HUM MIDTERM 1: Tina 1.Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of: -pretense/symbolic play 2. Why are there more elementary and secondary school children living in stepfamilies than there are infants and preschool children? -It takes time to marry, have children, divorce, and remarry. 3. Hallie is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She is not afraid of doing what her parents consider to be hair-raising stunts. She also loves to run and believes she is faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of the: -5-year-old 4. How is Lawrence Kohlberg's theory culturally biased? -In some cultures, high levels of moral reasoning derive from different values than those that form the basis of Lawrence Kohlberg's claims. 5. Pat's 23rd chromosome pair contains one X and one Y chromosome. This indicates that Pat: - is male. 6. A mother hands her baby a rattle, saying, "Here you are." She then gently takes the rattle away, smiling and saying, "Thank you." She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles. This is an example of: - scaffolding 7. According to Erik Erikson, what is the "great governor" of initiative? - conscience 8. Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to play in groups that are made up of: - the same sex. 9. Professor Clifton has designed an experiment to study the effects of caffeine on memory. However, she has informed her participants that she is investigating the taste preferences of caffeine drinks. Professor Clifton has: -used deception, but this is ethically acceptable if it does not harm the participants. 10. Eight-year-old Joshua is obese. His excess weight puts him at risk for all of the following, EXCEPT: anemia. 11. Experts suggest that it takes approximately ______ years for an immigrant child to learn to speak English proficiently, and approximately ____ years for that same child to learn to read English proficiently. 3 to 5; 7 12. _________ practice focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child. Developmentally appropriate 13. Tavonte has been having serious problems in his math class. As hard as he and his teachers have tried, he is having major difficulty grasping the basic concepts of arithmetic functions. Which learning disorder might Tavonte be suffering with? dyscalculia 14. Women have a ________ chromosome pairing, and men have a ________ chromosome pairing. XX; XY 15. When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting: empathy. 16. In ethological theory, the term __________ is defined as innate learning within a short period of time that involves a newborn's becoming attached to the first moving thing the newborn sees. imprinting 17. The term "individual differences" in the text discussion of intelligence refers to: differences among individuals that are stable over time. 18. Sylvia has severe cystic acne and is taking Accutane, a drug prescribed by her doctor. She has just discovered that she is pregnant. Her doctor should tell her to: stop taking Accutane immediately 19. Professor Offord wants to assign subjects to experimental groups in such a way that each subject has an equal chance of being in any group. The best way to assign subjects is: randomly. 20. By the time a baby is born, (s)he will have approximately _________ neurons. 100 billion 21. Comparing the math abilities of males and females shows that: students in grades 2 through 11 had no significant differences in math scores 22. In the visual cliff experiment by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960), most babies encouraged to crawl onto the deep side of the visual cliff would: not crawl onto the cliff side. 23. Which of the following would Erik Erikson be most likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant? Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops. 24. Which of the following describes what Lev Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language? Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development. 25. Cassandra is assertive and nurturant. She could be described as: androgynous 26. The study of human evolution was first explored by: Charles Darwin 27. What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child? depression, delinquency, and substance abuse 28. Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them? the hunger cry 29. At what age do children first show fear when a new person enters their environment? by 6 months of age 30. All of the following have been found to be advantages for the participants of the Perry Preschool program, except: higher college graduation rates. 31. In this genetic disorder, the body's red blood cells take on a hook shape instead of the normal round shape. sickle-cell anemia 32. Which stage of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development often involves children adopting their parents' moral standards? -mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity 33. The social role theory of gender differences suggests that: gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures. 34. Which of the following is the period of development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception? embryonic 35. Latoya talks to herself frequently, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Latoya is: using private speech to organize and regulate her thinking 36. The units of hereditary information that are compromised of short segments of DNA are ______. genes 