1 Module 4 - Chapter 24: Chinese and Korean Art after 1279 Unit 9: Ming Dynasty (p. 835-840) After the Mongols the native rule was restored in China. Beginning around 1340s there were a series of rebellions which led to the fall of the Mongols. Ming timeline: (1368-1644 CE) The founder of the next dynasty, the Ming came from a poor family. He was a Chinese peasant by the name of Hongwu. As he rose through the ranks in the army he enlisted the help of scholars to gain power and solidify his following. He took power initially at Nanjing in the south and once he had driven the Mongols from Beijing and firmly established himself as emperor; however he grew to distrust intellectuals. His rule was despotic and ruthless. Throughout the nearly 300 years of Ming rule, most emperors shared his attitude of disdain for the scholar officials so although the civil service examinations were reinstated, scholars remained alienated from the government they were trained to serve. During this period, to add to many of China?s firsts the great maritime exploration 1 began in China around the early fifteenth century ? well before the European East India companies started it - to replace the collapsed land routes after the fall of the Mongols, but it also collapsed very soon because of internal strife. Ming courts were plagued by intrigue yet the arts flourished. This was also a time when a real gulf appeared between art and handicraft, a split that had evolved with the attitude of scholar painters 2 . 3 Map, Ming dynasty Court and Professional Painting: The contrast between the court painting and the austere literati paintings continued through the Ming dynasty. The Ming court did not have a formal painting academy but they employed many hundreds of artists at court. Many of them were given general posts in the palace and were referred to as the Ming academy even though there was no formal institution. 4 Unlike the earlier Chinese dynasties the eunuchs at court were placed in 1 http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/china/trad/disc_q.htm 2 P 468, Sherman Lee, History of Far Eastern Art, Prentice Hall, 1994 3 Map P.75 Craig Clunas, Art in China, Oxford university press, 1997 4 China §V, 4(i) Court painters (d) Yuan to Ming (1279?1644), Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 2 charge of managing the imperial collections and to commission works of art. The taste of the court was lavish but it clearly was different from the refined taste of the upper and scholarly classes living in South China. One of the strongly promoted themes in painting was associated with the official ideology of loyalty and military valor. The Ming was a time when massive military campaigns were launched and one of the pressing concerns was to maintain order. Both the founder of the empire and his brother were military generals. Paintings associated with military prowess became very popular. Fig 24-4a Shang Xi, Guan Yu Captures the Enemy General: This example deals with military valor and it is a very huge hanging scroll painted by the court artist Shang Xi. The theme is historical and it is derived from the three kingdoms period of the third century CE, following the fall of the Han dynasty. This was a period of division, rivalry and warfare. Fig 24-4a Shang Xi, Guan Yu Captures the Enemy General, Ming dynasty, (active early 15 th century), Hanging scroll, 6?5?* 7?7? ink and colors on silk, The Palace Museum at Beijing The historical figure of Guan Yu seen on the left in green armor was renowned for his loyalty to his ruler and later he became the fictional hero in China?s great prose novel ?Romance of the three Kingdoms? that deals with his exploits. Guan Yu was deified in later Chinese history as a popular god of war and temples were dedicated for his worship and he became a model of valor and heroism. This painting is interesting in the contrast between the straining muscles of the prisoner on the right and the huge figure of the general in his magnificent armor. The stylistic characteristics in the flat bright colors refer to the Tibetan influence and the rock, trees and the bamboo are in the landscape tradition of the Southern Song period. The whole array of figures placed in a shallow stage strike muscular poses and intense gazes and is very theatrical. The half nude figure of the prisoner is also unusual because in Chinese art exposed body is rarely introduced and it 3 indicates a sign of humiliation rather than heroism. 