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regulates the cleanup of disposal sites where hazardous wastes were leaking into the environment (amended in 1986) creates the Superfund to finance these cleanups.
*Superfund creates fund to pay for cleanup requires producers of waste to notify EPA
38,000 sites on Superfund list
Strict Liability Statue: NO NEED FOR EPA TO PROVE "NEGLIGENCE"
pledged a decent home for every American family, called on local public bodies to encourage the development of "well planned, integrated residential neighborhoods" initially act displaced lower income families and homes
Private banks followed suit
Perpetuated segregation and decline of urban areas
The first comprehensive statement of policy requiring environmental assessments on federal projects; resulted in the formation of the EPA
*when making decisions on environmental impact for example in financing highways or dam construction, the EIS (establish council on Environmental Quality is responsible)
goal to return all US surface waters to "fishable and swimmable" conditions
-the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire
-regulation of "point discharges" to waters of the US
-authorized the establishment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards
-established requirements for State Implementation Plans to achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
-New source performance standards for new and modified stationary sources
-authorized the establishment of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
-increased enforcement authority
-authorized requirements for control of motor vehicle emissions
provided broad protection for species of fish, wildlife, and plants that are listed as threatened or endangered in US or elsewhere
-authorizes the determination and listing of species as endangered and threatened
-prohibits unauthorized taking, possession, sale, and transport of endangered species
-provides authority to acquire land for the conservation of listed species, using land and water conservation funds
What happened: The site had been used to bury large amounts of toxic waste by Hooker Chemical. Drums began to leak underneath the town.
When: Discovered in 76. Evacuation in 78.
Where: Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, NY.Legislation: led to the "Superfund", Comprehensive, Environmental Responsibility and Liability Act of 1980.
"any former or current commercial or industrial site that is currently vacant or underutilized and on which there has been, or there is suspected to have been, a discharge of a contaminant"
*Properties that are abandoned or underutilized because of either real or perceived contamination.
ability for govt. to "take" private property for a public purpose upon payment of just compensation
-payment to landowner for the condemnation value
Zoning laws act before there is any harm : prevents my use of my land from harming(interference) my neighbor’s use of land
-public control over the use of private property
-police powers of govt.
- health, safety and public welfare
a court lawsuit to force the government to purchase private property
-argument presented when govt. action has diminished the value of land without an actual "taking"
-no payment of "just compensation"
1. assess the options
-reaction of elected officials
-reaction of non-govt. interests
-health and ecology
-time flexibility conditions
-summarize the results:
-key advantages and disadvantages and uncertainties
-prepare a report and summarize the assessment
-term used to describe well-planned, well-managed growth that adds new homes and creates new jobs, while preserving open space, farmland, and environmental resources
-smart growth supports livable neighborhoods with a variety of housing types, price ranges and multi-modal forms of transportation
-started in Europe 1328-1351
-called black death b/c one of the symptoms produced a blackening of skins around swellings (buboes)
-spread by fleas that were carried by rats or other small rodents, which then spread to Trade Routes to every country
-1/3 of the population died
-important to history of England b/c it lead to
-higher value being placed on labor- Peasants Revolt followed in 1381
-farming changed and wool industry boomed
-people became disillusioned with the church & its power & influence went into decline...ultimately resulted in English Reformation
the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community
-control of communicable diseases
-application of sanitary measures
-monitoring of environmental hazards
-circulation in transportation
-design of public places
-development of private land
-1906 challenged the prevailing belief that race was a determining factor in public health
-rather poorer economic, social and sanitary conditions was responsible for higher infant mortality rates among African Americans compared to whites
-"The matter of sickness is an indication of social and economic position"
-1909 plan of Chicago
-rationalize development for the future
-proposed the moral up-building and physical beautification of Chicago
-better living conditions
-reclaiming the lakefront for the public
-increase the park areas and public playgrounds
-establish a scientific development of the arteries between different sections of the city
"A park was never an ornamental addition to a city but an integral part of itsfabric and a force for future growth on several levels: economic, social andcultural.”
-birth of planning as a profession
-focus on design
-Fredrick Douglass, Ida B. Wells
-plan ignored contribution of African Americans to America's greatness
-critical of plan since it di not address the well-being of the poor
-first garden city suburb
1. plan simply, but comprehensively
2. provide ample sites in the right places for community use
3. put factories and other industrial buildings where they can be used without wasteful transportation of people and goods
4. cars must be parked and stored
5. bring private and public land into relationship
6. arrange for the occupancy of houses
err on the side of the protection of public health
-laws, regulations, policies and orders should place burden of proof to prove safety, not public harm
-requires openness, transparency and public involvement
** when activity raises threat of harm to human health or the environment**
efforts to reduce "smog" and ground level ozone- Clean Air Act
-efforts to promote improved combustion
-Ethanol- farm subsidies
pros: freedom, individuality, new horizons, suburbs, distance to work, highways
cons: pollution, congestion, disinvestment, sprawl, proximity to work, transit
-January 1, 1970
-requires consideration of the environment prior to "any major Federal action affecting the quality of the human environment"
-conducted through the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
-also established a Council on Environmental Quality and the US EPA
-the NJ Pinelands Commission
-the NJ Highlands Council
-the NJ Meadowlands Commission
-the D&R Canal Commission
-the Lake Hopatcong Commission
-the Dismal Swamp Council
-water supply plans
-water quality management plans
-stormwater management plans
-energy master plans
-wildlife management plans
-forestry management plans
-site remediation plans
-fair share housing plans
-farmlands preservation plans
-enacted by an elected body (congress and state legislature)
-protection of the health, safety and welfare of the public
-defined as Statutes
-law often designates the implementing authority
-set of standards that implements a law
-formal adoption process
-Criteria integrated as part of a design concept.
-Setting the bar.
-Establishing a threshold.
-Relief granted through a design waiver.
-Encourages greater flexibility
-often based in law
-future oriented approach to reach a desired set of goals and objectives
-describes a vision, actions plan outcomes, targets
-most successful plans evolve through a community process
-often based on plans
-may also stand alone
-often single issue based
-could support plans or evolve into a regulation
-public policies that act like a regulation must follow proper procedures to become a regulation
-people are not owners, just trustees of the earth's resources and must not squander them
-sustainability--> balance of human or social, environmental and economic realities
economic (left side)
environmental (right side)
-9 exceptions (classified information, law enforcement info, privacy exception)
published Silent Spring in 1962; documented the environmental damage done by DDT and other pesticides. Which heightened public awareness at the start of the modern environmental movement
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