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Software that allows users to “slice and dice” or drill down into massive amounts of data stored in data warehouses to reveal significant patterns and trends. They achieve their speed by organizing information into multidimensional cubes.
A statistical technique that reveals customer behavior patterns as they purchase multiple items.
A technique used to analyze unstructured text that examines keywords, semantic structures, linguistic relationships, emotion laden words, and other characteristics to extract meaningful BI.
A simulation model, often constructed using Excel, that calculates the relationships between many variables; users can change some variables to see how others are affected. If I do _____, what is the affect on the other variables?
A decision support tool, often based on an excel model, in which the user sets a target value for a particular variable, such as profit/loss, and tells the program which variable to change to try and reach the goal.
An extension of goal seeking in which the user can change many variables to reach some maximum or minimum target, as long as the changes stay within the constraints the user identifies.
A statistical decision support tool used to analyze historical trends and other business intelligence to estimate some variable of interest, such as customer demand.
A test created by software developers that the visitor must pass before continuing to register or enter the site; designed to thwart software bots.
Software that mimics the reasoning and decision making of a human expert, drawing from a base of knowledge about a particular subject area developed with the expert’s assistance.
An informational system that attempts to mimic the way the human brain works; often used to spot suspicious activity in financial transactions.
Business intelligence data that includes every click by every visitor on a website, along with associated data such as time spent on the page and the visitor’s IP address. Clickstream data provides an incredible number of data metrics.
A graphical user interface that organizes and summarizes information vital to the user’s role and the decisions that user makes.
The quantifiable metrics most important to the individuals role and the organizations success.
A gateway that provides access to a variety of relevant information from many different sources on one screen; for an enterprise, the portal provides a secure gateway to resources needed by employees, customers and suppliers.
An approach to aggregating content form multiple internal and external sources on customizable web pages that relies on Web 2.0 technologies.
Standardized and regularly updated output from a publisher, such as CNN or weather.com, that can be embedded in a custom mashup.
All the intangible assets and resources of an enterprise that are not captured by conventional accounting reports, but still contribute to its value and help it achieve competitive advantage.
The number and quality of all the relationships an organization’s employees maintain, not just with one another, but with clients, customers, suppliers, and prospective employees.
The knowledge stored as documentation, often electronically, about business processes, procedures, policies, contracts, transactions, patents, research, trade secrets, and other aspects of the organizations operations.
Knowledge that can be documented and codified, which is often stored in information systems, on websites, in spreadsheets, or in handbooks and manuals.
Knowledge that encompasses the insights, judgment, creative processes, and wisdom that come from learning and long experience in the field, as well as from many trials and errors.
Knowledge Management (KM)
A set of strategies and practices organizations use to become more systematic about managing intellectual capital. It is also a field of study in which researchers investigate all the roles these intangible assets play, how they contribute to competitive advantage and productivity, and how human behavior interacts with efforts to capture and share knowledge.
1. Identify the Goal
2. Locate the Sources
3. Capture the Knowledge
4. Organize, share and value knowledge.
An information system that can find people in an organization with specific types of expertise based on their education, experience, and activities.
A technique that maps and measures the strength of relationships between individuals and groups, represented as nodes in the network. The measures provide insights into network clusters and the roles different people play as leaders or connecting bridges to other networks.
Groups of individuals who come together to learn from one another and share knowledge about their professions; they typically rely on online discussion forums, shared workspaces, wikis, blogs and other social medias.
An organization’s private web space. It relies on TCP/IP and web browsers, but it is password-protected and accessible only to authorized individuals though the organizations portal.
Systems that manage electronic documents, often converted from paper sources, making them searchable and easily transmitted.
Software that can interpret handprinted text written on paper forms.
A web with meaning, in which online resources and their relationships can be read and understood by computers as well as human beings.
Resource Descriptive Framework (RDF)
Part of the XML family of standards, RDF is used to describe online resources and their properties for the semantic web.
A varied set of instructional approaches that all depend on ICT, especially the Internet, to connect trainees with learning materials, and also with their instructors and other trainees.
The person on an e-learning development team who knows what content should be included in the course and possesses the content expertise.
The person on an e-learning development team who brings the knowledge and skills about what strategies work best for e-learning.