37. When parents select and attend to certain behaviors, initially demonstrating them for their child, then gradually turning over more of the responsibility for the behavior to the child, the parents are engaging in: scaffolding 38. Which of the following research methods looks at one person in depth and generally over a long period of time? case study 39. Which researcher is responsible for identifying the trend that intelligence scores are slowly increasing worldwide over time? James Flynn 40. Researchers have found that increased aerobic activity is associated with increases in which important cognitive activity in children? planning 41. Which of the following statements about temperament is TRUE? Temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior 42. "Students at this age are full of surprises," comments the high school teacher. "They come in looking and acting like punk rockers one day, then like nuns and monks the next!" Erik Erikson would say these students are: actively exploring different roles. 43. Penelope has low self-esteem and is unhappy. She appears to be anxious around her peers and has few friends. Her teacher asks her why she sat by herself at lunch. Penelope states that the other kids would not want her to join them, because she is ugly and dumb. It is most likely that she grew up in a home with parents who were: authoritarian 44. Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development? change 45. The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called: divergent thinking 46. Her pediatrician has just told Karly that her 4-year-old son, Manuel, has gained 6 pounds in the last year. Karly should: understand that this is normal. 47. Petria is trying to help her young infant regulate his emotions. She can best do this by: providing a nurturing environment 48. Adjusting to new environmental demands is called: adaptation 49. By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a: normative age-graded influence on development 50. Which of the following describes the cephalocaudal pattern of development? development of the brain, followed by the spinal cord, and then leg nerves 51. An infant's ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity of his or her emotions is called: emotional regulation. 52. The Harry Harlow (1958) study concluded that contact comfort is more important for attachment than feeding. What evidence was used to support this conclusion? Baby monkeys spent more time with cloth surrogate mothers than with wire surrogate mothers 53. Across childhood and adolescence, research suggests that: girls engage in more prosocial behavior. 54. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder that results in the inability to metabolize ______, which is an amino acid. phenylalanine 55. The current view that people may have a propensity for a particular developmental trajectory (or path) is called: genetic loading. 56. A police officer visits Laura's and Brett's class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children's attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Laura tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Laura obviously paid more attention to what was: salient. 57. By the time a child graduates from high school, she/he will have spent approximately _________ hours in a classroom. 12,000 58. The rapid increase in an infant's vocabulary starting at about 18 months of age is called: the vocabulary spurt 59. River has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over her eyelids, a thickened tongue, short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities. She is likely to have been born with: Down syndrome. 60. At age 4½, Michael Rehbein began to experience uncontrollable seizures. To stop this, doctors removed portions of the left hemisphere of his brain where the seizures were occurring when he was 7 years old, and again when he was 10 years old. This case study has shown that the brain: is very adaptive 61. During which time period does the interaction with peers tend to increase the most dramatically? between the ages of 18 and 24 months 62. When studying development, behavioral theorists believe that only behavior must be observed because it: is the only direct and measurable indication we have of development. 63. Mauricio has been having difficulties in his preschool classroom, and his teacher notes on his report card that she has noticed deficits in the areas of planning and inhibition. What is the term that might encapsulate these mental skills? executive function 64. The results of the large National Longitudinal Study of Child Care indicate that: the influence of families and parenting is not weakened by extensive use of day care. 65. According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament can be classified by focusing on: differences between children who are shy and timid and those who are sociable and bold. 66. The part of the neuron that carries signals toward the cell body is called a(n): dendrite. 