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Culture is manifested through
Our identities are influenced by our historical and lived experiences and membership in other groups.
The interaction of these various group memberships within society begins to determine an individual’s cultural identity.
Identity is fluid and shifts across time.
- Boundaries based on cultural differences that may limit an individual’s understanding of persons from a different cultural background.
Inequalities are the natural outcome of individual differences
Everyone has the opportunity to be successful if they just work hard enough
Equal educational opportunity applies meritocracy to education
Patterns of inequality are a reflection of how resources and political power, and cultural and social dominance are built into the entire political-economic system.
Equality suggests fairness in the distribution of the conditions and goods that affect the well-being of all children and families.
Multicultural education has its roots in the early work of African American scholars, intercultural education, and ethnic studies.
The civil rights movement brought a renewed interest in ethnic studies, discrimination, and intergroup relations.
Schools are now held accountable for providing equitable learning environments for students.
Based on a number of factors, including national origin or origin of ancestors when they immigrated to the United States
Acculturation is the adoption of the dominant group’s cultural patterns by a new or oppressed group.
Acculturation does not guarantee acceptance by the dominant group.
Racial groups are comprised of many ethnic groups: conversely, ethnic groups may include members of more than one racial group.
Race is a social-historical concept used to classify individuals based on difference.
Racial identification has been used to classify groups of people as inferior or superior to other racial groups, resulting in discrimination and inequality against persons of color.
More than one third of the nation is currently African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian.
Factors that contribute to the population growth of persons of color:
Evolves with education and life experiences.Elementary and secondary students will be at different stages of developing their racial identity
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination in schools, employment, and public accommodations, and gave voting rights to millions.
Changes did not necessarily follow.
In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown was the result of several class action suits.
The Supreme Court unanimously declared that separate but equal schooling was not equal.
Although effects were not immediate, the Brown decision began desegregation of schools.
There now are over 1,000 organized hate groups in the United States, most located east of the Mississippi River.
They often target areas of the country that have experienced economic and racial change.
Most have sophisticated websites and some reach out to school-age children in spreading their message of hate.
Socioeconomic status (SES) acts as a composite of the economic status of a family or individuals on the basis of occupation, educational attainment, and income.Wealth and power are related factors that help determine a person’s SES.
Income is the total amount of money that one earns in wages or salary in a year.
The net worth of a family includes savings accounts, insurance, corporate stock ownership, and property.Forty percent of all families have zero or negative net worth
Occupation generally determines income.
White-collar workers are those that do office work and typically supervise others.
Blue-collar workers are those that typically do manual labor and work under the supervision of others.
One’s occupation is generally an indication of one’s education and degree of authority and responsibility over others.
Education is viewed as a way to enhance SES.
Higher family SES means a greater likelihood of entering and completing college.
SES has a substantial influence on the amount and type of schooling students receive and the type of job they will obtain.
People at the upper SES levels exert more power than those at any other level.
Persons with higher incomes are more likely to participate in national and local politics.
Although many Americans identify themselves with the middle class, most people in the United States are not affluent by U.S. standards.
A medium budget that allows a family of four to meet basic requirements would be above $44,100. In 2008, over one of three U.S. families earned less than $44,100.
Includes the long-term poor as well as those who are temporarily in poverty due to illness or job loss.
Reasons for homelessness include poverty, lack of jobs, lack of affordable housing, and domestic violence.
Between 500,000 and 1.5 million children and youth are homeless during a year .
McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act requires public schools to provide educational rights and protections for homeless children and youth.
The working class includes those involved in manual labor.
The working class often has less job security, work is more sporadic, and unemployment is unpredictably affected by the economy.
Almost 40% of the employed population are considered blue-collar workers.
Those at low end of pay scale are considered the “working poor.”
Occupations and incomes vary greatly (between $39,000 to $100,240).
Some middle-class members have comfortable incomes but little or no wealth, little savings, and no protection against catastrophic occurrences.
The middle class includes white-collar workers as well as professionals, managers, and administrators, who have more prestige than white-collar workers.
This group includes the elite of middle class: judges, lawyers, professionals, managers, and administrators, and perhaps physicians, educators, and scientists.
