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The recognition of any difference between a consumer’s actual state and some ideal or desired state
the desire to satisfy needs in specific ways that are culturally and socially influenced.
Customers’ desire for products coupled with the resources needed to obtain them.
If we didn’t keep buying it [bottled water], then they wouldn’t be producing as much as they are. So we have to look at it on the ______________________ side.
Desire plus the Buying Power or resources to satisfy a want creates what?
The Flavr Savr tomato was the first genetically engineered food to reach the public… Consumers didn’t like it, and it was _______________________________________.
___________________ focus on customer groups rather than on the products made by the firm.
firms today look at their relationships with customers as a financial asset a.k.a. __________
maintaining strategic fit of firms goals, capabilities, and marketing opportunities
How the target market perceives your product in comparison to your competitor’s brand
statistics that measure observable aspects of a population such as segment size, age, gender, ethnic group, income, occupation and family structure.
identify the most measurable characteristics of our market
ex: age, gender, family structure, income and social class, race and ethnicity, geography
Natural- natural resources
Tech- most dramatic force, robotic energy
Political- government, pressure groups
Unpaid communication about an organization that appears in the mass media.
We have to understand the unspoken needs of the people. It works. Good _______________________________ works.
The way we eat has changed more in the last 50 years than in the previous 10,000. But the image that is used to sell the food is still the imagery of ________ America.
But experts say it'll take more than a fewinnovative solutions to turn the tide on America's infrastructure emergency. Above all, it will take:
The industrial food system is always looking for greater efficiency, but each new step in efficiency leads to ___________________________.
We want to pay the cheapest price for our food. We don't understand that that comes at ____________________________.
What do consumers rank as the most important consideration in a purchase?
The value that customers give up or exchange to obtain a desired product.
The demand curve assumes all factors other than ________ stay the same.
Price Elasticity Of Demand is a measure of the sensitivity of customers to what?
As we saw in the Target video, a store’s price matching policy means that everything you see in a store now has potentially what?
The process of dividing a larger market into smaller pieces based on one or more meaningful shared characteristics.
1. Homogeneous within, 2. Heterogeneous between (Differentiable) 3. Substantial 4. Meaningfully defined (measurable) 5. Actionable 6. Accessible
Certain people influence others’ attitudes or behaviors because they are perceived as possessing expertise about the product.
3 Steps in Managing Products
objectives relate to successful introduction.
What technique must we use to determine how many units of an item we must sell at a given price in order to break even?
Within the Marketing Mix, what do we call the communication elements that the marketer controls?
Integrated Marketing Communications is a process for managing customer relationships that drive brand value primarily through communication efforts
Argues that consumers come into contact with a company or a brand many different ways before, after, and during a purchase
Word-of-mouth marketing communication that is viewed as authentic and generated by customers
Consumers passing a message along to other consumers, hopefully in an exponential form,. Today it is seen when consumers find something to be so interesting that they typically pass on the message to their friends electronically (ex. through facebook or email or posting a video on your friend’s page)
the idea of new era is that a company is not just doing something for themselves, but also for the society and giving back to improve their image.
Corporations see a growing need to be responsible, a new era corporate orientation
From shareholders to stakeholders
Improve company mage though different activities
Giving back to the community
the hidden trade off
sin of no proof
sin of vagueness
sin of irrelevance
lesser of two evils
sin of fibbing
sin of worshiping false labels
use of celebrity endorsers
as consumers we seek to keep a positive affective balance
we change our attitude towards the celebrity or towards the product they are endorsing.
a tool to help organizations standardize how they measure and evaluate environmental performance of apparel products across the supply chain at the brand, product and facility levels.
what do your customers care about?what to they find talk worthy?will your customers recommend you?what would customers say about you?
how to measure
not traditional forms of marketing rely on non-traditoinal metrics,is the number of followers or fans a meaningful metric?Clicks, time on site, mentions about you. competitor
is a management tool that can be used to gauge the loyalty of a firm'scustomer relationships. It serves as an alternative to traditional customer satisfactionresearch.Likelihood of Recommendation (0-10)
Share of Promoters (9-10)
Share of Detractors (0-6)
Difference is Net Promoter score
Score= % of strong promoters-% of all detractors
Successful social network marketing resembles a conversation with your customers
Be present in their community
Non-traditional forms of marketing rely on non-traditional metrics
Is the number of followers or fans a meaningful metric?
