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According to Porter's model, the power of suppliers is one of the five forces that influence industry competition.
The threat of new entrants in an industry is very high when startups can open a business with little capital and few employees.
Network effects refer to the increased value of a product or service that results simply because there are more people using it.
The presence of loyalty programs reduces the switching costs of a product or service.
The power of suppliers is high when there are many suppliers in a market.
The threat of substitutes is high when alternative products are available.
Rivalry within an industry will be high if firms compete mainly on price.
Sustaining technologies are radical and unexpected breakthroughs that replace lower-end products and rapidly overtake high-end products of the market.
Government action can influence how Porter's five forces operate in industries.
A benchmark is a baseline measurement considered as optimal, though it is sometimes simply an industry average.
The ASCII code determines how characters are encoded into digital strings.
A Joystick is an example of an output device.
In a computer, the central processing unit handles information processing, calculations, and control tasks.
A database is an example of system software.
Java is often used to provide instructions for set-top cable boxes and webcams.
A wireless router has a wired connection to the network and sends radio signals from the antennae.
Application software includes operating system software and utilities.
COBOL programming language is an old language.
In the context of telecommunications, a network is a group of interconnected devices.
Nonprofit and government agencies need additional modules for their financial systems.
The human resources management (HRM) system is typically the heart of the HCM system.
Workforce management modules draw on the information stored in sales records that shows when peak demand occurs.
Supply chain management (SCM) refers to strategies that optimize the flow of products and services from their source to the customer.
Locations communicated through GPS are accurate within no less than a few kilometers.
Attracting new customers is often more difficult and expensive than retaining existing ones.
Proactive live chats on websites in the customer support context offer considerable savings.
Spammers use "web beacons" routinely to verify that email addresses are valid.
An integrated application suite to support a whole establishment that includes modules to manage financials, human resources,
enterprise resource planning
In an ERP suite that includes modules specialized for higher education, which of the following would be used to track donatio
Addictinggames.com is a website that offers casual amusement such as shooting games and celebrity spoofs. The games are free,
Not all devices connected to the Internet have a unique IP address.
File transfer protocol (ftp://) is a transmission protocol which indicates that the resource is a file to be transferred.
For using the web, mouse foot pedals, screen readers, Braille displays, head-mounted pointers, joysticks, and speech-to-text
E-commerce involves the buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet or other networks, encompassing financial
Which of the following is a transmission protocol which specifies that the resource is a web page containing code the web bro
hypertext transfer protocol
Which of the following parts of the URL "http:// www.timesonline.co.uk" represents the top-level domain?
Which of the following factors best explains why it was tougher for Amazon.com to build trust in its e-commerce website compa
Unlike Walmart, Amazon.com doesn't have consumer store locations.
The latest version of HTML is HTML5, which will reduce problems for web developers struggling to support different browsers r
Software programs used to extract useful B.I. from public websites.
-Ex: Traveler uses a bot to search and compare airline ticket prices each day
Use data mining and statistical techniques to predict future behavior and strategy though BI
-Ex: Customer renewal/cancellation likeliness
Simulation model used to calculate the relationship between changed variables and see how others are affected (Excel formulas)-Ex: If I get an 80 on my final, my overall grade will be …
Stake holders identify the features the system will need and label them as mandatory, preferred or nonessential
A simulation model, often constructed using Excel, that calculates the relationships between many variables; users can change some variables to see how others are affected. If I do _____, what is the affect on the other variables?
B.I. that records every visitors click on the site along with time spent on site and I.P. Address
- Visitor-related metrics
o Unique visitors
o Traffics sources (Facebook/twitter/Google)
- Content-related metrics
o Page views (popular content)
o Top Landing pages (number of entrances to site per page)
Business intelligence data that includes every click by every visitor on a website, along with associated data such as time spent on the page and the visitor’s IP address. Clickstream data provides an incredible number of data metrics.
Approach to aggregating content from internal and external sources on customizable web pages that relies on Web 2.0 technologies.
An approach to aggregating content form multiple internal and external sources on customizable web pages that relies on Web 2.0 technologies.
regularly updated output from a publisher embedded into a customizable mashup
- Ex: Bleacher report on fav. Sports teams
- Ex: Weather app based on location
Standardized and regularly updated output from a publisher, such as CNN or weather.com, that can be embedded in a custom mashup.
Number and quality of relationships a company has with future and present employees
- Ex: Sally built a network through her university to hire prospective students and gained trust through her credibility
The number and quality of all the relationships an organization’s employees maintain, not just with one another, but with clients, customers, suppliers, and prospective employees.
describes the number and quality of all the relationships an organizations employees maintain, not just with one another but with clients, customers, suppliers, and prospective employees.