5 Paintings such this was not held in high esteem by Chinese theorists of the subsequent era and little is known about the artist. Figure 24-4 Yin Hong, Hundreds of Birds Admiring the Peacocks: This is a typical example of Ming court painting. Figure 24-4 Yin Hong, Hundreds of Birds Admiring the Peacocks, Ming dynasty, c. late 15 th ? early 16 th century, Hanging scroll , ink and color on silk, 7?10 ½? * 6?5?, The Cleveland Museum of Art This example is from the textbook which has a detailed description of the bird and flower genre as well as its symbolic meaning. Refer to the textbook for the stylistic characteristics of this example. The other major area of development in the court arts was in portraits. After a century of Mongol rule the Chinese were ready to emphasize the native characteristics in all arts. Imperial portraits were a vehicle for this tradition as well as for emphasizing the dynastic authority. Many of these portraits were half life like images and half icons. 6 Many of these portraits were formal with a great deal of emphasis placed on the costume and the throne. Fig 24-4b Anonymous, Portrait of the Ming emperor Hongzhi: An typical example from the Ming period is the portrait of the Ming Emperor Hongzhi. He ruled at the end of the fifteenth century. The portrait is frontal and is portrayed in the imperial ?12-symbol? robe woven on a yellow ground with motifs derived from a reading of classical texts. 7 Rendered in a hieratic style the emperor is drowned by the motifs which are placed symmetrically on the robe and there are emblems on the backing screen and the carpet. In 5 P.290 R. Thorp & R. Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2001 6 ibid 7 China, §XIII, 8: Dress (iv) Ming and after (from 1368), Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 4 the midst of all these patterns the face of the ruler is a mask and it shows no distinctive personality. These portraits reveal the lavish lifestyle as well as the visual trappings of power that removed the rulers far away from the people. Fig 24-4b Anonymous, Portrait of the Ming emperor Hongzhi, 15 th century, Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk, 6?8? * 60 ¾,? National Palace Museum of Taipei Professional and Urban Arts: Outside of the court a new kind of art evolved during the Ming period. This was called the urban arts which focused attention on the everyday life in the commercial cities of Suzhou and Nanjing. 8 An unusual subject matter for the Chinese artist the urban arts focused on themes taken from the streets as well as the city environment. A famous figure in this category of painting was Zhou Chen. Zhou Chen was a pre-eminent professional painter of the Ming period outside of the court circles who worked in the technically fluent styles of the court as well as commercial paintings. His most famous work is a genre painting that show a realistic interest in the street characters. Figure 24-5a Zhou Chen Beggars and Street Characters: This famous work was originally made of a series of album leaves has now been converted to a hand scroll. It consists of a series of single or paired figures emphasizing similarities in costume and posture rendered in ink and color on paper accompanied by inscriptions. They are taken from the streets as seen in this detail of a gaunt and blind mother holding an infant in her arms, a poor beggar with a stick holding a dog and an itinerant seen in the right. 8 P.290 R. Thorp & R. Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2001 5 Figure 24-5a Zhou Chen, Beggars and Street Characters, 1516 CE, Ming, Details of a handscroll, ink and colors on paper, 12 1/8? * 8?, The Cleveland Museum of Art. To view this image in detail go to the Cleveland Museum of Art link below.(click on view image in detail) http://www.clemusart.com/explore/artistwork.asp?searchText=Zhou+Chen&tab=1&recNo=0&woRecNo=0 The drawing is energetic; the angular brushstrokes are ideally suited to the description of the tattered clothes and grimacing faces seen in this scroll. These figures are far removed from the idealized depictions of contented, carefree fishermen and wood gatherers typical of many Chinese genre paintings. They are sympathetic images of urban poor, a subject usually considered vulgar by literati painters and collectors. 9 The inscriptions indicate that the figures were represented in 1516 at a moment of reflection. These images are very rare in Chinese paintings because of the narrow and restrictive taste developed by later Chinese critics and collectors. 24-5 Dai Jin Returning Home from a Spring outing, Ming Dynasty, Hanging scroll ink of silk, National Palace Museum, Taipei, Republic of China This example is from the textbook. Please refer to the book for the details of the style. It is from the Zhe School. It follows the standard one corner composition followed by the Ma-Hsia artists. 