercise for long periods of time. C. exercise consistently. D. choose the best form of exercise.