Clicks, time on site, mentions about you/competitor
leadership by an active media user and who interprets the meaning of media messages or content for lower-end media users.
Criteria for a market- All customers and potential customers who share a common need that can be satisfied by a specific product, who have the resources to exchange for it, who are willing to make the exchange, and who have the authority to make the exchange.
The outcome sought by a customer motivates buying behavior- that satisfies a need or want.
The more we pulled back and tried to make it a very, very kind of literal delivery on a __________________, it just – it lost that emotion, and we wanted to keep that emotion.
all possible customers in a market, regardless of the differences in their specific needs and wants.
_________ has always been a prime advantage of all oil and its derivatives.
________ is the most widely used alternative motor fuel in the world.
_________ is oil's most abundant finished product. We can't live without it, and it's getting expensive.
There are four million miles of roads in the united states, 94 percent of which are covered in asphalt, and none of it would hold together without ___________
Every major advance of human civilization has been made possible by our ability to raid the earth of ever more energy-rich forms of _______
f human civilization is to continue to advance, we will have to break the link between ________ and the burning of carbon.
There was an enormous economic boom going on after the war (World War II). There was this “______ is our most important product” feeling to the 1950s.
In many ways it feels like modern life is _____________, but actually we’re linked to it in hundreds of subtle and surprising ways.
Our impact on the planet is felt not just in what we transform, but also in what that transformation __________.
Globally, around 26 million tons of plastic ends up __________ every year, where it becomes part of something much bigger.
Over time, these plastics accumulate in enormous flotillas. One of them is so big, it’s even got its own name: the ___________. [Also called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch]
For centuries, our ingenuity has enabled us to find new forms of energy, and so it’s easy to think ______________…
Today, we’re on the brink of a new era. We can now ___________ our impact on the planet’s natural processes, and maintain the conditions for civilization to flourish.
It’s a big challenge which involves _______.
Because of the CO2 already in the air, it will get hotter for at least another several _________.
We could have as much as 50% or more of the animals and plants on the planet go extinct if we go down the path of “_________.”
We haven’t even tried to _________ yet, and that’s what we’ll have to do.
Energy, climate, food, population, economic pressures – any one of these challenges might be very serious in itself, but because they’re happening all _________, it’s going to be very difficult for our governments to cope.
We’ve made a series of bets that the stability of the system that has brought us this prosperity will continue, but __________ are changing the conditions that underlie our prosperity and our stability.
By 2015 in the United States, add about 20 million people to the population, and then just play out what that does to _________.
As the _______ becomes increasingly unsustainable, the rest of the world will be trying to catch up...
If everyone in the world consumed as much as the average American, it would take the resources of _____ earths to support the planet’s population.
“Should the rest of the world consume less, or _______?”
This is a global crisis that needs ________.
If we continue on the business as usual trajectory, there will be a __________ that we cannot avert.
The point at which the adoption of a technology, procedure, service or philosophy reaches critical mass and becomes mainstream.
We can’t drill and burn our way out of our problems, but we can _________ our way out.
The widespread overuse of pesticides – and almost all of our other environmental problems – are tied directly to population. True Or False?
For a long period of time, the advantage went to those [businesses and industries] who focused on the immediate [short-term] situation. As a consequence of that, we are now faced with issues that will really unfold over centuries, and we are genetically and institutionally ill adapted for it.
True or False?
Ronald Reagan did not believe – and campaigned against – the messages of the environmental movement and Jimmy Carter.
True or False?
Dead zones happen when too much fertilizer – nitrogen, phosphorous – comes in.
True or False?
You are never going to effectively deal with a multi-state pollution problem with a voluntary program.
True or False
On the Chesapeake Bay's Eastern Shore, huge factory-scale farms now dominate the landscape and half the pollution flowing into the bay, much of it from agriculture, remains essentially unregulated.
True or False
And it (agriculture) is arguably the single biggest source of pollution to all of the waters in the country...
true or false
Science and the regulators are behind the curve dealing with what industry and society is producing or wants.
True or False
Most exchanges today occur as monetary transactions.