9 Zhou Chen [Chou Ch?en; zi Shunqing; hao Dongcun](b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, c. 1470; d c. 1535), Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 6 Tang Yin was one of Zhou Chen?s students at Suzhou. He was born into the merchant class of Suzhou, where his father owned a restaurant and despite the low social standing he received excellent education. He was a brilliant student who passed the provincial examinations but during the national examination at Beijing he along with a friend got embroiled in a controversy over cheating in the exam and was jailed and returned to Suzhou in disgrace. His hopes for a good career ended forever - therefore he started his own independent work in the form of creating paintings, calligraphies and literary writings. So much so that he became renowned as a recluse who enjoyed wine and female company. Figure 24-5b Tang Yin, Through the Autumn Mountains with a Lute in Hand: He started working in the Northern Song style of Li Tang. His work evokes the thirteenth century Romantic style and asymmetrical composition. 10 Figure 24-5b Tang Yin, Through the Autumn Mountains with a Lute in Hand, hanging scroll, ink and color on paper, early 16 th century, Guimet Museum Paris 10 Image source: Tang Yin, Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, 2005. [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 7 It shows the escapist image of the scholar?recluse painted in red and placed right in the middle of the landscape enjoying nature and the nearby waterfall. Much of the painting is characteristic of the professional tradition: the rock forms are modeled in rolling patterns, using washes of blue-green and red-brown; texture strokes fashioned after those of Northern Song tradition enhance them further, and the autumn foliage is richly colored. Tang Yin responded to the urban market place by producing many landscape paintings in the Song academic styles which held great appeal in the marketplace. The Market place was an important aspect of Ming art determining the style as well as taste. Qiu Ying (1494-1552): Refer to the textbook for this example. Figure 24-6 Qiu Ying, Section o f Spring dawn in the Han Palace: This example was by Qiu Ying the preeminent professional painter in the Ming period. His paintings are delightful in subject and style. Figure 24-6 Qiu Ying, Section o f Spring dawn in the Han Palace, Ming Dynasty, first half of the 16 th century, Handscroll, ink and color on silk, 1? * 18? 13/16?, National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Read the textbook for further information on the figures, refined style and color and composition. Qiu Ying?s paintings are significant for the minutest details rendered in broad brushstrokes and are filled with lot of historical and archaistic details that distinguishes his work from other professional artists of the time. Decorative arts: Read this section from the book. During the Ming period a new development begins to appear in the southern city of Suzhou. The cities of the south were becoming wealthy and newly rich merchants collected paintings, antiques and art objects. The court too was prosperous and patronized the arts on a lavish scale. Some of the famous examples are the ceramics ? primarily porcelain. Read the textbox on porcelain on how the term as well as how the underglaze technique evolved. One of the important centers as we have already noted is Jingdezhen and the famous blue and white wares were created under the reign of Xuande (1425-35). Figure 24-8 Flask: Refer to the text for description and read the blurbs under the image for the unique characteristics of dragons in Chinese art. 8 Figure 24-8 Flask, Ming dynasty c. 1426-35, Porcelain with blue underglaze decoration, Collection of the Palace Museum, Beijing Figure 24-8a Covered Jar with Lotus Pond: One of the other type of ceramics from this period is much more colorful like the ?Wucai? or the five color glaze ware (image below). It offers a strong contrast to the simple blue and white ware. It is made out of porcelain with underglaze-blue decoration and overglaze wucai enamels in a much broader palette of bright reds, blues, greens, yellows and golds. The jars are very thickly made and the motifs of gold fish and lotus pond not only had an aesthetic appeal but it also refers to blessings of abundance of wealth 11 . This was produced at the Jingdezhen kilns, Jiangxi province during the reign of Jiajing. Figure 24-8a Covered Jar with Lotus Pond, Ming dynasty, reign of Jiajing emperor (1522-1566), ht 17 ¾?, Asian Art Museum San Francisco 11 P.301 R. Thorp & R. Vinograd, Chinese Art & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2001 9 Architecture and City Planning: Beijing In the previous chapters we have looked at some aspects of Chinese architecture and