Terms State: a state is a territorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a population. The state answers to no higher authority, has sovereignty, and is recognized by other states, has a civil society, and national identity. Usually has a capital and a single state leader who is either head of state, head of government, or both. It is the basic unit of population organization, with stable borders and control over the economy and foreign relations. The state is political, compared to a nation, which is a people. Manifest Destiny: Nation: not political, a group of people (large) that share commonalities and a sense of history including ethnicity, relgio-ethnicity, language, culture, or (maybe) certain political values which are hopefully reflected in the government. Problems arise when nations don?t entirely coincide with their states. Bipolar Model of Balanced Power: the bipolar model of balanced power has two pre-dominant states or two great rival alliance blocs. There is some debate as to whether these systems are more peaceful or are more warlike (Cold War US-Soviet standoff was relatively peaceful but the warring alliances in Europe that led to WWI were obvious not). In the bipolar model the two blocs have hierarchies within them with definite dominance, there is reciprocity between the blocs, and they are considered stable. Sovereignty: sovereignty is the most important norm. It means that each state is separate and autonomous and can do whatever it wants, and cannot interfere with the internal affairs of others. It is a state?s right, at least in principle, to do whatever it wants within its own territory. Massive Retaliation: Deterrence: the strategy of deterrence uses the threat of punishment if action is taken, especially if the action is such as attacking other actors or allies. It is almost an invisible force, and may be more likely to escalate into war when one party is weak, but when both parties are strong militarily they may be deterred from attacking the other nation because of the threat of massive military retaliation. Nationalism: the identification with and devotion to the interests of one?s nation. It usually involves a large group of people who share a national identity and often a language culture, or ancestry. Nationalism is what binds a nation together. Nationalism is the identification on the part of a people with a nation, usually with a desire for self-sovereignty and later developing to patriotism. It can have 2 forms: inclusive (which is positive, want to share it) and exclusive (potentially negative, ethno-centrism, ex. Nazism). Power: (definition of power in IR and 3 contribution elements) power is the potential or the ability to influence others? behavior, as measured by the possession of certain tangible and intangible characteristics. It is the ability to get another actor to do (or not to do) what it wouldn?t normally have done. It is not influence itself, it?s the ability or potential to influence others, based on things such as size, income, and armed forced (power as capability). The best singular indicator of power may be total GDP because it includes size, technology, and wealth. Military forces represent material power. The power of ideas may also contribute. Military-Industrial Complex: the military-industrial complex is a huge interlocking network of governmental agencies, industrial corporations, and research institutes working together to supply a nation?s military forces. It began as a response to the growing importance of technology and logistics in the Cold War, but remains as a very important influence on foreign policy in the US and USSR. It leads to a revolving door in government-military operations, as leaders of corporations become the political leaders that return to the corporations for the actual production. Soft Power: soft power is the power of ideas, the ability to maximize the influence of capabilities through a psychological process. It includes the mobilization of it domestically often through religion, ideology, or nationalism. It can be done internationally by forming the rules of behavior to change how other nations see their own national interests. Hegemon: a hegemon is a nation in hegemony, with a preponderance of power in the international system so that it can single-handedly dominate the rules and arrangements by which international political and economic relations are conducted. Britain was the hegemon in the 19th century and the US was (is?) after WWII. Hegemonic stability theory holds that hegemony provides some order similar to central government in the international system, and therefore may reduce anarchy, deter aggression, promote free trade, and provide a currency for world standard. Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968: (vertical proliferation) the NPT created a framework for controlling the spread of nuclear materials and expertise. It was mainly created to prevent vertical proliferation, which is the deepening of nuclear arsenals of the great powers, as well as horizontal proliferation. Government Bargaining Model of Foreign Policy Decision-Making: the government bargaining model, or bureaucratic politics model, if foreign policy decision making occurs when foreign policy decisions result from the bargaining process among various government agencies with somewhat divergent interests, causing the outcome to reflect a variety of divergent interests of state agencies. It can include economic, personal, political (unrelated to the actual decision) influences. Neo-Imperialism post 1945: Terrorism: terrorism is a method or a tool of the relatively powerless against the powerful. According to Sederberg it is a coercive tactic used by contending sides of a political struggle that violates 2 rules of war: civilians are targets and the means or methods are deliberately indiscriminate. It often includes mass violence for a political purpose, meant to demoralize the target population. Low-Intensity Conflict: low-intensity war is sometimes called a limited war. Raiding and cycles of retaliation often become a low-intensity conflict. It has limited destruction and if often over quickly. International-Social Darwinism: MAD: mutually assured destruction occurs when an attack would lead to the destruction of both countries, because both contain second-strike capabilities and would be able to annihilate the other, particularly when it comes to nuclear weapons. Vertical Proliferation: (strictly nuclear) vertical proliferation is the deepening of nuclear arsenals in nuclear states. It often includes the capabilities to produce one?s own nuclear weapons on their own. It is different from horizontal proliferation, which involves the spread of nuclear weapons to nations that don?t have them yet. Cost-Tolerance: cost-tolerance is the ability of the nation or state to bear certain burdens, be they economic, political, or intangible, during a war or conflict. It is an intangible characteristic that can allow a state to win a war or to seek other methods of conflict resolution. Isolationism: Essays: Present 3-4 of the best explanations for why wars occur. We cannot predict wars, or even hope to understand all of the reasons for them. On the