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How many diploids do humans have?
How many haploids does an egg cell have?
How many haploids does a fused sperm and egg cell have?
The cell grows to full size?
What is binary fission?
Devision of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells.
Steps of Prokaryotic cell devision
1. Chromosome copy
2. Cell growth until twice cell size.
3. Cell wall forms between two cloned chromosomes.
4. Cell splits into two new cells.
2 types of cell devision in Eukaryotic Cells
What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is the cloning of a cell which results in two cells being identical.
What is Meiosis?
In Meiosis, chromosome number is reduced by half in new cells. The new cells form togeather later in the organisms life cycle to produce cells with a complete set of chromosomes.
The Cell Cycle
A repeating set of events that make up the life of a cell.
What is the time between cell divisions?
How many phases are interphase devided into
Name the three phases of interphase.
, S, G
Which is the first stage of interphase?
Cells grow to full size
Describe the S phase.
The cell's DNA is duplicated or copied.
Describe the G
The cell prepares for cell devision.
Where do cells usually exit from the cell cycle?
When cells exit from the cell cycle, which phase do they enter?
The DNA is not copied and the cell does not prepare for cell devision.
Give an example of cells in the
Central nervous system cells.
After which phase of interphase does Mitosis occur?
What is Mitosis?
The division of the nucleus (which contains the copied DNA).
What phases are contained within the Mitosis process?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
What is the first phase of Mitosis?
What happens during the phrophase.
Dna is coiled into rod shaped chromosomes.
The S phased copied chromosomes attach to each other forming X shapes.
The centrosomes move towards opposite ends of the cell and connect.
What is the difference between S phase and Prophase?
S phase copies the chromosomes.
In prophase, what happens to the chromosomes?
The preciously copied chromosomes form pairs called chromotids (X Shapes)
In prophase, where do the centrosomes move?
The polar sides of the nucleus.
Explain the centrosome centriole relationship.
Centrioles (cylinder shaped organelles) are contained within the centrosomes (two pairs of dark spots by the nucleus).
What happens as the two centrosomes seperate?
Spindle fibers (made of microtubes) link the two centrosomes.
What are the spindle fibers that go to the polar sides of the nucleus called?
What does the miotic spindle do?
The miotic spindle equally divides the previously shaped X chromotids
Name the two types of fibers in the miotic spindle.
Polar fibers and Kinetochore fibers.
What is the purpose of a kinetochore fiber?
They attach to a disk shaped protein which in the nucleus attaches the two chromosomes (it is the connector which forms the chromotids).
What is the purpose of the polar fibers?
They connect the dividing cell from centrosome to centrosome.
Name the second phase of Mitosis.
What happens in the metaphase?
The Kinectofibers move the chromosomes to the center of the cell and the nucleus is destroyed.
Name the third phase of Mitosis.
What happens during anaphase?
The chromotids held by the kinectochore fibers separate and form opposing V and ^ shaped chromosmes.
Name the fourth step of mitosis?
What happens during the Telophase?
The spindle fibers disassemble.
The duplicated chromosomes move to new nuclei respectively.
After mitosis, what is the final/first step of the cell cycle.
What happens in cytokinesis?
In animal cells:
- The space inbetween the two new nuclei of Telophase pinches and breaks off.
In plant cells:
- A cell wall forms in between the nuclei eventually separating the cells.
Describe the events of binary fission/
In cell cycle (for eukaryotic cells) interphase (growth of cells) is followed by mitosis where then the cell splits.
During what phase of the cell cycle are chromosomes copied?
Which phase of cell cycle could you identify with a light microscope?
Describe the function of the mitotic spindle.
There are two different fibers, polar and kinectochorde.
polar hold both sides of the cell together.
kinectochorde connect to the knectochore protein and move the chromotids arround as well as separate them.
What would happen if cytokinesis took place before mitosis?
The cells would not have the new DNA needed. There would aslo be a missing nucleus in one of the cells.
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