town planning. Due to centuries of warfare and destruction very few of the monuments have survived. In this chapter we will be looking at a monument that gives some idea of how the traditional architecture was planned. The most important example from the Ming period is the Forbidden City. Most of the principle buildings were planned during the Ming dynasty. Figure 24-9 The Forbidden City: The term ?Forbidden City? refers to the walled palace enclosure used by the Ming and Qing emperors and entry was forbidden to all others The textbook has a detailed description of this structure. Refer also to the textbox Geomancy, Cosmology, and Chinese Architecture. (We have looked at some aspect of Chinese geomancy already; the textbook deals with this concept in association with tombs and imperial buildings) Use the following as guidelines and listed below are more images of this historical structure. What is geomancy? How is feng shui a form of geomancy? How was feng shui used to select the site for and establish the plan and orientation of The Forbidden City? How does the layout of the imperial buildings reflect a political application of principles of cosmology and establish a link between the imperial and the cosmic orders? As you read the description of the Forbidden City and the meanings of the buildings, follow the path provided in the textbook. Locate the building where the emperor?s throne was located. Where in the cosmic order did the Chinese believe the throne was located? Figure 24-9 The Forbidden City, now the Palace Museum at Beijing, Mostly Ming dynasty, View from the Southwest 10 The layout of the Forbidden City was in the north-south axis taking into consideration the priestly and ritual functions of the emperor. The approach was through the monumental Meridian gate followed by an axial plan. 11 Included above is the layout of the 7 th century Chinese City of Chang?an which follows the grid plan and the layout of the City of Rome which expanded asymmetrically around the Tiber River. The square plan and orientation was already standard in China by the time the Forbidden City was constructed. The prestige of China in the Far East was such that in the 8 th century Japan modeled Heian-Kyo in the same symmetrical plan as Chang?an. 12 Leading from the Meridian Gate is an imposing courtyard with five arched marble bridges over a bow-shaped waterway leading to the Gate of Supreme Harmony Fig 24-9a Hall of Supreme Harmony The largest is the Hall of Supreme Harmony, a ceremonial structure used during important occasions such as the New Year, the winter solstice, and the Emperor?s birthday and so on. All the structures were constructed in the traditional style of bay system with wooden beams and pillars. In the hall of Supreme Harmony twelve imposing columns form eleven bays. The double hipped roof is decorated with yellow glazed tiles. 13 Embellishment in the roof ridges included dragon finials and mythological creatures Throughout the complex symmetry and balance dominates thus creating a magnificent pattern. Every structure had a function and the organization of the architecture created a link between the emperor who maintained the order on earth and the cosmic order. This structure assumed a lot of importance from the time of the reign of the Ming emperor Yong Le (1403-1424), when Beijing was chosen as the capital. And it continued its significance under the Qing reign of Kangxi (1622-1723) Qianlong (1736-1796) and other rulers of Qing dynasty. Portrait of Yong Le the third ruler of the Ming dynasty; He moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing in the year 1403 CE and established Forbidden city as a center for his administration by incorporating the earlier structure (Dadu) established by Kublai Khan. 14 Below is the information on the Geomancy and Cosmology and its relationship to Chinese architecture from the previous edition of Stokstad 12 . Please refer it provides valuable information on palace design in China. 12 P.811 Stokstad Marilyn, Art History second edition Voume two, Prentice Hall, 2005 15 The type of furniture promoted by the court workshop was decorative lacquer furniture. A significant craft workshop established under the court supervision was the Orchard Factory, which produced lavish and decorative furniture for court use. Figure 24-9a Table: Costly materials were used in the palace furniture such as zitan (sandal) hard wood as in the table below. This wooden table with drawers covered with layers of lacquer was made at the factory between 1426 and 1435. The carvings on the top surface of the table include a dragon in richly sculptured low relief. Figure 24-9a Table, Cinnabar lacquer with carved designs, l. 47?, China, Ming dynasty, mark and reign of Xuande (1425- 1435), Victoria and Albert Museum, London The rest of the red lacquer covered table is carved with crowded and intricate patterns of plants, lotuses and phoenixes overlapping each other. The technique was initially developed in the Southern part of China, later adopted by the Ming court. 