Competitive Advantage give consumers a reason to choose one firm’s product over another firm’s product again
It is more expensive to attract new customers than it is to retain current ones.
Consumers decide whether or not they are satisfied with their purchases by comparing what they have bought to their expectations of the product’s quality
Customer Service Affects Brand Loyalty
Water has really become a resource that we are fast losing. We’re at a spot now where our bodies of water are increasingly fragile and threatened, and we need to be protecting them. And we’re not doing an adequate job right now.
True or False?
Many bottled water companies are careful not to disparage tap water because of their reliance on it. In many cases, bottled water is simply municipal tap water. True or False?
That FDA employee has other responsibilities and can’t even spend her full time overseeing water regulation.
True or False?
FDA regulates products that are in interstate commerce; that means products that move from state to state.
True or False?
You really don’t know what you’re getting [with bottled water].
True or False?
Buying bottled water is not necessarily safe.
True or False?
Testers over the years have come up with all kinds of contaminants in bottled water that we wouldn’t have found out about if people [consumers] hadn’t taken it upon themselves to run the tests.
True or False?
Segmentation is usually necessary in consumer markets, but is it usually necessary in organizational (B2B) markets?
With demographics, marketers can tailor messages and products to relevant groups.
members of the same generation tend to share the same outlook and priorities
We think of plastic as a petroleum-based product, but corn will do the job, too. [i.e. you can make plastic products out of corn]
true or false
Bioplastic costs about the same to produce as petroleum-based plastics, but bioplastic decomposes much faster [when composted properly].
true or false
Regulatory agencies are being controlled by the very companies that they're supposed to be scrutinizing. True or False?
Our regulatory agencies are remarkably toothless, and that’s how the industry wants it. True or False?
The medical community is terrified about the loss of antibiotics. True or False?
The first time many Americans became aware that genetically-modified foods were part of their everyday diet was in 2001. A gene-modified corn not approved for human food had been found in consumer products made with corn. True or False?
80-90% of Americans want GMO food labeled, but the Genetically Engineered Food Right to Know Act [introduced every year since 1999] has yet to be voted on by Congress.
True or False?
Sustainable Agriculture uses resources that are in the local ecology, and recycles those resources within the system – rather than taking resources from another system or ecology and bringing them in. True or False?
Today, food in the supermarket has travelled an average of 1,500 miles. True or False?
When Dwight Eisenhower left as president in 1961, 12.5% of the domestic budget of the United States was spent on infrastructure. Today we spend about 2.5%. China and India spend 9% and 8% respectively. TRUE or FALSE?
No one really knows how many bad levees there are in America. Incredibly, the United States didn't begin compiling a national inventory for levees until after [Hurricane] Katrina, and it'll take years to complete. TRUE or FALSE?
The interstate highway system breaking down faster than any other part of the system. TRUE or FALSE?
The single biggest infrastructure disaster looming over the U.S. right now may well be the dirt levees protecting the farm land of the northern California delta. TRUE or FALSE?
It [the power grid] is the most expensive business investment of all time. TRUE or FALSE?
And when the national academy of engineering did a study of what the greatest inventions, technological inventions of the 20th century were, the creation of the electrical grid ranked number one. TRUE or FALSE?
According to the American Society of Civil Engineers, it will take 2.2 trillion dollars over the next five years to raise America's infrastructure grade point average from a “D” to a “B”. If the united states doesn't put up the money, the problems are only going to get worse and much more expensive. TRUE or FALSE?
The handbag may seem harmless, but in fact it travels through a supply chain that can carry far more sinister products – from AK47s to machinery to build atomic weapons. True or False?
These networks now have so much money that they can buy immense political power. As a result, we’re seeing all over the world a growing criminalization of politics, where criminals are getting into politics and politicians are becoming criminals.
True or False?
The profit margin for dealers [of counterfeit goods] is greater than for any other illegal business. True or False?
Tobacco farming requires a lot of nitrogen. True or False?
Pipe smoking carries similar rates of oral and esophageal cancer as cigar smoking. True or False?
With revenues that average $70 million a year, running a “Supercenter” is the equivalent of running a small, publicly traded company.
Walmart claims that if they raise prices, then they will lose customers, and that raising wages would force them to raise prices.
This [the distribution centers] is a fluid process. It never stops.
