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It is often understood that ethyl alcohol, at equivalent levels, is more rapidly absorbed into the blood stream when in the form of;
The majority of the ethyl alcohol that enters the blood stream is absorbed from the
To gain the most aromatics and flavors, red wines should be stored at what temperature and served at what temperature ranges
Stored at 55-65º F and served at 65-75º F
This group became the largest land owner/vineyards in Europe in the Middle Ages
White wine that is gold and approach brown in color indicates that it is likely
This group of people was considered the first group to promote the training of grape vines on trellises, importance of food and wine pairing and selected the best varieties to make wine
One of the following wine faults is described as aromas and flavors resembling “sherry”, “brown apple” caused by generation of acetaldehyde and commonly associated with wine exposed to air
One of the following wine faults is described as smelling like “sweaty saddle”, “barnyard”, “horse”, “wet-dog” caused in the winery where sanitation procedures have not been properly followed, infecting wine equipment, aging containers, etc.
Brettanomyces yeast infection
A recent scientific study, published January 2011, funded by National Geographic and other funding agencies found the world’s oldest known winery, established 6100 BC was found in a cavern in
Most humans perceive reduced bitterness in tasting a red wine high in alcohol
Scientists have identified and categorized people into 4 groups according to their taste preferences (Tim Hanni and colleagues). One group, which represents a portion of the population, who prefer wines that are fresh, delicious and high in sugar content;
When experimenting with matching food and wine, the best approach is to;
Take a small bite of the food item, do not swallow all of the portion, followed by a sip of wine (tasted together).
Foods that match well with many different types of wine
Scientists have categorized people into 4 groups according to their taste preferences (Tim Hanni and colleagues). One group, which represents a portion of the population, who prefer wines that are intense, highly tannic and with high alcohol are known as;
Dark chocolate matches very nicely with one of the following wine products
White wine is often recommended with lightly flavored fish and poultry dishes
Impressions perceived via the chemical senses form a product in the mouth: aromatics, tastes, chemical feeling factors would best describe:
If you are serving a salty food with a high alcohol wine, the high alcohol in the wine will combine with the salty foods to produce bitter notes.
Wines with strong oak flavors and aromas pair well with many food dishes.
Oak that is of tighter grain and less watertight in nature that requires coopers to split the wood along the grain. The wood is then aged or "seasoned" for 24 to 36 months in the open air, in a so-called wood-yard would best describe sourcing of:
Review the attached flow chart for making red wine. Insert the correct letter (A through E) for the operation known as “Aging/Storage Tank or Barrel”.
Chardonnay may be made where secondary fermentation with Lactobacillus bacteria is bypassed yielding a wine high in Malic acid with tropical and fruity flavors typical of this variety. This wine is referred to in the trade as
Oak used to make one of the following barrels is most often cut with a saw and kiln-dried;
Temperatures exceeding 95-100 degrees F of fermenting wine will often kill yeast and generate a “stuck” fermenting process.
Pinot Grigio and Pinot Gris wines are made from two different grape varieties.
Hard pressed wine, often found towards the end of pressing, bypasses influence of tannins from seed.
Juice is extracted from fruit of white wine grapes or from a mixture of pulp/skins/seeds of red wine grapes using a
A winemaker in cool climates, like Michigan, will use the “saignée” or “bleeding” method including cold fermentation to make this wine.
Chaptalization refers to the practice of . . .
Adding sugar to the must (juice) before fermentation.
Pinot Grigio is a wine making style that differs from Pinot Gris wine. The Grigio style originates in Italy where
The wine is fermented in stainless steel tanks aged in tanks shortly after racking (removal of lees).
Review the attached flow chart for making white wine. Insert the correct letter (A through D) for the operation known as “Press”.
A “whole cluster” pressing, bypassing the crusher-destemmer, is accomplished in making Sparkling wine.
A technique of permitting the uptake of flavorants (French term) from auto-lysing (self destruction) of yeast cells by delaying racking is commonly done in making Chardonnay and Pinot Gris wine, is known as:
The insides of oak barrels are flamed at various levels of exposure in time and temperature known as “toast” which contributes oak phenolics at various concentrations.
Because carbon dioxide gas is produced during fermentation, fermentation tanks are equipped with one-way valves, known as “fermentation traps”, that allow CO2 to escape while preventing air from entering.
Changes continue to be made regarding labeling with regulations which require observance and protection for named (generic styles resembling) regions and origin of product. An example of this process is the naming of Champagne and of Port. These regulations are complied with internationally, and organized by what organization?
Unlike European appellations, American Viticultural Areas only regulate, designate and delineate
Geographical origin of the wine and grapes
A grape variety that identified and evolved in European regions following migration of genetic material along with human movement from parental early clones:
The “mineral” flavors and aromas found in sensory of wine is directly attributed to the soil and rocks that grapevines are exposed to in a vineyard.
