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Differentiation positioning - involves seeking less-competitive, smaller market niche in which to locate a brand. Mcdonalds tried to appeal to health-conscious segment when it introduced the low-fat McLean Deluxe hamburger to avoid competing directly with Wendys and Burger King.
adding value to the product (or line) through additional features or higher-quality materials
the pairing of two brand names of two manufacturers on a single product. Hersheys and General miles co-branded to create Reese's peanut butter puffs cereal.
identifies that a firm has legally registered its brand name or trade name so that the firm has its exclusive use, thereby preventing others from using
A branding strategy in which a company uses one name for all its products in a product class. sony, microsfot , GE, Gerber
are independent firms or individuals whose principal function is to bring buyers and sellers together to make sales.
- Leaders in social setting; slightly above average education.
deliberate, many informal social contacts.
skeptical, below average social status.
the practice of using a current brand name to enter a new market segment in its product class. Campbell Soup employs a multiproduct branding strategy with soup line extensions, regular soup, home-cooking style, chunky varieties, etc.
where a firm markets products under its own names and that of a reseller because the segment attracted to the reseller is different from its own market. Elizabeth Arden sells fragrances and beauty products, and they sell its brand through department stores and a line of skin care products at Walmart with the "Skinsimple" brand name.
Packaging Communication Benefits - the label information on it conveyed to the consumer, such as directs on how, where, and when to use the product and the source of composition of the product, which is needed to satisfy legal requirements of the product disclosure.
storage, convenience, protection, or product quality. Storing good containers is one example and beverage companies have developed lighter and easier ways to stack products on shelves and refrigerators.
Packaging Perceptual Benefits - the perceptionof the package created in the consumers mind. Shape, color, graphics, etc. Theydistinguish one brand from another. The Coke bottle shape.
- specifically states the bounds of coverage and more imrtapont, areas of noncoverage.
full warranty -
full warranty - no limits of non-coverage.
Individuals and firms involved in the process of making agood or service available for use or consumption by consumers or industrialusers are referred to as:
An intermediary who sells to otherintermediaries, usually to retailers; usually in consumer markets
· An intermediarywho sells to other intermediaries, usually to retailers; usually in consumermarkets
Jay stops at the shoppingmall to purchase a new pair of jeans from the Diesel store. He is the ultimateconsumer in a pipeline from the producer through intermediaries including theclothing store. The pipeline is actually a
· Any intermediarybetween manufacturer ad end-user markets
Any intermediary with legalauthority to act on behalf of the manufacturer is referred to as a
An intermediary who sells to consumers is referred to as a(an)_________.
Intermediaries make theselling of goods more efficient by
· Minimizing thenumber of sales contacts between producer and consumer
· Transactionalfunctions, logistical functions, and facilitating functions
In terms of distribution,when marketing channel members are engaged in buying, selling, and risk taking,the are performing_______ functions.
Intermediaries performing atransactional function in distribution are engaged in buying, selling, and_________.
The “risk” in atransactional function refers to
Facilitating functionactivities include
Before consumers see amovie, it is assigned a rating such as G or PG based on its language andcontent. This rating system is most clearly related to which facilitatingfunction activity performed by marketing intermediaries?
Marketing channels helpcreate value for customers through four utilities. The utilities are
A commonly used indirectchannel moves product from producer to retailer to consumer. This channel isused when the retailer is large and can buy in large quantities from a producerwhen
· The cost ofinventory makes it too expensive to use a wholesaler
furnish the racks or shelves that display merchandise in retail stores. They perform all channel functions, and sell on consignment to trailers, which means they retain the title to the products displayed and bill retailers only for the merchandise sold.
- wholesalers that own the merchandise they sell but do not physically hand, stock, or deliver it.
are firms that perform most or all of the logistics functions that manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors would normally perform themselves.
Physically moving a productto customers would be an example of a ______.
Extending credit tocustomer……….
Enhancing a product orservice to make it more appealing is an example of a _______ utility.
In a direct channel, allchannel functions are performed by_________.
A channel that includesintermediaries……….
· Indirect channeldistribution
The most indirect channel for consumer goods incorporates agents, wholesalers, and retailersand is most commonly used when
· There are manysmall manufacturers and many small retailers
An arrangement whereby afirm reached different buyers by employing two or more different types ofchannels for the same basic product is referred to as_______.
Pharmaceutical companiessell to hospitals and clinics directly. They market their products to largeretail chains that distribute the medicines to their stores across the nation.They also sell to drug distributers……..
A practice whereby onefirm’s marketing channel is used to sell another firm’s products, is referredto as_______.
Which type of marketingchannel arrangement is especially good for a firm to use in global marketingwhere the creation of marketing channel relationship is expensive and timeconsuming?
Kraft distributes Starbuckscoffee in US supermarkets and internationally using______.
A limited-service wholesalerthat furnishes shelves that display merchandise in stores, performs all channelfunctions, and sells on consignment to retailers is referred to as
Drop shippers refers towholesalers who
· Own the merchandisethey sell but do not physically handle, stock, or deliver it
Agents whorepresent a single producer and are responsible for the entire marketingfunction of that producer
Which of the followingstatements describes the key difference between merchant wholesalers and agentsand brokers?
· Merchantwholesalers take title to merchandise and agents and brokers do not
Independent firms orindividuals whose principal function is to bring buyers and sellers together tomake a sale are referred to as __________.
A new company produces paintand other home decorating products. Its goal is to choose the best marketingchannel arrangement that would give it the most control and the least amount ofconflict. Which marketing channel should this company choose?
When a producer owns anintermediary at the next level down in the marketing channel, it is referred toas________.
Hart Schaffner & Marx isa producer of men’s suits and sports coats that operates 100 menswear stores. HartSchaffner & Marx uses_________.
When a retailer owns amanufacturing operation, it is referred to as
franchising refers to:
A joint venturebetween a parent company (a franchisor) and an individual or firm ( afranchisee) that allows the franchisee to operate a certain type of businessunder an established name and according to specific rules
Fives years ago Benetton delivered new styles toits worldwide stores once a month. Todayit replenished its racks once a week. Getting the fashions to the stores more quickly illustrates thateffectively using logistics has increased there market share by providing
Often companies must choose between a responsivesupply chain and an efficient supply chain. Base upon ____ Dell chose a responsive supply chain and Wal-Mart chosean efficient supply chain.
The objective of info and logistics managementin a supply chain is to minimize relevant logistics costs and to
Dramatic logistics cost savings are possiblewhen efficient transportation and information systems can reduce ________costs.
The limited employs a quick response system toorder fast moving fashion items. Thelimited point-of-sale scanner records each sale. When stock falls below a min level, thesystem automatically sends an electronic order to the manufacturer, whichprocesses the order immediate. Thesystem has effective reduced
Firms that perform most or all the logisticsfunctions that manufacturers, suppliers, and distributers would normallyperform themselves, are referred to as ______
Which of the following statements regardingrailroads is most accurate
Railroads carry bulky items over fairly longdistances at relatively low cost
begins immediately because little learning is required by the consumer, and the benefits of the purchase are readily understood by the consumer.
a producer might own the intermediary at the next level down in the channel. Exemplified by Ralph Lauren, which manufactures clothing and also owns appeal shops.
offer a variety of product lines, stocked in considerable depth
Carry a narrow product mix with deep product lines. They aresometimes called “limited-line retailers”
Buy manufacturers’ seconds, overruns, returns and off-seasonproduction runs at below-wholesale prices for resale to consumers at deepdiscounts
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