Competencies and knowledge brought to a company by employees via education/experience
- Ex: Sally has good interview, negotiating, mentoring skills so she trains and hires future/new employees
includes the competencies and knowledge possessed by the organization’s employees. education , experience, techniques/strategies
Knowledge stored through documentation of policies, procedures, business processes and trade secrets often stored electronically
- Ex: Sally keeps a handbook about the legal aspects of temporary employment and updates it as laws change
The knowledge stored as documentation, often electronically, about business processes, procedures, policies, contracts, transactions, patents, research, trade secrets, and other aspects of the organizations operations.
includes the knowledge stored as documentation about business processes, procedures, policies, contracts, transactions, patents, research, trade secrets and other aspects of the organizations operations, usually stored electronically.
Actions judges to be ethical based on how they adhere to broadly accepted rules regardless of the consequence
- Civil rights/Ten commandmentsPiracy, cheating on a test, slander
An ethical system that judges the morality of an action based on how well it adheres to broadly accepted riles, regardless of the action’s actual consequences.
Intangible assets such as music, written works, software, art, designs, movies, creative ideas, discoveries, inventions, and other expressions of the human mind that may be legally protected by means of copyrights or patents.
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
Technologies that software developers, publishers, media companies, and other intellectual property owners use to control access to their digital content.
Protection of data about individuals.
- Used to be hard to get, but now is in the hands of people, organizations and gov’t about what to collect
- Privacy legal prosecution has been around hundreds of years
encompasses the protection of an organization’s information assets against misuse, disclosure, unauthorized access or destruction
-Four IS Pillars
--Technology, processes, people and data
A term that encompasses the protection of an organizations information assets against misuse, disclosure, unauthorized access, or destruction.
Software designed to attack computer systems
- Navy sees over 100k per hours (30/sec)
- Honey pot: Used by security companies
---Attracts malware to study/trace to origin
Monitors software that records a user’s keystrokes
transforms data into unreadable form using mathematical formulas unreadable unless the key to unscramble it is known
Technique that scrambles data using mathematical formulas, so that it cannot be read without applying the key to decrypt it.
Public Key Encryption
A security measure that uses a pair of keys, one to encrypt the data and the other to decrypt it. One key is public, widely shared with everyone, but the other is private, known only to the recipient.
Technical control that inspects incoming and outgoing traffic and either blocks it or permits it according to the organizations rules.
A defensive technical control that inspects incoming and outgoing traffic and either blocks or permits it according to rules the organization establishes. The firewall can be a hardware device or a software program.
Highest amount of structure usually associated with routine transactions that follow predetermined policies to handle a situation (i.e., telemarketer)
Unstructured decision making that involves long-term strategy (i.e., CEO decision to buy out a rival)
- Most decisions need support from other levels (i.e., CEO needs financial/risk analysis)
- Has an affect beyond the organization; to suppliers, consumers
Semi-structured information based decision-making that uses business intelligence
- MIS supports through combining data, software and reporting tools
- Useful B.I. comes from weekly/monthly reports MIS systems generate
- Use trends/summaries to see success and plan next steps
Uses unstructured text information to gather BI
- Rely on keywords, common phrases, emotion-laden words, misspellings to extracting meaningful BI
- Taken from blogs, twitter, review sites etc
- Used to spot fake/suspicious reviews to delete them (Yelp, Expedia)
A technique used to analyze unstructured text that examines keywords, semantic structures, linguistic relationships, emotion laden words, and other characteristics to extract meaningful BI.
Search engines use IA’s to classify and index relevant web pages relevant to the search.
“what-if analysis” is reverse. Target (goal) is set for a particular value and the program shows, which variable(s) need to be changed to reach the goal. (Excel)
Statistical technique used to reveal customer behavior patterns as they buy multiple items
- Ex: Amazon’s “Frequently bought together” or “Customers who bought this also purchased”
Statistical tool used to make decisions analyzing historical trends and BI to estimate variables of demand.
- Ex: More snow in the mountains = more demand by skiers = more revenue
Mimics reasoning of a human expert to draw from knowledge of a subject to make a recommendation
-Ex: Web MD uses symptoms to translate into possible sicknesses
Attempts to mimic the way the human brain works to spot suspicious activity
- Ex: Credit card usage out of normal areaEx: 20 questions (computer game)
Used for users to “slice and dice” through massive amounts of Data to reveal significant patters/trends
- Customer gender/age group to find relationships for marketing campaigns
- See sales by month, year, quarter etc.
