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Abercrombie & Fitch is developing a program to get to know its customers. Which of the following is not a reason why A&F needs to understand consumer buying behavior?
all customers are the same when it comes to buying behavior
Purchasers who intend to use or benefit from the purchased product and do not buy products to make profits are part of the
Many aspects of consumer buying decisions are affected by the individual's level of involvement. Level of involvement is
the importance and intensity of interest in a product in a particular situation.
Justin is purchasing his third car in the past five years. He has been a car enthusiast ever since he was a little boy. He likes to spend his free time looking at car magazines, going to car shows, and watching NASCAR. Justin's interest in cars is referred to as
A major determining factor in deciding which type of problem-solving process should be used depends on the individual's intensity of interest in a product and the importance of the product for that person. This is known as an individual's
level of involvement.
Chloe and Max are searching for a health club to join. This purchase will likely be affected by ___________ involvement.
Temporary and dynamic factors that result from a particular set of circumstance a consumer is facing when making purchase decisions characterize
The three most widely recognized types of consumer problem solving are:
limited problem solving, extended problem solving, and routinized response behavior.
While shopping at a Kroger grocery store, Tom sees a display of his favorite brand of diet cola. He buys a six-pack to take home for the weekend. This purchase process would be described as
routinized response behavior.
Which of the following consumer problem-solving processes will probably be used in purchasing toothpaste?
Routinized response behavior
Which product listed would most likely be purchased through routinized response behavior?
Which of the following buying situations is most consistent with routinized response behavior?
Stephanie buying bottled water
Stacy is going to the store to buy a gallon of milk. She will most likely use ___________ in her consumer decision-making process.
routinized response behavior
Routinized response behavior is what a consumer does when
buying frequently purchased, low-cost items that need little effort.
In contrast to extended problem solving, routinized response behavior requires
less information about products.
When a consumer purchases products occasionally or needs information about an unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category, he or she will most likely engage in
limited problem solving.
When a new variety of Kashi whole-grain breakfast cereals is first introduced, consumers will most likely engage in______ when deciding whether or not to purchase this new product.
limited problem solving
Jenny plans to buy a new swimsuit for her spring break cruise. She has not seen this year's styles and thus will do some comparison shopping before making a purchase decision. Jenny is engaging in
limited problem solving.
Kellogg's is introducing a new bran waffle for toasters. Television commercials will be a key element in communicating the benefits associated with this product. Based on that decision, Kellogg's is expecting consumers to engage in what form of problem solving?
Limited problem solving
For which of the following products would a consumer most likely use limited problem solving?
Which of the following purchases would most likely require a consumer to use extended problem solving?
Extended problem solving is the type of consumer problem-solving process that
is the most complex problem-solving behavior, which comes into play when a purchase involves unfamiliar, expensive, or infrequently bought products.
Which of the following products would probably require extended problem solving before a purchase?
Jose and Teresa are searching for a new cellular phone. They will most likely engage in which one of the following forms of problem solving?
Extended problem solving
An unplanned buying behavior resulting from a powerful urge to buy something immediately is called
Marissa goes to Target to purchase school supplies for her two children. As she is approaching the check-out counter, she sees a vase she just has to have and buys it immediately. Marissa's purchase of the vase is an example of
Beth Hines is buying furniture for her apartment for the first time. She is spending considerable time and effort comparing the products that different stores offer. Which type of problem-solving process is she using?
Mark is shopping for a new suit to wear to an important interview. He really wants to impress his prospective employer and is shopping at many stores to find the right outfit. Martin is using which type of consumer problem-solving process?
Extended problem solving
The five major stages of the consumer buying decision process, in order, are
problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase evaluation.
Which of the following statements about the consumer buying decision process is true?
Consumers making limited problem-solving decisions may not go through all five steps of the process.
Problem recognition occurs when a consumer
becomes aware that there is a difference between a desired state and an actual condition.
When Julia goes to the first class of her Operations Management course, she finds out that in addition to the textbook she already purchased, she also needs a copy of the book The Goal. At which stage of the consumer buying decision process is Julia?
As Steve is shopping for groceries, he notices a product on the shelf and remembers that he is about to run out of it at home. In terms of the consumer buying decision process, Steve just experienced
Within the information search step of the consumer buying decision process, what two primary aspects exist?
Internal search and external search
As Jeff runs out of shaving cream, he immediately tries to remember what he did the last time this happened. He is engaging in
When Trevor realizes his liquor cabinet supply was devastated by last weekend's party, he first retrieves information from his memory about what types of liquor he and his friends like most and then asks the attractive clerk at the liquor store what she would recommend. Trevor started with a(n) _____ search and then progressed to a(n) _____ search.
