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· Devout: 25%
· Mildly interested: 50%
· Secular: 25%
· 83% claim a religious affiliation
· 50% see religion as important
· 36% attend a religious service
o down from 86% in 1990
· 66% of Arab Americans claim Christianity as their religion
o up from 50% in 1990
Perception is a process that begins with consumer exposure and attention to marketing stimuli and ends with consumer _____.
Which of the following is NOT a step in the information-processing model?
The fact that all aspects of the perception process are extremely selective is referred to as _____.
Carl is doing his homework and has the television on in the background. While it is on, several commercials aired. What stage of the information-processing model does this represent?
Carla watches television shows whenever she has time because she uses a digital video recorder to record the shows. When she watches them, she fast-forwards through the commercials, which is known as _____.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding ad avoidance?
zipping, zapping and muting are simply mechanical ways for the consumer to avoid ad exposure
Barry decided he needs a new car, so he started looking at commercials on television and ads in magazines as well as visiting several Web sites. What type of exposure does this represent?
Program-length commercials with an 800 number and/or Web address through which to order or request additional information are known as _____.
The voluntary and self-selected nature of online offerings where consumers "opt in" to receive email-based promotions is often referred to as _____.
Attention is determined by which factor?
_____ represents the number of cues in the stimulus field.
_____ is a drive state created by consumer interests and needs.
....and searched the key words "digital camera." Unbeknownst to him, several banner ads for brands and retailers of digital cameras appeared on the results page, that were activated based on the terms he used in his search. These banner ads are known as _____.
_____ refers to the capacity of individuals to attend to and process information.
Which factor affecting attention includes stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus (i.e., the ad or package) and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment, such as time pressures or a crowded store?
____ represents the density of stimuli in the environment.
Which side of the brain deals with pictorial, geometric, timeless, and nonverbal information without the individual being able to verbally report it?
Interpretation is generally a relative process rather than absolute, often referred to as _____.
_____ meaning is the specific meaning assigned a word by a given individual or group of individuals based on their experiences, expectations, and the context in which the term is used.
When Joan sees an ad with a kitten or puppy, she always pays attention because seeing them makes her feel so happy. This emotional or feeling response triggered by the ads is known as _____.
Some people experience emotions more strongly than do others, which is a trait known as _____.
Denise tends to experience emotions more strongly than most people, so much so that there are some ads that she cannot even watch because they make her cry. This trait is known as _____.
Individuals' interpretation of stimuli tend to be consistent with their expectations, an effect referred to as the _____.
An advertiser who formats its factual information so that it is easier to process _____.
_____ refers to the fact that stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the same category.
....images of winter Olympic athletic events with athletes and fans warming up to a mug of their instant cocoa. While Swiss Miss is not an official sponsor of the winter Olympics, consumers viewing the ads might reasonably infer that they were. What type of marketing is this?
_____ involves presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background.
When a communication leads consumers to believe something about the product that is not true even though it doesn't present a direct false claim, this is known as _____.
Skippy is a well-known brand of peanut butter that recently introduced a line of snack bars bearing the Skippy name. This is an example of _____.
Which of the following provides learning experiences that affect the type of lifestyle people seek and the products they consume?
A series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored is called _____.
Which of the following are the two interrelated components of memory?
Which portion of total memory is devoted to permanent information storage?
Which of the following refers to the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long-term memory?
The capacity of STM is thought to be in the range of _____ bits of information.
Which group of consumers are better able to chunk product information?
Which type of processing involves the recall and mental manipulation of sensory images, including sight, smell, taste, and tactile (touch) sensations?
What are two important long-term memory structures?
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding schemas?
Leslie was participating in a market research study, and she was asked to list all of the brands of computer printers that come to her mind. She listed HP, Epson, and Lexmark. These brands represent Leslie's _____.
Maria was Catholic now she doesnt go to church, when she does attend mass, she remembers the sequence of events and what she must do (e.g., sit, kneel, stand, which prayer to say, etc.). Her memory of how an action sequence should occur is known as a(n) _____.
How can accessibility of information stored in long-term memory be enhanced?
Accessibility is related to which of the following?
Which type of memory involves the nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli?
Which type of learning situation is one in which the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material?
In which type of learning situation does the consumer have little or no motivation to process or learn the material?