Generally, wine made from grapes produced on vines that have a large crop, make wine which is highly complex, highly flavored, and with intense aromatics.
Heat units accumulated during the growing season helps define areas for growing various grape varieties in California and expected wine quality from geographic regions.
After the repeal of Prohibition (the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution), one of the federal laws that went into place was accomplished to avoid sale of one brand by any one vendor. This is known as the three-tier system of alcohol distribution. What three entities represent these three tiers?
Producers, distributors, and retailers
The species of the genera Vitis, determined to have originated in the Transcaucas Mountains and is the taxonomically genetic base for the species from which the most popular wine is sourced on the world stage today which is known as:
Vines must be supported and the system used in modern grape growing is known as a
Which among these wine producing regions can make wine using the Grenache and Syrah grapes besides the Rhone:
White wines from the Chablis region are made from Chardonnay and tend to be fully fermented with relatively high acidity.
Wines made in the IGT (Vin de France) are monitored by the Appellation d’Origine Protégé (Contrôlée) (AOP/AOC) which allows identification of region of origin of wines.
Production of a vineyard in an AOC/P vineyard in France at 75 hl / ha (hectoliters / hectare) would likely be excessive and the crop rejected at the wineries.
A Cote d’Or, Burgundian wine has on the label “Premier Cru” which declares that it is
A wine made form grapes found on a site designated “second growth”
The French person who is credited with the process of adding sugar during fermentation for vintages/years when there is inadequate heat units and subsequently inadequate natural sugar. The process, named after this person, is prohibited in California and most warm wine producing regions but commonly used in Michigan, Germany, some AOP/Cs and vintages in France
· The Champagne and Burgundy regions in France will allow grape vines to grow to a height of 2 meters or 6 feet.
The province of where Bordeaux is today was under Spanish rule for the 13th and 14th centuries.
In this district of an AOP (AOC) region in France, one will find an iconic red wine that is primarily made from the Gamay Noir grape variety.
Wine making businesses that started in the villages in Burgundy collecting fruit and/or wine from small vineyards/producers following Napolean’s decree to divide church owned vineyards up among the citizens into small parcels. They are known in France as
Pinot Noir is the primary grape used for the production of red wines in the
Many French wine industries promote the concept of having the best soil, climate, sun exposure, vineyard location which produces the best and unique quality of wine. The French coined a term for these effects on wine quality and it is known as
Each Appellation (d’Origine) Protégé (Contrôlée) (AOP/AOC) in France is able to dictate vine canopy height limits, pesticide usage and varieties planted.
Flat areas in France are known to produce the lowest quality wine and often identified on labels with the term “Village”.
The variety which originates from Spain and dominanat in the Rhone Valley in France which has the largest land surface area of production in the world is
The French person who is credited with explaining the science of wine making and fermentation and its reliance on yeast was
The small holdings of vineyards commonly found in France are a result of the influence of what person or persons who decreed that all land, formerly owned by the Catholic church be given to the citizens of communities and be equally divided among heirs.
Phylloxera is a soil born fungal disease that appeared in France in 1955 and has been controlled using pesticides.
White wines made in the Northern Rhone, often contains in the blend one of the following varieties
You take your parents out to dinner to an upscale restaurant and they look to you to advise them on wine. They have a list of French wines grouped according to their origin being “Right Bank” and “Left Bank” Wines. You select a “St. Emilion” AOP (AOC) wine from the “Right Bank”. You describe the wine as….
Wine that came from the north side of the Dordogne river and is made of blends dominated by the grape variety Merlot
The Champagne AOP(C) allows only 3 grapes to be grown
The process of adding a final addition to sparkling wine is a sugar/wine/sulfur dioxide and other ingredient combination added to top up a bottle to provide the final sweetness level of the product is known as the
The categorizing of German wine differs from all of Europe in labeling laws because quality is based on:
The amount of natural sugar content or sweetness generated by grapes in the vineyard
A region where grapes and wine are produced from the tributary rivers Ruwer and Saar.
Riesling of “Prädikats wine” quality, produced in Germany, has a prominent aroma often found in later harvested grapes commonly described as and likened to:
“Petrol” or “Diesel” / “Mineral”
The term used in Germany, “Erst Lage” is equivalent to premium vineyard sites in France or “Grand Crus” and will make wine known as
Which one of these is a Spanish sparkling wine where the “méthod champenoise” process was used
In the field, grapevines are grown with support using stakes and/or wire. Studies are being conducted near the Saar River in Germany, to explore how the Romans did it knowing that they did not use stakes and wire. The experiment involves the
Growing of trees with canopies adjacent to vines which become the support needed
Michigan and German production of quality wine is dependent on
The accumulative heat units or solar radiation in a growing season
A sparkling wine that when tasted, is dominated with a “toasty/yeasty notes, smooth across the pallet” sensory profile is characteristically that of wine made using one of the following processes:
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