Access to many forms of information on one screen. Login ID and password required making it a secure gateway to resources needed by employees, customers, and suppliers.
- Ex: Zzusis you can access finances, schedules etc
Graphical interface that organizes and summarizes info vital to the users role and decision-making
All intangible assets not included in conventional accounting repots but still contribute to market value and help achieve competitive advantage
- Ex: A company has $112 million in tangible assets, but the market value is $400 million
includes all the intangible assets and resources of an enterprise that are not captured by conventional accounting reports, but that still contribute to its value and help it achieve competitive advantage
there are 3 types: human, social, and structural
Ethical system that judges whether an act is right or wrong by considering the consequences and its positive and negative outcomes
- Medical professional who could give treatment that has negative effects, but could cure the patient.
An ethical system that judges whether an act is right or wrong by considering the consequences of the action, weighing its positive effects against its harmful ones.
Technologies software developers, publishers, media companies and other IP owners use to control access to their digital content.
- Apple iTunes Match service
o For an annual fee, scans hard drive for all music and stores them in iCloud to be used on all devices
Intermediary server take takes clients to their destination, but say the transmission is from the proxy not the user
An intermediary server that receives and analyzes requests from clients and then directs them to their destinations; sometimes used to protect privacy.
Lists vulnerabilities in a tables and manages/rates the level of each risk
- Ex: Major info leak would expose confidentiality
-Ex: Power outage – availability
A matrix that lists an organizations vulnerabilities, with ratings that assess each one in terms of likelihood and impact on business operations, reputation, and other areas.
Most are launched by criminal gangs which involve collections of computers compromised by malware
- Barmital botnet infected over 8million windows computers
- Stole confidential data/created fraudulent ads
A combination of the terms robot and network referring to a collection of computers that have been compromised by malware and used to attack other computers.
Talks about systems are assembled from relatively independent software components/can handle specific business services“Get credit score” or “Get Customer service record
Can depend on expertise of the IT staff with previous servers
Rigorous testing that occurs during the developmental phase once systems are completed that mimic real system events to identify any failures
System launched while the old one is still running
--Both systems can process cases and compare output
Launches modules in phases rather than all at once
A type of implementation in which the modules of a new information system are launched in phases rather than all at once.
Launches all modules at the same time “Big Bang”
-Come into work and have a new system one day
A type of implementation in which all the modules of a new information system are launched at the same time, and the old system is turned off, also called the “big bang” approach.
Despite extensive testing no complex system is bug free
--Includes the work needed to support changing business requirements
A key document that authorizes the project
Clear statement of objectives, cost, time and scope
A document that authorizes a project that includes a clear statement of objectives, estimated start and end dates, the names of the relevant people and their roles, a tentative budget, criteria for success, and other pertinent information.
· Cost: Determining the budget
· Time: Project meets its deadlines
· Scope: Clarifying what work is part of the project and what is not
Program Management Office (PMO)
The part of an organization that oversees all the projects going on throughout the organization and provides project management training, software and support.
A system of moral principles that human beings use to judge right and wrong and to develop rules of conduct.
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
A set of design principles in which systems are assembled from relatively independent software components, each of which handles a specific business service.
Software that allows users to “slice and dice” or drill down into massive amounts of data stored in data warehouses to reveal significant patterns and trends. They achieve their speed by organizing information into multidimensional cubes.
An extension of goal seeking in which the user can change many variables to reach some maximum or minimum target, as long as the changes stay within the constraints the user identifies.
A statistical technique that reveals customer behavior patterns as they purchase multiple items.
All the intangible assets and resources of an enterprise that are not captured by conventional accounting reports, but still contribute to its value and help it achieve competitive advantage.
Knowledge that can be documented and codified, which is often stored in information systems, on websites, in spreadsheets, or in handbooks and manuals.
Knowledge that encompasses the insights, judgment, creative processes, and wisdom that come from learning and long experience in the field, as well as from many trials and errors.
encompasses insights, judgment, creative processes, and wisdom that come from learning and long experience in the field, along with many trials and errors
Knowledge Management (KM)
A set of strategies and practices organizations use to become more systematic about managing intellectual capital. It is also a field of study in which researchers investigate all the roles these intangible assets play, how they contribute to competitive advantage and productivity, and how human behavior interacts with efforts to capture and share knowledge.
1. Identify the Goal
2. Locate the Sources
3. Capture the Knowledge
4. Organize, share and value knowledge.
An information system that can find people in an organization with specific types of expertise based on their education, experience, and activities.
offer one way to apply technology to finding people in an organization with specific types of expertise, based on their education, experience, and activities. many draw on directories, they crawl through IS and other sources of info to refine their expertise
A technique that maps and measures the strength of relationships between individuals and groups, represented as nodes in the network. The measures provide insights into network clusters and the roles different people play as leaders or connecting bridges to other networks.