Which of the following is the primary determinant of how material is learned?
High-involvement learning often involves _____.
Which of the following is NOT a specific learning theory?
_____ attempts to create an association between a response (e.g., buying a brand) and some outcome (e.g., satisfaction) that serves to reinforce the response.
The more often a response is reinforced, the more likely it will be repeated in the future as consumers learn that the response is associated with a positive outcome is the basic premise of which type of learning?
The process of encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response is known as _____.
Which type of learning encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations?
Learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning is known as _____.
When consumers do not directly experience a reward or punishment to learn but instead observe the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly, which type of learning has occurred?
Which type of reasoning allows consumers to use an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object?
_____ occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus.
In conditioned learning, forgetting is often referred to as _____.
Donald has diabetes so.. He reads health magazines, visits health-related Web sites, and reads product nutrition and ingredient information on packages. Donald's strength of learning is most likely to be strong due to which factor that affects the strength of learning?
Anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future is considered _____.
Sometimes consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way, which is an effect referred to as _____.
_____ refers to the schematic memory of a brand.
The decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment is called _____.
When Honda introduced its Odyssey mini-van, its advertising merely claimed, "It's the Honda of mini-vans." This is an example of _____.
One factor motivating U.K. travelers is learning. Which of Maslow's needs is this most related to?
Which of the following reflects the relatively stable behavioral tendencies that individuals display across a variety of situations?
Which construct represents an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response?
Which term is often used interchangeably with the term "motivation"?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs includes all EXCEPT which of the following?
Many victims of hurricane Katrina were left without their homes, food, and water--basic necessities for living. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which motives were activated for these individuals?
Which need in Maslow's hierarchy reflects a desire for love, friendship, affiliation, and group acceptance?
Which of Maslow's needs involves the desire for self-fulfillment, to become all that one is capable of becoming?
In McGuire's classification of motives, which ones focus on the person's need for being adaptively oriented toward the environment and achieving a sense of meaning?
____ motives emphasize the individual as striving to maintain equilibrium.
Which of the following is NOT used to classify McGuire's psychological motives?
The tendency of many consumers to discount claims made by sales people and ads is related to the need _____.
Adam was working on a term paper and was exposed to so much information that he devised a classification system to organize the different sources of information he was using. This reflects which cognitive preservation motive?
Elizabeth is 15 years old and is asking her parents for more freedom. She wants to make more of the decisions that affect her, such as the clothes she wears, how late she can stay out, and what school she attends. This is an example of Elizabeth's need for _____.
A substantial amount of brand switching when the current brand is satisfactory may be explained by the _____ motive.
Theories based on which need view the consumer as a problem solver who approaches situations as opportunities to acquire useful information or new skills?
A consumer who purchases a certain style of clothes to establish and reinforce a unique identity is most likely fulfilling a need for _____.
Which need is activated when one's identity is threatened, motivating the person to protect his or her self-concept and utilize defensive behaviors and attitudes?
A consumer's need for reinforcement is _____
An advertising theme such as "Serve Pepsi to your friends, they'll love you for it" is most likely based on _____ motivation.
Which need results in the consumer playing various roles and gaining pleasure from adding new, satisfying roles and by increasing the significance of roles already adopted?
The willingness to buy a particular product or service is known as _____.
When asked why he bought a specific automobile, Jeremy replied that is has good gas mileage, is rated one the best cars in terms of safety, and was in a moderate price range. These reasons reflect Jeremy's _____ motives.
Beyond projective techniques, a popular tool for identifying motives is _____.
Since latent motives often are less than completely socially desirable, _____ are frequently used.
Which of the following is a motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting?
Which of the following is a hedonic shopping motive related to McGuire's typology?
In which type of motivational conflict must a consumer choose between two attractive alternatives?
Regulatory focus theory suggests that ____.
Which of the following is NOT a core trait in the Five-Factor Model of personality?
Which core trait in the Five-Factor Model of personality is manifested by an individual being moody, temperamental, and touchy?
Lori reads three newspapers a day and is always reading a book in the evening. She has a high need to engage in thinking, and she actually enjoys it. She likes to complete crossword puzzles and do other types of word games. Lori has a high need for _____.
A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand is referred to as _____.