Walmart lets millions of people buy things they might not otherwise be able to afford. And that’s why, good or bad, people keep shopping there.
In India, nearly 600 million people are set to join the ranks of the middle class in the next 15 years. That’s almost twice the entire U.S. population.
In 2009, for the first time, the amount of money laid out [spent] on renewable investments was more than the cash funneled into fossil fuels.
A really profound difficulty that we confront, particularly in the West, is the degree to which people came to equate the accumulation of material goods with __________.
In the 1970s, in the United States, we did clean up quite a few lakes and we did reduce the air pollution in quite a few cities, but there was essentially no progress on the ______ problems.
There has always been the notion that we will be able to ________ our current trajectory in living standards and material consumption.
The entire discipline of economics, macroeconomics, is based on the assumption that output is going to continue to grow, ______________ are going to continue to grow, and so forth.
There are limits to ______ and we are bumping against them right now.
The biggest impact on the environment is the way in which we ______ .
And a series of proposed policies that had they been __________ would have gotten us there.
Who you elect as President of the United States, and frankly the President of a dozen other countries, really _______.
Reagan did his very best to completely _______ the renewable energy effort.
We lost 30 years. We lost 30 years because both sides ossified into their ideologies. And if we’ve learned anything, it is that __________________.
Environmental problems emerge out of daily life, and the solutions for the environmental problems are also rooted in ________.
What's making this water so sick is what scientists have now labeled the number one menace to our waterways, __________.
The volume of oil that is carried into Puget Sound by stormwater run off is equal to the oil spill in Prince William Sound that the Exxon Valdez spilled. Every _________, the stormwater in Puget Sound carries that volume of oil into Puget Sound.
The heart of the problem is concrete, asphalt, streets, sidewalks, buildings, shopping centers, suburban housing, rooftops, _______ surfaces - what scientists call impervious surfaces - that block the downpour of rain from naturally sinking into the ground.
The very dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay’s ecosystem are being fundamentally altered by __________.
One problem for Chesapeake Bay is that humans have drastically overfished the resources... But scientists have also tied the dramatic decline in fisheries [in the Bay] to man-made ________ and a growing phenomenon called dead zones.
It's not just a bay-wide problem, it's _______. All across the planet, dead zones have been doubling in frequency and size every decade.
Pollution is not just creating dead zones. It’s playing havoc with human ______ and _______.
Responding to congressional pressure, President Nixon created the __________.
Congress armed Ruckelshaus and the EPA with a raft of new environmental laws, like the Clean Water Act, that imposed strict pollution _______ and ________ for violators.
With bipartisan backing in Congress, Ruckelshaus [and the EPA] took strong action. He.....
[The EPA] had to be tough. They had to issue standards and they had to ______ them.
The Reagan administration brought to Washington a ________ agenda.
True or False
The Reagan administration not only handcuffed EPA on enforcement, it shifted to a new strategy of __________.
________ is by far the largest source of pollution to the Chesapeake Bay.
In terms of just damage to the ecosystems, the destruction of entire ecosystems, of aquatic communities, of fish going extinct, there's nothing as bad as these _______ operations.
The influence of the agricultural farm ________ in general has had a very successful role in limiting the amount of pollution control regulations that we see in the Chesapeake Bay watershed or nationwide.
There are thousands of these worrisome chemicals [Endocrine Disruptors] that have gotten into the environment, and one reason is that they're part of _________.
The condition of the Chesapeake Bay is like the canary in the coal mine. It is a symbol. It is an indicator of what we are now learning to expect in any body of water ________ and across the ______.
The _________ includes a provision whereby any U.S. citizens may file a federal lawsuit against a suspected CWA violator.
In early 2009, three public interest organizations – the Natural Resources Defense Council, the Sierra Club and the Waterkeeper Alliance – filed a citizen lawsuit claiming that the EPA gave too much discretion to farm operators in determining which farms needed________ to discharge waste into waterways.
The agency will look at the number of animals, how much waste they produce and how waste is ___________ -- whether it is applied to farm land as fertilizer, shipped to another location or used for other purposes.
The _________ is the principal federal law in the United States that ensures safe drinking water for the public.
The EPA estimates that more than ___________ are in use throughout the U.S. that could affect drinking water quality.