Groups of individuals who come together to learn from one another and share knowledge about their professions; they typically rely on online discussion forums, shared workspaces, wikis, blogs and other social medias.
groups of people who come together to learn from one another and share knowledge about their professions. these are usually online communities of professionals. wikis are gaining popularity
An organization’s private web space. It relies on TCP/IP and web browsers, but it is password-protected and accessible only to authorized individuals though the organizations portal.
an organizations private web space which relies on TCP/IP and web browsers but is password protected and only accessible by those in the organization.
Systems that manage electronic documents, often converted from paper sources, making them searchable and easily transmitted.
manage electronic documents, often converted from paper sources, making them searchable and easily transmitted. these are essential in the financial industry because they help institutions meet regulations. users can add tags and metadata.
Software that can interpret handprinted text written on paper forms.
A web with meaning, in which online resources and their relationships can be read and understood by computers as well as human beings.
a web with meaning, in which online resources and their relationships can be read and understood by computers. sometimes called “web 3.0” and can make link relationships clear to people without having to read the article
relies on the resource description framework
makes it possible to integrate information from many different databases
Resource Descriptive Framework (RDF)
Part of the XML family of standards, RDF is used to describe online resources and their properties for the semantic web.
describes resources and their properties. written in XML
A varied set of instructional approaches that all depend on ICT, especially the Internet, to connect trainees with learning materials, and also with their instructors and other trainees.
refers to a varied set of instructional approaches that all depend on info and com technologies, especially the internet, to connect trainees with learning materials, and also with their instructors and other trainees.
The person on an e-learning development team who knows what content should be included in the course and possesses the content expertise.
a person who possesses the content expertise and knows what should be covered.
The person on an e-learning development team who brings the knowledge and skills about what strategies work best for e-learning.
A self-contained digital resource embedded in an e-learning course that can be edited and reused for other purposes. These can include content authoring tools such as narrated presentations, interactive presentations, screen captures and simulations.
An information system used to deliver e-learning courses, track student progress, and manage educational records. Such systems also support features such as online registration, assessments, collaborative technologies, payment processing, and content authoring.
Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)
A set of standards that govern how e-learning objects communicate with the LMS on a technical level, so a user can import a SCORM-complaint object to any LMS that supports the standard.
a widely used set of guidelines which govern how e-learning objects communicate with the LMS on a technical level
An online course usually offered by a college or university through a third party for free or very low cost, with open enrollment and often very large volume.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)
An attack in which computers in a bonnet are directed to flood a single website server with rapid-fire page requests, causing it to slow down or crash.
An attempt to steal passwords or other sensitive information by persuading the victim, often in an email, to enter the information into a fraudulent website that masquerades as the authentic version.
Incidence Response Plan
A plan that an organization uses to categorize a security threat, determine the cause, preserve any evidence, and also get the systems back online so the organization can resume business.
A combination of two or more authentications a user must pass to access an information system, such as fingerprint scan combined with a password.
A gateway service that permits users to log in once with a single set ID and password to gain access to multiple software applications.
The art of manipulating people into breaking normal information security procedures or divulging confidential information.
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
The process that describes the seven steps in the life of an information system: planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance.
Part of the information system planning process that examines whether the initiative is viable from technical, financial and legal standpoints.
The process by which stakeholders identify the features a new information system will need and then prioritize them as mandatory, preferred, or nonessential.
Graphical representations that trace how each process that a new information system will support operates from beginning to end.
Business Process Reengineering(BPR)
The design and analysis of workflows in an organization with the goal of eliminating processes that do not add value.
Requirements Definition Document(RDD)
A document that specifies the features a new information system should have, prioritized by stakeholders. It also includes assumptions and constraints that affect the system, such as the need to migrate and possibly reformat data from an existing system.
Diagrams that show how different types of users will interact with the system.
Unified Modeling Language
A standardized approach to modeling an information system using graphics, symbols, and notations to improve communication and clarity.
A type of software that tracks versions of the source code during development, enforcing checkout procedures to prevent developers from writing over one another files.
A peer review process in which programmers check over one another’s work to ensure its quality.
A type of implementation in which the new system is launched while the old one it is replacing continues to run so output can be compared.
A process organizations use to manage and prioritize requests to make changes or add new features to an information system.
Older systems built on aging or obsolete architectures that continue in use because they still function reasonably well and replacing them is costly.
Method in which the systems development life cycle tasks occur sequentially, with one activity starting only after the previous one has been completed.