Their professions usually require advanced degrees and credentials.
The income of some allows a lifestyle different from blue-collar and white-collar workers.
The upper class includes two groups:
Disparities in wealth between this class and members of other classes is a astounding—they earn about 260 times as much as the average worker.
Income inequality is higher in the United States than all other industrialized countries except Mexico and Turkey.
The United States has the highest poverty rates and social policies that limit opportunities for moving out of poverty.
Poverty is most likely to be a condition of the young, persons of color, women, full-time workers in low status jobs, and the illiterate.
Women earn less and are more likely to suffer from poverty than any other group.
The reasons for gender inequality are based on institutional discrimination in a patriarchal society, in which women were expected to be mothers and wives, not part of the formal workforce.
The highest incidences of poverty are among youngest and the oldest population groups.
Children suffer from poverty rates higher than others.
Poverty impacts academic achievement, high school graduation rates, and reading skills.
“Tracking” is the practice of assigning students to differential classes or school programs based on intellect or language or ability status.
Tracking is typically highly related to social class. A student with a high SES is more likely to be placed in the more advanced track.
Tracking perpetuates social and economic inequities.
Through early elementary school, boys and girls have similar hormonal levels and physical development.
Puberty marks the difference in hormonal levels, which control physical development.
Body fat increases in girls and decreases in boys.
Differences can be based on nature or by environment and culture.
Some researchers have found differences in functioning between boys and girls in mathematical, verbal, and spatial skills.
Some researchers suggest the differences are attributable to biological differences related to hormones affecting hemispheric specialization in the brain.
The recreational and interpersonal differences between girls and boys are much greater than their cognitive and academic differences
Gender behavior is reinforced throughout the life cycle by social processes of approval and disapproval by children’s friends and adults closest to them.
Many popular magazines portray the two sexes stereotypically.
Retailers market products for the appropriate sex and reinforce stereotypical roles and expectations.
Most differences are based on gender, or the cultural differences between femininity and masculinity.
Gender is culturally determined and learned through socialization.
Recognition of gender identity occurs unconsciously early in life and becomes a basic anchor for self-identity.
Masculinity is often measured by a man’s independence, assertiveness, and leadership.
Femininity is stereotypically characterized as emotional, dependent, and nurturing.
Most cultures value masculinity over femininity.
Many people do not fit the stereotypical profile associated with their sex.
Gender identity in some cultures and societies is not limited to male and female.
Some individuals are born with the biology of one sex, but think and behave like the other sex.
When someone’s identity, appearance, or behavior fall outside the conventional gender norms, they are described as transgender.
Gender identity is influenced by a family’s ethnicity, class, and religion.
Religions generally recognize and include masculine and feminine expectations as part of their doctrines.
Students with physical disabilities may face challenges at meeting the traditional expectations for masculinity and femininity as well.
The most significant advances occurred in the 1960s as feminists gained the support of more women and men, developing out of the civil rights movement.
The Equal Pay Act of 1963 required the same pay for the same job for men and women.
Title VII, approved in 1964, prohibited discrimination based on race, color, national origin, or sex.
Both women and men will earn higher incomes with increasing education.
Women typically earn less (67%) than men when their educations are equal.
Educators will need to work more effectively with parents and the community to eliminate the high dropout rates and encourage college attendance.
Sexual orientation is a pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes.
Recent data indicates that 3.5% of the population identifies as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.
The visibility of LGBTQ individuals as a group is higher than ever.
The American Psychiatric Association classified homosexuality as a mental illness until 1973.
There are differing opinions on the causes of homosexuality:
Does it Matter?
Throughout the 20th century, literature and music were sources of expression for the youth who broke the sexual norms.
The Lavender Scare was a period the 1950s when homosexuals were thought to be more of a threat to national security than Communists.
A gay rights movement was born in 1969 at Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village.
Progress for gay rights and the elimination of discrimination against gays has occurred since 1969 although numerous obstacles periodically halted significant changes.In the 1980s, members of the LGBT community mobilized against AIDS and growing homophobia in society.
Reasons for supporting an inclusive curriculum include:
Diversity and equity
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