SDWA does not apply to _________.
Bottled water, however, costs _______ as much as tap water.
Producing all those bottles also comes with ________ consequences.
The concern for the ways in which our consumption impacts our physical world.
Users of bottled water and home filtration systems _______ avoid exposure to pharmaceuticals in drinking water supplies.
Contamination is ___________ to the United States.
For decades, the ____________ to congestion on highways or freeways was adding a lane or adding several lanes. As if continually adding lanes is going to solve our congestion problems as growth occurs.
Well, the reality is, and we know today, that in fact adding lanes only induces _______.
Population growth is a key factor. However, the greatest contributor to increased automobile use is our ________ pattern of city planning.
Without the transportation sector, we have: [check all that apply]
But our dependence on the _________ that the automobile provides must end.
Contrary to popular belief, Americans are not addicted to oil. Americans are addicted to ________.
We can double new car efficiency, as we did between 1972 and 1985. We can do that again, and it’s probably job #1. But there are other things we need to do:
In the 1960s, 70s, 80s, and even 90s, we segregated housing from commercial development and from industrial development. And by the way, it was not just the [housing] developer doing this; it was the ________ doing it…
The social movement directed toward protecting consumers from harmful business practices.
We designed our way into _______ ourselves to use the automobile.
We have to fix:
Any person, group, or organization who has a “stake” in the outcome of the marketing process.
Tangible products that individual consumers purchase for personal or family use
convincing consumers that your product is better than your competitor’s product
The underlying goal of all marketing strategies is to create a ___________
marketer’s strategic toolbox
Influencing how the consumers in a particular market segment perceive your good or service in comparison to your competition.
Developing a marketing strategy aimed at influencing how a particular market segment perceives a good or service in comparison to the competition
(pre-1930) businesses focused on the most efficient ways to produce and distribute products.
(1930s – 1950s) businesses focused on the “hard sell,” aggressively pushing their product.
(1950s – Present)
Firms adopted a Consumer Orientation
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM involves all employees from the assembly line onward in continuous product quality improvement
maximizes customer satisfaction by involving all employees, regardless of their function, in efforts to continually improve quality.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
about companies communicating with customers one-to-one, and about customers being able to communicate with a company one-to-one
Companies make money when they attract eyeballs rather than just dollars
They must find new and innovative ways to stand out from the crowd…
They want to become an integral of your life.
the process that individuals and groups go through to select, purchase, or use goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires.
Low involvement - Habit or pure whim
High Involvement - Extended analysis and comparison of products
importance or perceived risk
How much effort consumers put into deciding what to buy depends on the __________________________ of what they’re buying.
The Consumer Decision-Making Process
1. Problem Recognition
2. Information Search
3. Evaluation of Alternatives
4. Product Choice
5. Post-purchase Evaluation
“rules of thumb”
Heuristics help simplify the decision-making process.
What is the most common heuristic?
How well a product or service meets or exceeds these expectations
Many quality-focused firms believe that profits result from making _____ the primary objective.
You alter your pricing to simplify the buyer’s decision process.
three main categories of influences
Process which people select, organize, and interpret info from the outside world
internal state that drives us to satisfy our needs.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 5 levels (smallest to biggest)
a person’s attitude toward the self
can influence what consumer buys
Family member pass through a cycle of stages as they grow older.
Activities, Interests, and Opinions
used to place consumers into dimensions
a pattern of living that determines how people choose to spend their time, money, and energy and that reflects their values, tastes, and preferences.
two factors determine whether a shopper will react positively or negatively to a store environment
a growing way to target consumers in nontraditional places
easy for consumers to avoid ads on their home TVs, but place-based media offers marketers a way to reach consumers when they are a ___________
Time is one of consumers’ most limited resources.
Time is one of consumers’ most abundant resources.
the values, beliefs, customs, and tastes produced and valued by a group of people
When marketers understand a culture’s values, they can _______ their products.
The overall rank of people in a society is referred
People in the same social class tend to have widely varying tastes in clothes, decorating styles, and leisure activities.