Strategies that compress the time horizon for software development, partly to reduce the impact of charging business needs and the resulting rework. They focus on the time available until the next release, or iteration , and the development team determines how many of the requirements it can deliver in that timeframe.
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
A strategy in which developers quickly bring up prototypes to share with end users, get feedback, and make corrections before building the fully functional version.
Agile Software Development
Development strategies involving cohesive teams that include end users, and in which many activities occur simultaneously rather than sequentially to accelerate delivery of usable software.
An agile process for software development that relies on tightly knit, cohesive teams that do “sprints” of 2 to 4 weeks each.
A team-based agile method that features frequent releases of workable software, short time boxes, programmers who work in pairs, and a focus on testing.
Request for Information (RFI)
A request sent to software vendors containing a high level description of the information system an organization needs, so that vendors can describe their products that may fit.
Request for Proposal (RFP)
An invitation to software companies to submit a formal proposal, including a detailed description of their products, services and costs. The RFP details the requirements developed in the analysis phase and also includes information about the organizations staffing, and other relevant details.
An approach used by organizations in which they procure the best systems for each application, regardless of the vendor, and then build interfaces among them.
An approach used by organizations in which they prefer systems from a single vendor, especially to avoid the need to build interfaces.
A consultant who endures that the hardware and software components of an information system work together when they come from different vendors.
Processes that lay the groundwork for the project by clarifying its business value; seeing its objectives; estimating the projects length, scope and cost; identifying team members; and obtaining approval.
The processes in project management that focus on planning how the project will be executed.
The products, documents, or services that will be delivered to the sponsor during the course of a project.
A term that refers to the way in which features are added in an uncontrolled way to a project, often without considering the impact on the budget or timeline.
A graphic showing the tasks on the work breakdown structure along with each task’s projected start and finish dates.
All the coordinating efforts that ensure the tasks on the work breakdown structure are carried out properly.
Monitoring and Controlling Processes
Processes that track a project’s progress from start to finish, pinpointing any deviations from the plan that must be addressed.
The longest path through the project, which identifies those tasks that cant be delayed without affecting the finish date. Monitoring tasks that are along the critical path are especially important.
Processes that formally end the project in an orderly way; they include a signoff by the sponsor confirming that all deliverables have been received and accepted.
A structured approach to the transition employees must make as they switch from their existing work processes to new ones, especially with the introduction of a new information system.
Escalation of Commitment
The tendency to continue investing in a project, despite mounting evidence that it is not succeeding; often comes about because people mistakenly let sunk costs affect decision making rather then weighing the value of further commitment.
Acceptable Use Policy
An organizational policy that describes what employees dare allowed to do with IT resources and what activities are disallowed; employees agree to the policy before gaining access to IT resources.
Project Portfolio Management
A continuous process that oversees all the projects for an organization, selecting which projects to pursue and which ones to terminate.
The procedures and documentation the organization puts into place to prepare for a disaster and recover the technical infrastructure.
The maintenance of the organization’s operations in the even of disaster or disruption.
A common human tendency to make systematic mistakes when processing information or making judgments; cognitive biases can distort strategic planning.
The human tendency to choose information to examine that supports the persons view, but ignore data that might refute that view.
The tendency for people to rely too heavily on one piece of information to adjust their estimates, even if it is irrelevant.
The tendency for people to judge the likelihood of events based on how readily they come to mind, rather than their actual likelihood.
Used to describe an extremely rare event that is difficult or nearly impossible to predict, but which can have an immense impact in areas such as technology, finance, and science; black swans pose enormous challenges for strategic planners.
The human tendency to think an unusual even was (or should have been) predictable, once they know it actually happened.
refers to a set of strategies and practices organizations use to become more systematic about managing intellectual capital. also a field of study where research is done on intangible assets and their contribution to competetive advantage and productivity.
a technique that maps and measures the strength of relationships between individuals and groups, represented as nodes in the network. provides insights into the roles different people play as leaders or connecting bridges to other networks.
reads typed text and can index and tag forms quickly
uses little or no instructor involvement, where the trainee just uses online materials independently. especially useful for gaining structural knowledge about company policies or IS
presentations with a live or recorded audio soundtrack
presentations include exercises that the trainee is supposed to complete
instructors can screenshot examples of working with software to help trainees visualize
an IS used to deliver the e-learning courses, track student progress, and manage educational records. many offer other features such as registration, assessment tools, collaborative technologies, and payment processing.
lms hosts the e-learning content, assessments, and a range of tools to create learning objects and activities
understand and optimize web page usage
*search engine optimization (SEO) improving visibility of web site using tags and key terms