When sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine their _____.
C. Wright Mills
The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was ___.
The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ___.
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as ___.
Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the ___.
. The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, spent his lifetime studying race relations in America, and was one of the founders of the NAACP was ___.
The American sociologist who focused on social theory in the 1940s, developing detailed models of how society harmoniously works together was ___.
Sociologists who analyze how behavior depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely ___.
In the statement "poverty causes crime," the words "poverty" and "crime" are best described as ___ because they are subject to change.
What is a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory?
Precise ways to measure variables in research so that comparisons can be made and replication can later be done are referred to as ___.
it must be a representative of the total population
In research, to generalize one's findings to a total population, what is the most important quality the sample must possess?
Each person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen
What is the defining characteristic of a random sample?
If a researcher is using diaries to collect information about the attitudes of rape victims, he or she is using ___ to collect their data.
Steve and Naomi are counting the empty whisky bottles in trash cans to measure the level of whisky consumption in town. These researchers are using a method of research referred to as ___.
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects and technology passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe ___.
Comparing the refusal of Christians to accept Islam as a valid religion is to ethnocentrism as making a sincere effort to understand the practice of having multiple wives in some societies is to ___.
Symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. This is referred to as ___.
the expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop out of values
Sociologists use the concept "norm" to describe ___.
Receiving the Medal of Honor and making the Dean's List are both examples of ___.
The Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
The notion that language determines our consciousness is the basic premise of which concept?
If Alice came to class wearing a soiled and torn blouse she would be violating a ___; but if she came to class not wearing a blouse at all she would be violating a ___.
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society, the group would be considered a(n) ___.
Most American high schools routinely schedule ceremonies to recognize the most talented student athletes and scholars. Such activities illustrate the importance that Americans place on the value of ___.
JoEllen Shively, a Native American sociologist, discovered that Native Americans tended to identify with the cowboys rather than the Indians, when they watched Western movies. Her findings illustrate that ___ play a crucial role in group identification.
Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and efficiency as desired qualities. Where one of these qualities is found, the other two also apply. This is an example of ___.
The automobile, and the skills needed to drive it, would be an example of ___.
The term coined by William Ogburn to describe a situation in which nonmaterial culture changes slower than material culture was ___.
The term spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another is called ___.
In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication. Sociologists use the term ___ to describe this process.
The Social Environment
In the Nature vs. Nurture argument regarding socialization, the nurture component refers to ___.
Intimate Early Social Interaction
Based on studies of isolated and institutionalized children, what is the key variable in acquiring the basic human traits we take for granted?
Charles Horton Cooley
The process by which we develop a sense of self referred to as the "looking glass self" was developed by ___.
imitation; play; game
George Herbert Mead theorized that learning to take the roles of other entails three stages, which are the ___, ___, and ___ stages.
Our image of who we are called is the ___
According to Mead's theory of development, individuals who have a profound influence on the lives of another, such as parents or siblings, are referred to as ___.
Mead describes the active, creative, and spontaneous part of the self as the ___.
formal operational stage
According to Piaget, when children are capable of abstract thinking, they have reached the stage of development called the ___.
In Freud's theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure seeking aspect demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex?
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ___ by parents.
In psychoanalytic theory, the culture within us is represented by the ___.
In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and only personal needs to be satisfied is the ___ stage.
agents of socialization
People and groups that influence our orientation to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior are called ___.
When a young man or woman enters college, especially as a resident student, they must learn new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors. This is an example of ___.
a degradation ceremony
Fred has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to cook for the fraternity brothers, clean the frat house, and address the fraternity members as "sir." This is an example of what Harold Garfinkel termed ___.
functionalism and conflict perspective
What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?
Which sociological perspective is most linked to microsociology?
The typical patterns of a group, such as its usual relationships between men and women or students and teachers, is referred to as ___
An example of an achieved status would be ___.
income, education, and occupational prestige
What are the three primary variables in determining one's social class?
Bumper stickers such as "Proud Parent of an honor student" and "Warning: This Driver Convicted of DUI" are both best described as being ___.
A position in society that someone holds that cuts across other statuses they hold, such as being a high ranking Army officer, college president, or handicapped would be considered their ___.
Because of his incredibly accelerated study program, Professor Zuchov has the unique privilege of being a 17 year-old university professor. Sociologically, this is an example of ___.
The expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are ___.
The organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs are referred to as ____.
Basic needs a society must meet in order to survive that include replacement of members, preserving order, and socializing new members are referred to as ___.
What term does Durkheim use to describe the degree to which members of a society are united by shared values and other social bonds?
Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front of the other chairs. Hilda is trying to extend her ____ so others do not invade it.
A face-saving technique where all parties involved in an embarrassing situation ignore it and continue their conversation or interaction as though the embarrassing situation never happened is referred to as ___.
If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. This classic statement is known as the ___.
What term best applies to people who share a culture and territory?
the hunting and gathering society
Which society is characterized as being the most egalitarian, nomadic, and consisting of 25 to 40 members?
the same culture and the same territory
What are the two characteristics a people must share to qualify as a society?
the invention of the steam engine
The plow was to the second social revolution as the ___ was to the third social revolution.
Intellectual capability increased with advances in science and technology.
Why did the creation of the industrial society create such a greater imbalance of social inequality?
There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept best describes these fans?
A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ___.
Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan's Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival groups would be considered ___.
For many college professors, their teachers served as role models. Kody look up to the older gangbangers as his idols. In both cases, professors and gangbangers respectively most qualify as being ___.
six degrees of seperation
What was the phrase that became synonymous with the research Stanley Milgram did on the small world phenomenon?
diffusion of responsibility
A phenomenon of group dynamics that results in a decrease in one's willingness to help others as the size of the group increases is referred to as ___.
The leadership style that has a tendency to encourage either aggressive or apathetic behavior among group members with aggressive members growing increasingly hostile towards their leader is ___.
Groups in which members do less scapegoating and work at a steadier pace, even without supervision, are most likely headed by which classification of leader?
because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things that arent true
What did the Solomon Asch experiment on group conformity demonstrate?
In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called ___.
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ___.
Erving Goffman used the term ___ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called___.
differential association theory
The theory of behavior that addresses learning an excess of definitions of deviance which in turn, results in an individual assuming a deviant lifestyle is ___.
Sociologists emphasizing which sociological perspective would consider deviance as a natural part of society
The two disciplines that would be most concerned with addressing qualities within the individual to explain deviant behavior are ___ and ___.
techniques of nuetralization
In an effort to resist the label of deviant, most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ___
John desires the best things in life - a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?
The theory developed by Robert Merton that is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them is ___.
the conflict perspective
Sociologists who view law an an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?
The term "white collar crime" was coined by sociologist ___ to refer to crimes that people of respectable social status commit in the course of their occupation.
marriage and education
What are the two most significant anchoring devices that insulate a person from a life of crime and imprisonment?
constitutionality of the death penalty
What was the focus of the 1972 U.S. Supreme Court case Furman v. Georgia?
What was the focus of the 1972 U.S. Supreme Court case Furman v. Georgia?
he said mental illness was neither mental nor illness
How did psychiatrist Thomas Szasz describe mental illness?
Want to see the other 90 Flashcards in MidTerm?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!