The perpetrators are almost always called to account for their actions. True or False?
a set of people a consumer wants to please or imitate
Consumers “refer to” these when they decide what to wear, where they hang out, and what brands they buy.
two powerful social movements within our society are contributing to how we decide what we want and what we don’t
We [Americans] started buying bottled water in a serious way at the end of the 1970s. __________ was a niche product, really popular with urban professionals.
In 1989, it became possible to put water into lightweight, cheap, clear plastic bottles made of __________, and that changed the market.
So, on one hand you had this tremendous marketing muscle, and on the other hand you had a complete absence of ___________________ of bottled water until very recently.
Many of the ads implied that the [bottled] water was healthier for us than tap water…
______________ person at the FDA is responsible for overseeing all of the regulation of bottled water in the country.
There’s a huge difference between the regulation of tap water and the regulation of bottled water. Tap water (municipal drinking water) is _____________ regulated, and bottled water is virtually __________________________.
Most bottled water is produced in state and consumed in that state, and the FDA…
Bottled water makers do their own testing on their own products and on their own sources. The bottled water companies:
Every city provides a public water quality report that you can access online anytime. Bottled water companies:
While single-serve bottles of water are made of PET, 5-gallon water jugs are made of polycarbonate plastic, and they:
All products that the FDA approves are based on data prepared and studies conducted by _______________________________________. All that FDA does is rely on a study that comes from the industry itself.
The United States:
___________________________ are meant to pick up the tab by providing all the recycling for the plastic bottles.
Nestle, Coke and Pepsi:
it’s cheaper to develop one product or one advertising campaign than to choose several targets and create separate products and messages for each.
The company must be willing to bet that people have similar needs or that the differences among them are trivial.
the creation of many consumer groups due to a diversity of distinct needs and wants in modern society
Dividing a mass market into smaller pieces
Bias against a person or group
on the grounds of age.
Is ethnic diversity in U.S. culture increasing, decreasing, or remaining relatively steady?
a psychographic system that classifies the entire U.S. population into eight consumer segments
rule of thumb that many marketers abide by regarding the percent of purchasers versus percent of sales.
Companies can make money by selling small amounts of items that only a few people want—if they sell enough different items.
Businesses often segment their markets according to when and how their offerings are in demand
ex: when consumers use the product most.
focusing a firm's efforts on offering one or more products to a single segment
develop one or more products for each of several market segments, each with different product needs
-Useful when it’s possible to identify multiple segments that have distinct needs for different types of products.
four steps in developing a position strategy
Our positioning strategy should create a distinctive image in the minds of our consumers that captures our brand’s character and benefits.
We can use this information to construct a picture of where products or brands are “located” in consumers’ minds.
applications that use computers, specialized computer software, databases, and often the Internet to capture information at each touch point -- any point of direct interface between customers and a company (online, by phone, or in person).
the potential profit a single customer's purchase of a firm's products generates over the costumer's lifetime
Expensive goods that an organization uses in its daily operations that last for a long time
Goods that a business customer consumes in a relatively short time
undifferentiated products, of uniform quality, that are produced in large quantities (bulk) by many different producers; the items from each different producer are considered equivalent (undifferentiated).
a new product that copies, with slight modifications, the design of an original product
two reasons why understanding innovations can be critical to the success of firms.
the process by which a consumer or business customer begins to buy and use a new good, service, or idea
The 6 stages that consumers pass through in the adoption of a new product.
The consumer doesn’t have to learn anything new to use a __________ innovation.
From a marketing perspective, this means that it is far easier to convince consumers to adopt this kind of new product.
A _______________ innovation creates major changes in the way we live.
Consumers must engage in a great amount of learning because no similar product has ever been on the market. May require a free product trial or heavy personal selling to convince consumers to buy.
A ____________ continuous innovation is a pronounced modification to an existing product that requires a modest amount of learning or change in behavior to use it.
The coming together of these technologies is an example of a trend known as ____________.
Before marketers can develop product strategies, they must first set
-for individual products
-for product lines and mixes
product objectives may focus on breathing new life into a product while holding on to the traditional brand personality.
objectives may focus on introducing them nationally.