13 During the Ming dynasty the artists and craftsmen involved in making crafts were given bureaucratic position without the education or the examination, a contrast to the earlier periods. The Literati Aesthetic: Chinese furniture made mainly for domestic use reached the height of its development in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Figure 24-10 Armchair: The unique characteristic of Chinese furniture came from the use of hard wood and soft wood as well as the method of construction. Some of the principles found in Chinese furniture included the following: ? no glue or nails ? mortise and tenon joints (refer to text), which helped the wooden frame to expand and contract due to changes in humidity ? Each piece of the chair is carved, as opposed to being bent or twisted and the joints are crafted with great precision 13 P. 66 Craig Clunas, Art in China, Oxford university press, 1997 16 ? The beauty of the furniture is through the fine hard wood such as huanghuali (rose wood) that was used as well as the grain or the texture of the material as well as the shimmering surface which provides interest to these examples. ? The style ? was one of simplicity, clarity, symmetry and balance.The effect is formal and dignified and as the text notes it is very minimalistic and naturalistic ? the same virtues central to Chinese view of proper humanconduct. The contrast between the straight and curved elements can be seen in the handle as well as the fine relief decoration. Figure 24-10 Armchair, Ming dynasty, 16 th -17 th century, Huanghuali wood (hardwood), 39 1/8 * 27 ¼ * 20?, The Nelson Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri Many of these elegant chairs were initially popular with the scholarly class for its simplicity and refinement and later spread to the merchant class. A Chinese Scholars studio would be decorated for the maximum enjoyment of the arts. It would include some of the following such as a painting table, a book shelf, a day bed with lattice work design, an arm chair and the treasures of the scholar ? ink, brush, paper ink stone and rock design. Refer to the following website from the Minneapolis Museum of art for information on a typical Chinese Scholar?s study and library. Click on each section for more information. http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/architecture/chinese-scholars-study.cfm The art of landscape gardening also reached a high point during the Ming dynasty. Many literati who retreated to the south - surrounded their homes with gardens as well. The most famous gardens were created in the city of Suzhou. Figure 24-1 Garden of the Cessation of Official Life, Suzhou, Jiangsu: Refer to the text as well as the image at the beginning of the chapter to read about the purpose of the garden designed by the retired Ming official. Read about the characteristics of this 3-acre garden. 17 Figure 21-1 Garden of the Cessation of Official Life, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Ming Dynasty, early 16 th century, China The city of Suzhou emerged as a very important city in Southern China not only because of its commercial and economic clout (rice grown in the south) but also as a region of cultural importance - a region of pleasure, leisure and a retirement spot for officials. From the Ming dynasty it acquired a reputation as a garden city which it still holds. Designing these gardens was not seen as simply laying out compact terraces and cultivating plants. Just as in other aspects of Chinese life the garden design was based on geomancy. The Chinese garden design was not conceived of as an infinite empty space rather as a sequence of carefully related dynamic space. Relationship was based between the terrain, the visitor, the surrounding landscape and the seasons. 