A self-contained digital resource embedded in an e-learning course that can be edited and reused for other purposes. These can include content authoring tools such as narrated presentations, interactive presentations, screen captures and simulations.
An information system used to deliver e-learning courses, track student progress, and manage educational records. Such systems also support features such as online registration, assessments, collaborative technologies, payment processing, and content authoring.
Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM)
A set of standards that govern how e-learning objects communicate with the LMS on a technical level, so a user can import a SCORM-complaint object to any LMS that supports the standard.
An online course usually offered by a college or university through a third party for free or very low cost, with open enrollment and often very large volume.
A system of moral principles that human beings use to judge right and wrong and to develop rules of conduct.
An ethical system that judges the morality of an action based on how well it adheres to broadly accepted riles, regardless of the action’s actual consequences.
An ethical system that judges whether an act is right or wrong by considering the consequences of the action, weighing its positive effects against its harmful ones.
Intangible assets such as music, written works, software, art, designs, movies, creative ideas, discoveries, inventions, and other expressions of the human mind that may be legally protected by means of copyrights or patents.
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
Technologies that software developers, publishers, media companies, and other intellectual property owners use to control access to their digital content.
An intermediary server that receives and analyzes requests from clients and then directs them to their destinations; sometimes used to protect privacy.
A term that encompasses the protection of an organizations information assets against misuse, disclosure, unauthorized access, or destruction.
A combination of the terms robot and network referring to a collection of computers that have been compromised by malware and used to attack other computers.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)
An attack in which computers in a bonnet are directed to flood a single website server with rapid-fire page requests, causing it to slow down or crash.
An attempt to steal passwords or other sensitive information by persuading the victim, often in an email, to enter the information into a fraudulent website that masquerades as the authentic version.
A matrix that lists an organizations vulnerabilities, with ratings that assess each one in terms of likelihood and impact on business operations, reputation, and other areas.
Incidence Response Plan
A plan that an organization uses to categorize a security threat, determine the cause, preserve any evidence, and also get the systems back online so the organization can resume business.
A combination of two or more authentications a user must pass to access an information system, such as fingerprint scan combined with a password.
Technique that scrambles data using mathematical formulas, so that it cannot be read without applying the key to decrypt it.
Public Key Encryption
A security measure that uses a pair of keys, one to encrypt the data and the other to decrypt it. One key is public, widely shared with everyone, but the other is private, known only to the recipient.
A defensive technical control that inspects incoming and outgoing traffic and either blocks or permits it according to rules the organization establishes. The firewall can be a hardware device or a software program.
A gateway service that permits users to log in once with a single set ID and password to gain access to multiple software applications.
The art of manipulating people into breaking normal information security procedures or divulging confidential information.
Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
The process that describes the seven steps in the life of an information system: planning, analysis, design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance.
Part of the information system planning process that examines whether the initiative is viable from technical, financial and legal standpoints.
The process by which stakeholders identify the features a new information system will need and then prioritize them as mandatory, preferred, or nonessential.
Graphical representations that trace how each process that a new information system will support operates from beginning to end.
Business Process Reengineering(BPR)
The design and analysis of workflows in an organization with the goal of eliminating processes that do not add value.
Requirements Definition Document(RDD)
A document that specifies the features a new information system should have, prioritized by stakeholders. It also includes assumptions and constraints that affect the system, such as the need to migrate and possibly reformat data from an existing system.
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
A set of design principles in which systems are assembled from relatively independent software components, each of which handles a specific business service.
Diagrams that show how different types of users will interact with the system.
Unified Modeling Language
A standardized approach to modeling an information system using graphics, symbols, and notations to improve communication and clarity.
A type of software that tracks versions of the source code during development, enforcing checkout procedures to prevent developers from writing over one another files.
A peer review process in which programmers check over one another’s work to ensure its quality.
A type of implementation in which the new system is launched while the old one it is replacing continues to run so output can be compared.
A type of implementation in which the modules of a new information system are launched in phases rather than all at once.
A type of implementation in which all the modules of a new information system are launched at the same time, and the old system is turned off, also called the “big bang” approach.
