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Itemized and graphic scales are Noncomparative
Scales in which one object, concepts, or person is compared with another on a scale
respondents are required to divide a given number of points, typically 100, among two or more attributes based on their importance to the person
Number of points allocated to each alternative indicates the rank
The means of the responses are then plotted in a profile or image
Bias may be significant if the image is hazy in the respondent’s mind.
To partially counteract the halo effect, the researcher should randomly reverse scale adjectives so that all the “good” ones are not placed on one side of the scale and the “bad” ones on the other.
Can be administered by phone or internet
Usually commercial researchers don’t follow the textbook-like process for developing
Instead, scale developed jointly by a client project manager and a researcher
Sometimes created after a focus group
We often call individual items “likert-type” items
Type of Scale
Balanced versus Nonbalanced Scale
Number of Scale Categories
Forced Versus Nonforced Choice
· Document developed by a marketing research supplier usually in response to an RFP, that presents the research objectives, research design, time line, and cost of a project
Increase understanding of concept
Clarify exact nature of the problem to be solved
Identify important variables to be studied
Broader in scope and far more general than Marketing Research Problems
Must be narrowly defined and specific
Sometimes several studies needed to solve a broad management problem
Keep Objectives unambiguous
Avoid the Nice to Know Syndrome
· The plan to be followed to answer the marketing research objectives.
It is the detailed blueprint used to guide the research study towards its objectives including what and how you will conduct the research study.
cost of research vs. the quality of information provided
Generally, more precise and error-free = higher costs
Time constraints also affect the type of research design
Conducted to answer who, what, when, where, and how questions
Assumed that management already knows or understands the underlying relationships among the variables in the problem
Used when one wants to gain a better understanding of the specifics or details of the market.
Are one time snapshots of population;
Use the same survey & different
Identify market trends;
Use the same survey & same sample;
Use tracking panels & groups.
A symbol or concept expected to be explained or influenced by the independent variable.
One affects the dependent variable by manipulating independent variables.
Best experiments hold all variables constant except the ones being manipulated
Using experiments, a researcher can rule out spurious associations and be confident is saying that changes in the dependent variable are caused by changes in the independent variable
An experiment conducted in a test facility rather than in a natural environment
Most survey-based data is collected on the internet
Data collection is usually done by marketing research field services.
Specialize in collecting data through personal and telephone interviewing
Must provide decision-making information;
Must consider the respondent;
Must meet editing and coding requirements.
provide the information required for management decision making
process of grouping and assigning numeric code to the various responses to a question
Also can be done for Open Ended Questions
Enable respondents to give their general reactions
Can provide a rich array of information.
Data provided can serve as a means of interpreting closed-ended questions.
May suggest additional alternatives not listed in a closed-ended question
There is a time- and money-consuming process of editing and coding.
May be biased toward the articulate interviewee.
Interpretation-processing area – A proper set of categories must be determined, then each response evaluated as to which category it falls into
The questions are inappropriate in some self-administered questionnaires
Choice is between two answers
You avoid of all the disadvantages of open-ended questions.
Reading response alternatives may jog a person’s memory.
Interviewer bias is eliminated.
No bias to articulate interviewee because they are not given the option of expanding on ideas
Coding and data entry can be done automatically with questionnaire software programs.
Two fixed alternatives–yes or no; agree or disagree.
Are prone to a large amount of measurement error.
The alternatives are polarized; the wide range of possible choices between the poles is omitted
Question wording is very critical in obtaining accurate responses.
Responses frequently fail to communicate any intensity of feeling on the part of the respondent
Amount of information provided is more limited.
Not all possible alternatives are included to overcome include the question ‘other’.
The researcher must spend time generating the list of possible responses.
The range of possible answers can be too long or too short.
Position bias–respondents typically will choose either the first or the last alternative, all other things being equal.
Internet questionnaire software and CATI systems eliminate the position bias by automatically rotating response order.
Permits the measurement of the intensity of respondents’ answers.
Many forms incorporate numbers which can be used directly as codes.
Can use much more powerful statistical tools with some scaled-response questions
Make Sure Wording is Clear - Means same thing to all, Words native to target respondent. No jargon
· Stating purpose upfront
· No double-barreled questions
Avoid Biasing the Respondent - Leading Questions, Biased Words, Avoid identifying sponsor early
Consider ability of respondent to answer question - Keep referenced time periods short
Consider willingness of respondent to answer question - Embarrassing topics, Third person, “Most People”
· Use counterbiasing statements
Start with Screeners - Unqualified respondents
Next - Question that gets interest -No income or age
Next – Ask General Questions
Next – Questions that require work
Last – Sensitive, Threatening, Demographic Questions
Each question must serve a purpose.
Is it directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey?
Unless it is a screener, an interest generator, or a required transition, it must be directly related to the survey objectives
Increase productivity by allowing market researchers to take on more projects while using fewer of their internal resources
Do not provide design and analytical capabilities (not full service)
Experience, services, and standards vary from firm to firm.
such as personality, values, and intelligence
We should therefore include questions that measure personality to rule personality out
Such as temporary mood swings, health problems, time constraints, or fatigue.
Just got a phone call that he got a job
Such as distractions or others present In the interview situation
Degree to which what the researcher was trying to measure was actually measured.
The degree to which a measurement seems to measure what it is supposed to measure
The weakest form of validity
On its face, does it look like it measures what it is supposed to measure?
What is your age?
17 or Younger
18 – 23
24 – 32
33 – 50
representativeness or sampling adequacy of the content of the measurement instrument.
Does the scale provide adequate coverage of the topic under study?
Measure image among adults age 18 – 20 who eat fast food burgers at least once a month
The extent to which a future level of a dependent variable can be predicted by a current measurement on a scale
Voter motivation scale - Should predict whether someone will actually vote
Purchase intent scale?
Concerned with the relationship between the predictor variable and the dependent variable, both of which are assessed at the same point in time
Home Pregnancy test
theoretical foundations underlying the obtained measurements
Research aimed at solving a specific pragmatic problem such as a better understanding of the marketplace, determining why a strategy or tactic failed, or reducing uncertainty in management decision making.
1. It may be difficult to locate and gain the cooperation of respondents for a second testing
2. The first measurement may alter the second response
3. Environmental or personal factors may change, causing the second measurement to change
1. When two very similar forms of an instrument produce closely correlated results.
2. Two equivalent but different instruments are created and given to the same sample
1. Very difficult to create two totally equivalent forms
2. If equivalence can be achieved it may not be worth the time, trouble, and expense involved.
A method of assessing the reliability of a scale by dividing the total set of measurement items in half and correlating the results.
the estimate of reliability is totally dependent on how the items were split.
Different splits result in different correlations
Involves computing the mean reliability for all possible ways of splitting a set of items in half.
A lack of correlation of an item with other items in the scale is evidence that the item does not belong in the scale
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