14 Some of the gardens are in urban settings and have been walled off from the busy street. These gardens were used for social interactions. Some of the designs were tastefully decorated while some others have an artificial quality. Figure 24-1a Liu (Lingering) Garden Pond and Rockery: This example is from within a large complex. It is not accurately preserved but it has many of the features which go back to the fifteenth century. In the center of the park is a large and fantastically shaped rock ? the focal point within the garden complex. Many of the rocks were meant to be natural but were frequently polished and finished by sculptors. Surrounding the rock was water, verandas, pavilions and halls that make it viewable from all sides. In many of the gardens of this time the Ming designers introduced single rocks or extensive rock 14 Garden, VI, 1: East Asia: China (iv) Ming period (1368?1644), Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 18 formations. The irregular and asymmetrical designs of these gardens became the source of inspiration for many Chinese painters. Figure 24-1a Liu Garden Pond and Rocks, Suzhou, Jiangsu, Ming, Jiajing era (1522-66), China Literati Painting: In the south, especially in the district of Suzhou, literati painting remained the dominant trend. By the early Ming period the city and the surrounding region had become the nucleus of literati culture as the progressive atmosphere continued to attract leading poets and artists. 15 There was a concentration of great art collections in the city as well as illustrated books. One of the major literati figures from the Ming period was Shen Zhou (1427-1509) who organized the Wu School of painting. Wu refers to the province (Wuxian) of Suzhou where the artist and his family had a huge estate. This group of artist was held together more by common interests and many regarded painting as their least important talent, being better known as calligraphers. They generally belonged to wealthy families, and few depended on government service for money. Paintings and poems created in the course of scholarly intercourse and visits embodied accepted values and served as a social link between these groups. As noted in the textbook Shen Zhou had no desire to enter government service and spent most of his life in Suzhou. He studied the Yuan (literati) painters avidly and tried to recapture their spirit in his works. P.842 Shen Zhou Poet on a Mountaintop: Refer to the textbook for the description of this unique example from Nelson Atkins Museum of Art. Look at how this Ming literati painting differs from the earlier examples. How are the mountains and figures 15 Mary S. Lawton, Suzhou [Soochow; Su-chou], Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press, [12/2005], http://www.groveart.com/ 19 represented? Where is the calligraphy located? Read the poem right below the image. This is a very direct and vivid representation. Shen Zhou Poet on a Mountaintop, leaf from an album of landscapes, painting mounted as part of a handscroll, Ming Dynasty, c. 1500, ink and color on paper, 15 ¼?*23 ¾?, Nelson Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri Figure 24-10a Shen Zhou, Twelve Views of Tiger Hill Shen Zhou never strayed far from Suzhou, but he traveled around Suzhou and many of his paintings portray local sites. His painting called the Twelve Views of Tiger Hill examines specific local landmarks. Figure 24-10a Shen Zhou, Twelve Views of Tiger Hill, Ming dynasty, Album leaf, ink and slight color on paper 31.1*40.2 cm, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Refer to the CMA website for the other views in the album (click on next page to see the next view) http://www.clevelandart.org/educef/asianodyssey/html/8724174.html Tiger Hill was a location outside of the city of Suzhou and it was filled with interesting landmarks such as a temple, a pagoda, waterfalls, stones and trees. It was a favorite 20 subject for Shen Zhou who painted its distinctive structures several times. The octagonal brick and stone pagoda on the summit of the hill (Luohan Temple) was one of the oldest in China. The gate at the foot of the hill was also considered unique 16 because it was not built of single pieces of wood. The painting is remarkable for the powerful and linear brush work used for the architecture and the washes for the background. This is a very bold representation and provides a cut off and birds eye view of the buildings and the distant mountains. The exact circumstances in which Shen Zhou created this painting is now lost but his album of Tiger Hill with its Buddhist monastery was probably created as part of a social gathering ? a typical characteristic of the Ming literati works. Wen Zhengming, student of Shen Zhou was the most famous member of the second generation of Wu School artists. He was remarkable for his individuality as well as for the variety and range of his creativity. His early works showed the influence of his master and he worked in a variety of styles. Once he was totally familiar with these earlier styles, Wen reworked them to incorporate his own distinctive style, frequently expressing his awareness of history through inscriptions on his paintings. Figure 21-10b Wen Zhengming, Playing the Qin (Zither) in the secluded valley: Wen?s mature works painted later in his life is complex in style. His works mostly included places in around the city of Suzhou with an emphasis on cypresses, mountains and rocks. The hanging scroll from the Cleveland Museum of Art reveals distinctive gnarled rocks, waterfall and grotesque trees. Rendered in ink and color on silk the forms are tightly knit and convoluted. These brilliant forms are rendered in heavy textural brushwork that reveals the age and complexity of nature as well as remove it from everyday world. The title refers to music and the beauty of nature and it refers to personal experience. 