A firm’s entire range of products is called its...
a firm’s total product offering designed to satisfy a single need or desire, such as cleaning products, for a group of target customers
The number of separate items within the same product line
argets many customer segments to boost sales potential
occurs when the new item eats up sales of an existing brand as the firm’s current customers simply switch to the new product.
developing Product Line and Product Mix strategies encompassing multiple offerings.
the overall ability of the product to provide the benefits customers want.
how consumer response to a product, and the company’s marketing activities/strategies for that product change over the life of a product
identifies one firm’s products and sets them apart from the competition
must be easy and fit
the most used and most recognized form of branding.
It must have positive connotation and be memorable.
an attempt at distinguishing similar products that come from different producers.
Graphics for a brand symbol, name, or logo:
Some successful marketers enhance their firm’s brand recognition by creating
a product that is named only or primarily by its generic class
products that have both an individual brand and a generic classification
products owned by the store that sells them.
variation on generic labeling that is now common in the U.S.
One firm sells another firm the right to use a legally protected brand name for a specific purpose and for a specific period of time.
provides brand and name identification for a product.
the legal term for a brand name, brand mark, or trade character
A capital “R” in a circle
The set of black bars or lines printed on the side or bottom of most items sold in retail outlets.
Tracks sales for inventory control.
A two-dimensional matrix bar code that is used to identify products.
The best brands build what kind of connection with their customers?
In many ways, the practice of brand management revolves around
A __________________ is responsible for positioning of brands, developing brand equity.
___________________________ are responsible for coordinating the mix of product lines within the more general product category.
No matter where corn grows, adaptation and versatility have made it for some, the 21st century's gold. That's partly because ___________________________. You'll find corn in over 400 non-food items, from adhesives to explosives.
The U.S. ranks 4th in production [of tobacco] behind China, India and Brazil. Tobacco is the largest ________________ crop grown in the world today.
There are a huge number of uses. And what a lot of people don't understand is in terms of starch, there's more starch used in consumer goods, what we call __________________________ than there is as food.
The production process for planting a seed of corn to making PLA [a.k.a. “corn plastic” or “bioplastic”] is a much smaller _________________________________________ than oil-based plastics.
To grow the corn and convert it to ethanol requires: [check all that apply]
Detractors, however, point out that this will mean less acreage available for ________________
For now, kernels in our gas tanks fuel our cars. But corn converts to another fuel that may not be so good for us. In soda, candy, and about 2,000 other foods, it's sugar made from corn, a.k.a. _____________________________________.
On average, ______________________ comprise more than 50 percent of the U.S. sweetener market. And the most prevalent of all is that super sweet substance, high fructose corn syrup.
But there's a downside to the deliciousness. Some have targeted high fructose corn syrup as a prime catalyst fueling America's growing problem with _______________.
The theory is that high fructose corn syrup depresses the production of hormones that regulate our appetite. So, we are actually less responsive, biologically, to the chemical messengers that tell our body to stop eating.
And that's something _______________________ doesn't do.
The dilemma is that [high fructose corn syrup] is likely to remain a cheap and pervasive ingredient for years to come. Now the problem is that there are no commercially ___________________________ solutions to replace high fructose corn syrup.
The way we eat has changed more in the last 50 years than in the previous 10,000. But the image that is used to sell the food is still the imagery of _______________ America.
If you follow the food chain back from those shrink-wrapped packages of meat, you find a very different reality. The reality is a ________________________.
The whole industrial food system really began with ___________________________.
___________________ basically brought the factory system to the restaurant kitchen.
[Chicken Industry Spokesman] The chicken industry has really set a model for the integration of production, processing and marketing of the products that other industries are now following because they see that we have achieved tremendous ________________________________.
What the system of intensive production accomplishes is to produce a lot of food on a small amount of land at a very _________________________________________.
E. coli isn't just in ground beef now. It's been found in spinach, apple juice; and this is really because of the _________________________ from our factory farms.
We've skewed our food system to the bad calories and it's not an accident. The reason that those calories are cheaper is because those are the ones we're heavily ________________________.
The biggest predictor of obesity is _____________________________.
These companies fight tooth and nail against ___________________________. The fast food industry fought against giving you the calorie information. They fought against telling you if there's trans fat in their food.
These companies] fought not to label genetically modified foods, and now _____ percent of the processed food in the supermarket has some genetically-modified ingredient.
One of the most controversial aspects of the Gene Revolution is the ____________of seeds.
The issue of __________________________ has never been voted on by the people or the Congress of the United States.