When, in their information search, consumers focus on communication with friends and relatives, they are utilizing ______ sources.
In the consumer buying decision process, the information search stage
yields a group of brands that a buyer views as possible alternatives
A publication such as Consumer Reports may be initially used during a(n)
external information search.
When shopping for detergent, Josh looks at Tide, Fresh Start, Surf, and All and chooses the one that is on sale. These four brands make up his _________ set.
In shopping for a new laptop computer for her master degree program, the alternatives Jocelyn is considering include Dell, Toshiba, Sony, and Hewlett-Packard. These four brands make up Jocelyn's
A group of brands that a consumer views as alternatives for possible purchase is called a(n)
Evaluative criteria for brands within the consideration set are both
objective and subjective.
A customer shopping for a fax machine tells a salesperson that it is important for the fax machine to have several attributes. It must use plain paper, be able to make copies, be compatible with all other fax machines, and not require a separate phone line. The buyer has expressed his or her
All of the following are marketer-dominated sources of information except
During the evaluation of alternatives stage of the consumer buying decision process, framing most likely influences the decision process of ___________ buyers.
After doing considerable shopping, Eric has just decided what brand and type of athletic shoes to buy and where he's going to buy them. In what stage of the consumer buying decision process is Eric?
Doubts in a buyer's mind about whether the purchase decision made was the right one may occur during the
After purchasing a new Lexus, Pablo sees an Infinity pass by on the street and begins to wonder if he made the right choice. Pablo is experiencing
After purchasing a product, postpurchase evaluation may result in cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is
doubts that occur because the buyer questions whether the decision to purchase the product was right.
The three major categories of influences on the consumer buying decision process are:
situational influences, social influences, and psychological influences.
The five categories of situational influences are:
purchase reason, time perspective, social surroundings, physical surroundings, and buyer's momentary mood.
___________ are situational influences that include the characteristics and interactions of others who are present when a purchase decision is being made, such as friends, relatives, and salespeople.
The primary psychological influences on consumer behavior are:
perception, motives, learning, attitudes, personality, and lifestyles
Perception is a three-step process that involves
selecting, organizing, and interpreting information inputs.
In the process of perception, individuals receive sensations through sight, sound, taste, smell, and hearing. These sensations are called
Selective exposure refers to
admitting only certain inputs into consciousness.
As Brianna walks to classes, she selects, organizes, and interprets the sensations she is receiving through her sense organs. Brianna is experiencing the process of
When individuals choose which information inputs will reach their awareness and ignore other inputs, they are using
If a consumer receives information that is inconsistent with her or his beliefs, the consumer may alter this information. This perceptual process is known as selective
After certain inputs have been selected to reach an individual's awareness, the next step in the perceptual process is perceptual
Maria reads through the newspaper fashion flyers containing advertisements for sweaters from Polo, purses from JC Penney, and tennis shoes from Foot Locker. She remembers only the shoe ad, thanks to the recent tear in her own Reeboks. Maria has engaged in selective
When organizing perceptual inputs, people tend to mentally fill in missing elements in a pattern or statement. This principle is called
Assignment of meaning to organized information inputs is called
A salesperson at Best Buy tells Patrick Dunnavan that the Sony Notebook is one of the most reliable computer notebooks ever made. Patrick, however, has just heard about a second Sony recall for this model because of overheating. His most likely response will be to
forget the information from the salesperson.
Consumers tend to remember information inputs that support their feelings and beliefs and forget inputs that do not. This is known as selective
Which of the following statements about how a consumer organizes inputs that reach awareness is most accurate?
Inputs that reach awareness are organized to produce meaning, and this meaning is interpreted in light of what is familiar to the individual.
Buyers' actions are affected by one or more internal energizing forces geared toward satisfying needs, which are called
Maslow's hierarchy of needs refers to the five levels of needs that humans seek to satisfy, from most to least important. These needs, in order from most to least important are
physiological, safety, social, and esteem, self-actualization.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs,
individuals first satisfy the most basic needs and then try to fulfill needs at the next level up.
Human requirements for love, affection, and a sense of belonging would be classified by Maslow as _____ needs.
Jana now feels that her teeth are not white enough after seeing advertisements for whitening toothpaste. Marketers promote these brands based on ___________ needs, appealing to sex appeal.
People's needs to grow, develop, and achieve their full potential are referred to by Maslow as ______ needs.
The U.S. Army recruits soldiers based on the slogan, "An army of one," implying that people can reach their full personal potential in the U.S. Army. This is an appeal to what need according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Psychological influences that determine where a person purchases products on a regular basis are called
Luis likes shopping at Stein Mart, a discount department store, because he likes the prices, products, and services the store provides. His selection of this store as a regular stop when shopping is influenced by ___________ motives.