16 ibid 21 Figure 21-10b Wen Zhengming, Playing the Qin (Zither) in the secluded valley, Hanging scroll, ink and colors on paper, The Cleveland Museum of Art Refer to the Cleveland Museum of art website below to see the painting directly from the Museum web site http://www.clemusart.com/explore/artistwork.asp?searchText=Wen+Zhengming&tab=1&recNo=0&woRecNo=3 Wen Zhengming was an innovator in his later works where he introduces realistic colors to indicate recession and depth unlike the traditional blue and green 17 . He was considered a great calligrapher as well. The crowded and finely detailed composition and aversion to space are some of the characteristics of his style. Dong Qichang: Literati Theorist: Figure 24- 11 The Qingbian Mountain During the Ming dynasty scholars and literary men put forward theories about aesthetics and literary criticisms. The ideas associated with literati painting found their most influential expression in the writings of Dong Qichang. Refer to the textbook about this very influential artist and his theory. Use the following guidelines: What were the characteristics of the two schools of Chinese Art as articulated by Dong Qichang? 17 P.158 Mary Tregear, Chinese Art, Revised edition, 1997,Thames & Hudson Ltd, London 22 a. Northern School: b. Southern School: What was Dong Qichang?s view of the role of the masters, nature, brushstrokes, naturalism and expressiveness in art? How is that view reflected in this painting The Qingbian Mountian? Figure 24- 11 Dong Qichang: The Qingbian Mountain, Ming Dynasty, 1617, Hanging scroll, ink on paper, 21?8?*7?4 3/8?, The Cleveland Museum of Art Dong Qichang?s influence on later Chinese painting was immense. Every Chinese pictorial artist after Dong Qichang was influenced by his ideas in some form or the other. The type of analysis and classification that he brought into painting raised it to the level of literature. Some artists moved towards greater freedom in representation but there were also pitfalls. These theories lead to greater academism towards which many artists were antagonistic to. 23 Study guide China -Unit 9: Ming Dynasty (p. 835-840) Ming timeline: (1368-1644 CE) Court Painting: Fig 24-4a Shang Xi, Guan Yu Captures the Enemy General (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-4 Yin Hong, Hundreds of Birds Admiring the Peacocks (from the textbook) Fig 24-4b Anonymous, Portrait of the Ming emperor Hongzhi (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Professional and Urban Arts: Figure 24-5a Zhou Chen Beggars and Street Characters (not in book, refer to unit outlines) 24-5 Dai Jin Returning Home from a Spring outing (from the textbook) Figure 24-5b Tang Yin, Through the Autumn Mountains with a Lute in Hand (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-6 Qiu Ying, Section o f Spring dawn in the Han Palace (from the textbook) Decorative arts and Gardens Figure 24-8 Flask (from the textbook) Figure 24-8a Covered Jar with Lotus Pond (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Architecture and City Planning: Beijing Figure 24-9 The Forbidden City (from the textbook) Fig 24-9a Hall of Supreme Harmony (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-8a Table (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Literati Aesthetic: Check out Shen Zhou?s painting on p. 842 Figure 24-10 Armchair (from the textbook) Figure 24-1 Garden of the Cessation of Official Life, Suzhou, Jiangsu (from the textbook) Chinese Scholars studio (refer to the Minneapolis Museum of Art web site for info on the scholars studio) Figure 24-1a Liu Garden Pond and Rockery (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Literati Painting: P. 842 Shen Zhou Poet on a Mountaintop (from the textbook) Figure 24-10a Shen Zhou, Twelve Views of Tiger Hill (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Figure 24-10b Wen Zhengming, Playing the Qin (Zither) in the secluded valley (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Figure 24- 11 Dong QichangThe Qingbian Mountain (not in book, refer to unit outlines) Owner Microsoft Word - MING DYNASTY Unit 9.doc
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