67. Juanita is having a normal pregnancy, and everything is developing well. She has, however, recently picked up an infection, and bacteria have accumulated in her bloodstream. We know that most likely: the bacteria cannot cross the placenta to reach the fetus 68. When Josh was dropped off at preschool on the very first day of class, he was quite upset. He cried for a long time and would not play with the other children. What type of temperament does Josh have? difficult 69. Michael was adopted at birth. His adoptive parents notice that Michael cries all the time. His body often shakes, and he reacts slowly to the things around him. They suspect that Michael's mother was using _______ when pregnant with him. heroin 70. Some recent research discussed by your author has found that individuals who have a genetic predisposition to develop depression only have an elevated risk if they also lives that are high in stress. This research supports the theory of a _________ interaction. gene x environment 71. "Easy," "difficult," and "slow to warm up" are different types of: temperament. 72. How would an 8-year-old child most likely describe herself? -"I am nice, and I have a friend named Julie." 73. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a psychoactive drug? - It is always addictive 74. Which of the following is a criticism of standardized tests mentioned by your author? -They assume that behaviors are consistent and stable across time. 75. During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST AT RISK of developing a structural defect because of the effects of a teratogen? -during the embryonic period 76. Which of the following is the clearest type of evidence favoring Lawrence Kohlberg's claims about the sequence of moral development? -Stage 4 reasoning does not appear in children but occurs in a majority of adults. 77. Caregivers' attempts to help infants soothe their emotions influence: - neurobiological regulation of emotions 78. A person is arrested for stealing company documents and says, "Yes, I did steal the documents, and I am willing to go to jail for it. These documents prove that the company was engaging in a cover-up of the unsafe properties of its chemical. I think the public has a right to know about it." Lawrence Kohlberg would classify this person as using _______ morality. -postconventional 79. Jungle gyms, slides, and climbing equipment should be available to help young children develop: -gross motor skills. 80. In 1981 Steven Jay Gould concluded that in most domains of human functioning, biology allows a broad range of ________ possibilities. -cultural 81. Neuroimaging studies have found that a particular part of the brain does not peak in children with ADHD until about 10 years of age, where it peaks in children without that diagnosis by the age of 7. Which part of the brain is referred to in these studies? -the cerebral cortex 82. Cases such as the "Wild Boy of Aveyron" and "Genie" cause us to wonder whether language is: -a result more of heredity or of environment. 83. The Strange Situation is an observational measure of infant attachment developed by Mary Ainsworth. It requires the infant to: -experience a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the mother and a stranger 84. Robert Fantz, during his work with infants in the "looking chamber," discovered that 2-day-old infants prefer to look at: - both faces and patterned stimuli. 85. The fuzzy trace theory of memory suggests that two types of representations are responsible for memory. What are they? -Verbatim memory trace and gist 86. Twenty-month-old Misha is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Misha will most likely: - touch his own nose to wipe off the spot 87. Habituation __________ responsiveness to stimuli. - decreases 88. From whose theory of cognitive development was the concept of sensorimotor play derived? -Jean Piaget 89. With regard to family processes, which of the following patterns has been supported by research? - disequilibrium immediately after the divorce, then restabilization 2 years later 90. Your best friend sideswipes a car and drives away without reporting the accident. You do not report it either, even though you worry about the owner's loss, but over the next few days, you do talk to your friend about it. Your actions suggest that you are in which of Kohlberg's moral reasoning stages? -mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity 91. Researchers have had mothers put a dot of rouge on the noses of babies and place the babies in front of mirrors to see their reaction. These researchers are studying the concept of: -sense of self. 92. The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _____. -movement of the child's head through the cervix; emergence of the child out of the mother 93. Diane notices that sudden stimulation causes her 2-month-old to arch his back, throw back his head, fling out his arms and legs, and then rapidly close them to the center of his body. Diane's baby is exhibiting the __________ reflex. -Moro 94. Attachment refers to: - a close bond between an infant and a caregiver 95. Children with low activity levels and somewhat negative attitudes are classified as: -slow-to-warm-up children 96. This is a prenatal medical procedure where a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders. - amniocentesis 97. Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for infertility in a woman? -alcohol use 98. Students who are high on Robert J. Sternberg's ________ intelligence tend to be favored in conventional schooling. -analytical. 99. A parent who denies, ignores, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be called an: -emotion-dismissing parent 100. "My computer doesn't like me?it keeps eating my pictures," says Sarah. This is an example of: - animism.
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