individual level they are the product of rational decisions by national leaders, because (according to realism) war is a rational action. Others would say that they are deviations from rational decisions because of the decision making process, in perhaps information screens, cognitive biases, groupthink, etc.. Similar to this is the argument that the education and mentality of the whole population of individuals determines whether or not conflicts become violent (ethnocentrism, bias, etc.). A better explanation is at the domestic level, which explains the violence in terms of the characteristics of states or societies that may make them more or less prone to using violence in solving conflicts, for example democratic societies nearly never go to war with each other. The potential for warfare is the same across cultures and types of societies and time periods, but domestic political factors shape a state?s outlook on war and peace (the democratic peace). At the interstate level, massive wars are likely to occur when one power is rising and the hierarchy of international power is threatened. It takes war to change the status quo. These wars have much more at stake (deterrence) because of all the international linkage systems that exist amongst states. Finally, at the global level theorists argue that the international system is cyclical, with large wars linked to long economic waves (Kondratieff cycles) in the world economy. Wars can be separated into wars over ideas, and wars over interests. Discuss the characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses of the several models of balance of power in the IR literature. (Multipolar, bipolar, unipolar/hegemonic model) A multipolar system typically has 5-6 centers of power, which are not grouped into alliances. They are independent and relatively equal in terms of power. The system itself is stable, but there are said to be frequent wars over power relations. A bipolar system has two predominant states or two great rival blocs. It can be either peaceful or warlike, but is generally pretty stable. It often requires a balancer nation to ally with the weaker state fluidly to keep one from becoming a hegemon. A unipolar or hegemonic model of power occurs when there is one center of power around which all the other powers revolve. The hegemonic stability theory says that a hegemonic model is the most stable because the hegemons will be the largest traders and hence would like to maintain free trade and political stability that supports free trade, providing the ability and the motivation to provide a stable political framework for free international trade. Describe the process of modernization from traditional society to post-industrial society. Focus on broad social, economic, and demographic factors. Traditional society is ?the village?. It is based on subsistence agriculture, with little to no surplus and any surplus being given to feudal lords (so in essence the peasants have no surplus). It is vastly rural, hardly (if any) cities. There are very few of these left in the world. Mostly the people are illiterate, and very few (if any) possess special skills. There are short life spans (40s) with an extremely high birthrate partially due oftentimes to a culture of fecundity, often religious, with high infant mortality rate. The social order is usually dependent upon children, which makes the high birthrate appealing to the members, and necessary to make up for the high death rate. The social culture is profoundly patriarchal and religious, superstitious, and not scientific. The transitional society (which together with the traditional society is mostly the Global South) consists of urban enclaves surrounded by traditional village society. The enclaves contain varying levels of industry, and perhaps service but 50% is still agriculture. The literacy rate is improving, just over 50%, and the death rate is decreasing as the birth rate continues at its fast pace leading to a population explosion. The modern society?s economy is based on industry with a perceptible service sector. Only 6-10% of workers are engaged in agriculture at this point. Society is urban, with a literacy rate approaching 100% and some members have specialized skills, as well. The lifespan has extended to 60s-70s, lower birthrate, stable population. At this point we also see that gender relations are politicized rather than relgiosocial, which has led to the decreasing birthrate. The post-modern society has begun to deindustrialize as they move towards service as the dominant sector. Urbanization remains at 70-80% with the possibility of deurbanization on the horizon. The lifespan continues to extend, while the birthrate drops below the maintainment rate (2.1 children per woman). Gender relations become a major political issue, and women gain significant political force. Religion has correspondingly begun to fall from view in politics and has less importance in the lives of the people. What is imperialism? Discuss using 3 writers and their ideas. Lenin Hobson Schumpeter Wallerstein Dependency-theory school Contrast the realist school of IR analysis with the idealist (liberal) approach. Realism was the focus of the study of international relations up until the ?70s, when it fell from its hegemonic role. It understands international relations as a power struggle for survival in a world of anarchy. Every state must pursue its self-interest of increasing power, especially military power, and security (the balance of power of others). Alliances must be formed out of necessity, but one cannot trust another nation, anything goes. It is a highly pessimistic interpretation of international relations, believing progress to be an illusion. The state is the most powerful actor and must rely on self-help, acting as a unitary actor, as realism ignores the intrastate actions, and downplays interstate actors such as the UN and League of Nations. It believes that the hegemonic model of balance of power is the most stable, keeps the peace by power alliances (fluidity through a balancer nation). Liberalism, also considered idealism (by the realists), is now prominent. It believes that there exists a morality that structures norms, making it a relatively optimistic interpretation of international relations. It appreciates internationalism and multilateralism, finding collective security and cooperation possible. It finds that people are corrupted by bad ideologies and institutions and that can be changed, just as progress is possible and wars are no inevitable, which realism deems true. While realists deem wars rational actions taken by state actors, idealists think that wars are deviations from rational decision making by rational actors. It believes that the people can be educated beyond their personal interests. It finds capitalism the most natural, with its fluid functioning central to harmony and discouraging of war. The state is also not considered a unitary ?black box,? but rather an open body under many influences, pressures, and interests. List and discuss the non-quantitative, non-tangible aspects of military power. (ex. Cost-tolerance, creativity, leadership, etc.)
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