- University of Tennessee - Knoxville
- Political Science
- Political Science 350
- Yang Zhong
Last Modified: 2011-07-02
- Who are developing countries
- ----is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well being. There is no single internationally-recognized definition of developed country, and the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries, with some developing countries having high average standards of living.
- A lot of developing countries became independent
- Bandung Conference was held by developing countries to try and set up themselves
- “non-aligned movement” they didn’t want to copy the western motto, wanted to develop their own.
- Tolalotarian theory- total control, an official ideology, a single mass party the led typically by one man, a system of terrorist police, complete control of mass communications, central control and direction of the entire economy, monopoly of all weapons,
- System theory (David Easton)- believed that for a political system to sustain itself it had to have “food” or input, and also output,
- Input function- Requires demand and support- you have to have people demand things from the government, they want the government to do something for them, for it to survive it has to have support from the citizens in the society.
- Output function- The policies, government makes policies to meet the demands of the people.
- Feedback function- the government evaluates the system and decides if it is working and makes changes accordingly.
- Input functions: interest articulations/ getting demands- people articulate their interest to government through interest groups
- Interest aggregation- take an extra step and offer a policy alternative (job of political parties in a democracy.
- Political socialization- passing off of the dominate political culture from one generation to another, and main political values. Family influences is key, mainstream media
- Political recruitment- recruitment of political leaders, recruitment of the masses, they have to become players in the system, you are a voter and thus a player.
- Political communication- communication between government and the society Government functions- rule-making, rule-applications
- Modernization is a phased process
- Is a homogenizing process- look more like the U.S.
- Is an irreversible process
- Is a progressive process
- Is a lengthy process
- Primitive society
- Slavery Society
- Feudal- land owners and tenants
- Capitalist- Owners of business v workers
- Socialist- Public ownership, For Marx the source of evil is private ownership because it casues exploitation. “from each according to your ability, to each according to your contribution”
- Communist- Community first, same shares unless someone needs more. No selfish.
- Forces of Production-humans now technological
- Means of production- the tools that people use
- Relations of Productions- Exploited, Exploiters.
- Economic base- conquer tribes, so slaves became working class and the slave owners became the exploiting class
- Superstructure- not directly related to economics; arts.
- Emphasizing international and external factors- never talked about international factors.
- Development if the developed countries and underdevelopment if the developing countries are on the same side of the coin
- Dependency relationships between the core countries and the perioheral countries cover all areas.
- Dependency is incompatible with TW development as long as the developing countrues have relationship with the developed countries then there will not be any development, the TW is dictated by the Developed countries.
- Dependent development
- Cutting ties with the core countries
- Domestic revolution
- Religious/cultural motvies- priests were first to go out and explore the world in order to indoctrinate and spread their gospel to other cultures
- Economic motives- want for resources
- Territorial ambition- conquer more land
- Strategic motives- Hong king- for seaports and supply base as a springboard
- Population surplus- too many people so somewhere to export people
- Prestige- big powers for comparison with other countries to show power through colonization.
- British- hands off approach, they allow for local economies, easier to use local elite to rule themselves because it is harder to send your own people to rule all and it will make it hard for you to rule
- French type-hands on, Send every administrator including police chief, they believed if you are educated properly then you will become a proper Frenchmen
- the primordial approach: ethnicity is a “given”, a subjectively held sense of shared identity based on objective cultural traits.
- the constructivist/instrumentalist approach: believes that ethnicity is artificially constructed, not a nature or a given phenomenon, often “hyped up” by elites and politicians so that they can play the “ethnic card”
- How to Solve Ethnic Conflicts
- Nation- a group of people who share a common language, history, cultural traditions, religion and have a feeling of commonality and togetherness. They also desire to be separate from other national groups, which can mean total independence or high levels of autonomy. Nation is both a cultural concept and a political concept. Nationalism- is foremost a state of mind, an act of consciousness, a sentimental feeling of togetherness, and it can also be a movement to achieve autonomy or interdependence.
- the emotional satisfaction that one receives from belonging to a group (group attachment feelings)
- a shared belief in a myth of origin or the history of a group
- social relations within which ethnic group members live in
- Traditional approach: oppression, eliminate ethnic differences, building a new identity (former Soviet Union and East Germany) by coercion. Mixed results.
- Integration approach: soft “melting pot” approach
- Pluralistic approach; to protect, promote or even celebrate ethnic differences, make them coexist, building a civic nation
- Liberal democracy- regularly held fair elections, civil liberties and representative government, limited government- doesn’t do everything esp. in the economic arena, min level of democracy
- Participatory democracy- emphasizes citizen participation in the decision making process at all levels and areas, workplace democracy, referendum, citizen legislation
- Marxist democracy- classless society, direct rule by the people, public ownership; Means of production- tools you use, properties, facilities that you use to produce.
- Relationship between capitalism and democracy
- Compatible relationship
- Incompatible relationship
- Common rationale: preference for choice
- Both emphasize equality
- Democracy saved capitalism in history
- Capitalism promotes democracy through economic growth (Seymour Martin Lipset’s thesis)
- While capitalism emphasizes private domain, democracy tends to extend public policy coverage
- Capitalism tends to increase economic inequality and reduces equal participation in politics
- Democracy also undermines capitalism by extruding into the marketplace (e.g., insurance boycott in CA)
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