A process organizations use to manage and prioritize requests to make changes or add new features to an information system.
Older systems built on aging or obsolete architectures that continue in use because they still function reasonably well and replacing them is costly.
Method in which the systems development life cycle tasks occur sequentially, with one activity starting only after the previous one has been completed.
Strategies that compress the time horizon for software development, partly to reduce the impact of charging business needs and the resulting rework. They focus on the time available until the next release, or iteration , and the development team determines how many of the requirements it can deliver in that timeframe.
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
A strategy in which developers quickly bring up prototypes to share with end users, get feedback, and make corrections before building the fully functional version.
Agile Software Development
Development strategies involving cohesive teams that include end users, and in which many activities occur simultaneously rather than sequentially to accelerate delivery of usable software.
An agile process for software development that relies on tightly knit, cohesive teams that do “sprints” of 2 to 4 weeks each.
A team-based agile method that features frequent releases of workable software, short time boxes, programmers who work in pairs, and a focus on testing.
Request for Information (RFI)
A request sent to software vendors containing a high level description of the information system an organization needs, so that vendors can describe their products that may fit.
Request for Proposal (RFP)
An invitation to software companies to submit a formal proposal, including a detailed description of their products, services and costs. The RFP details the requirements developed in the analysis phase and also includes information about the organizations staffing, and other relevant details.
An approach used by organizations in which they procure the best systems for each application, regardless of the vendor, and then build interfaces among them.
An approach used by organizations in which they prefer systems from a single vendor, especially to avoid the need to build interfaces.
A consultant who endures that the hardware and software components of an information system work together when they come from different vendors.
Processes that lay the groundwork for the project by clarifying its business value; seeing its objectives; estimating the projects length, scope and cost; identifying team members; and obtaining approval.
A document that authorizes a project that includes a clear statement of objectives, estimated start and end dates, the names of the relevant people and their roles, a tentative budget, criteria for success, and other pertinent information.
The processes in project management that focus on planning how the project will be executed.
The products, documents, or services that will be delivered to the sponsor during the course of a project.
A term that refers to the way in which features are added in an uncontrolled way to a project, often without considering the impact on the budget or timeline.
A graphic showing the tasks on the work breakdown structure along with each task’s projected start and finish dates.
All the coordinating efforts that ensure the tasks on the work breakdown structure are carried out properly.
Monitoring and Controlling Processes
Processes that track a project’s progress from start to finish, pinpointing any deviations from the plan that must be addressed.
The longest path through the project, which identifies those tasks that cant be delayed without affecting the finish date. Monitoring tasks that are along the critical path are especially important.
Processes that formally end the project in an orderly way; they include a signoff by the sponsor confirming that all deliverables have been received and accepted.
A structured approach to the transition employees must make as they switch from their existing work processes to new ones, especially with the introduction of a new information system.
Escalation of Commitment
The tendency to continue investing in a project, despite mounting evidence that it is not succeeding; often comes about because people mistakenly let sunk costs affect decision making rather then weighing the value of further commitment.
Acceptable Use Policy
An organizational policy that describes what employees dare allowed to do with IT resources and what activities are disallowed; employees agree to the policy before gaining access to IT resources.
Project Portfolio Management
A continuous process that oversees all the projects for an organization, selecting which projects to pursue and which ones to terminate.
Program Management Office (PMO)
The part of an organization that oversees all the projects going on throughout the organization and provides project management training, software and support.
The procedures and documentation the organization puts into place to prepare for a disaster and recover the technical infrastructure.
The maintenance of the organization’s operations in the even of disaster or disruption.
A common human tendency to make systematic mistakes when processing information or making judgments; cognitive biases can distort strategic planning.
The human tendency to choose information to examine that supports the persons view, but ignore data that might refute that view.
The tendency for people to rely too heavily on one piece of information to adjust their estimates, even if it is irrelevant.
The tendency for people to judge the likelihood of events based on how readily they come to mind, rather than their actual likelihood.
Used to describe an extremely rare event that is difficult or nearly impossible to predict, but which can have an immense impact in areas such as technology, finance, and science; black swans pose enormous challenges for strategic planners.
The human tendency to think an unusual even was (or should have been) predictable, once they know it actually happened.
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