Changes in an individual's thought processes and behavior caused by information and experience is called
Marketers often provide consumers with experience to their products, including free samples and trial offers, to facilitate consumer
An attitude is
one's evaluation, feelings, and behavioral tendencies toward an object or idea.
Having used both Secret and Sure deodorants, Annette feels that Secret is a good product and the one that best meets her needs. She has formed a(n) ___________ about Secret.
Cognitive, affective, and behavioral are the three major components of
What consumer research method consists of a series of adjectives, phrases, or sentences regarding an object, with subjects indicating the intensity of their feelings toward this object by reacting to these adjectives, phrases, or sentences?
Melanie prefers to shop at Target for most of her household needs even though the same products and brands are available at KMart. She prefers the service, location, and friendliness of the employees at Target. Melanie's reasons that influence her decision to shop at Target are called
An attitude scale measures the
intensity of a buyer's feelings toward a certain object.
Changing people's attitudes toward a firm and its marketing program is
a long, expensive, and difficult task that may require extensive advertising campaigns.
The results of many studies have been inconclusive regarding the association between buyer behavior and
Hereditary characteristics combined with personal experiences that together make an individual unique form one's
The development of a person's self-concept is a function of
psychological and social factors.
Shane spends most of his free time participating in extreme sports and traveling to exotic locations with a group of close friends who share his interests and opinions about most things. This is a description of Shane's
A consumer's buying decisions are affected in part by the people around him or her. Such people and the forces they exert on an individual buyer are called
The actions and activities associated with a position one holds within a group, organization, or institution constitute
Jonathan is torn between buying a new swing set for his kids and buying a new set of Ping golf clubs for himself. Jonathan is experiencing
The forces that other people exert on one's buying behavior are called social influences. These come from reference groups and opinion leaders, social classes, culture and subcultures, roles, and
Shaun is going shopping with his dad to buy his first baseball glove for Little League. He listens to his dad talk to the salesperson at the sporting goods store, watches him examine the stitching in the glove and then rub his finger over the leather palm. Shaun's observations are part of his
Children often achieve ______ by observing parents and older siblings in purchase situations and then through their own purchase experiences.
Jennifer is interested in joining Kappa Lambda Iota sorority. She begins to shop at Sarah's, a local store where the Kappas buy their clothes. She also asks her family for a new car because all the sorority members have new cars. In these instances, Jennifer is influenced by
a reference group.
The three major types of reference groups are:
aspirational, disassociative, and membership.
Marketers who attempt to use reference-group influence in advertisements are most likely to succeed when messages indicate that
people in a specific group buy the product and are highly satisfied by it.
A group becomes a reference group for an individual when that person identifies with this group so strongly that he or she
takes on many of the values, attitudes, or behaviors of group members.
Which one of the following is most likely to be a product for which both the purchasing decision and the brand decision are strongly influenced by reference groups?
An opinion leader is likely to be most effective under all of the following conditions except when the
follower has attitudes and values that are different from those of the opinion leader.
Katie is buying her first car and has narrowed her choices down to a Honda Civic, a Toyota Prius, or a Volkswagen Jetta. Katie goes on-line and posts questions to others who have experience with any of these cars, asking for reviews. Katie is most likely
using a blog.
Which of the following statements regarding social class is true?
A social class is an open aggregate of people with similar social ranking.
An open aggregate of people with similar social ranking is referred to as a
Our society uses many factors, including occupation, educational level, income, wealth, religion, race, ethnic group, and possessions, to group people into
According to Coleman's major social class categories, which of the following social classes in our culture has these characteristics: lives in well-kept neighborhoods, likes fashionable items, and is often found in management positions?
According to Coleman's major social class categories, the social class in our society that favors prestigious schooling, neighborhoods, and brands is the
According to Coleman's social class categories, the social class that includes approximately 40 percent of the population, shops for bargains, and buys sports and recreational equipment is the
Market researchers for a local bakery determined that Jewish people consume 63 percent of the portion of bagels sold in New York City. This is an example of ___________ influence on consumer buying decision processes.
Which American subculture spends the highest proportion of its income on utilities, footwear, children's apparel, groceries, and housing?
Which of the following is the fastest growing, most affluent subculture in the United States?
needs concerned with protection and physical well-being.
A unique brand name that identifies a specific offering within a firm's product line
Pepsi, Also owns MTDew, SierraMist, Sobe, Aquafina
Retailer-sponsored groups (formed by independent retailers) that run their own buying organizations and conduct joint venture promotion efforts
merchant wholesalers that provide all the wholesaling functions (general merchandise, single-line, specialty)
customer service reps
work with customers to resolve problems that arise with a purchase