Whole Foods Supermarkets have been described as down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, and cheerful. Which dimension of brand personality does this represent?
3. second city
4. town and country
various dimensions, features or benefits a consumer looks for in response to a specific problem
After WWII, The Depression & The Cold War
type of marketing ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause
an online "pass it along" strategy, it uses electronic communications to trigger brand message throughout a widespread network of buyers
companies like American Express 1st marked to the gay with standard ads
28% of Americans have a college degree
86% have high school degree
What % is single parent families in the US?
Black and Hispanic
the 1st to gain very broad view of family, which may include half parents, steps siblings
sometimes referred to as the echo boom
All of the above is the reason they work longer than other groups
Newest generations born around 1994
the complex whole that includes knowledge belief art law morals customs and any of capabilites and habits acquired by humans as members of society
a segment of a larger culture whose members share distingushing values and patterns of behavior
hierarchical division of a society into relatively distinct and homogeneous groups with respect to attitudes, values and lifestyles
Marketing- the basic consumption unit for most consumer goods.
Cesus Bureau- all the people who occupt a housing unit
Household life Cycle (HLC)
based on age, marital status and the presence and age of children
Family decision making
the process by which decisions that directly or indirectly involved 2 or more family members are made
2 or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, beliefs and have certain implicitly or explicitly defines relationships to one and another such that their behavior is interdependent
The process of describing and explaining attitudes, values, and behaviors of an age group as well are predicting future attitiudes, values and behaviors
Some individuals have information about many different types of products, places to shop, and other aspects of markets. They can be considered a special type of opinion leader
venture some risk takers. tend to be younger better educated and more socially mobile. capable of absorbing financial and social costs. 1st 2.5 % of the product lifecycle curve
Tend to be opinion leaders in local reference groups. successful and well educated. provide information to others. 2nd groups of the product lifecycle curve
a learned predispostions to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
occurs when a stimulus is placed within a persona's relevent environment and comes within range of their sensory receptor nerves
when the consumer wants to self select more information companies use this to ease secirty concerns
permission based marketing
voluntary and self-selected nature of online offerings where consumers "opt in" to recieve emails and promotions
the manner in which the message is presented
triggered by environmental events
not included in Maslows hierarchy of needs. But is included in McGuire's classification of motives.
occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nevers and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing
Factors affecting attention
2. the individual
Format info. to be easy to proces by..
size & color & shape
considered an outward expression of one's self-concept
how a person lives
permanent infomation storage
short term memory
fast forwarding through commercials
sometimes called knowledge structure. compless web association in memory. contains product characteristcs, use situations, episodes and affective reactions
Low involvemnt learning
the consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material
High involvment learning
the consumer is motivated to process and learn the material
a response that is reinforced is more likely to be repeated when the same situation arises in the future
reflects the relatively stable behavioral tendencies that individuals display across a variety of situations
Maslows hierarchy of needs
all humans require basic needs, once the basic needs are met they will then need other things
cognitive or affective?
status quo or growth?
Regulatory focus theory
we will react differently depending on which broad set of motives is most salient
the totality of the individuals thoughts and feelings having reference to himself as an object
yourself plus your possessions
1. minumalist- motivated by value
2. gatherers- motivated by keeping up with trends
3. providers- motivated by shooping for others
4. enthusiats- motivated by fun and adventure
5. traditionalist- moderatly motivated by all hedonic aspects w/gratification high on list
provides a systematic classification of american adults into 8 consumers segments: innovators, thinkers, believers, achievers, strivers, experiencers, makers, sirvivors
Jewish male coming of age
all those factors particular to a time and place that do not follow from knowledge of the stable attributes of the consumer
physical features, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task defination and antecedent states
transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specifc object or event
1. appropriate evalautive cristers for the solution to the problem
2. the existance of various alternative solutions
3. the performance level or characteristics of each alternative solution on each evaluative criterion
consumer decision making only included the stages of problem recognition, limited internal information search, purchase and limited postpurchase behavior
consumer decision making includes evalution of only a few attributes, simple decision rules, and few alternatives
high purchase involvement, involved an extensive internal and external information search followed by a complex evaluation of multiple alternatives and significant post purchase evalution
all of the brands that a consumer thinks of as potential solutions
the 1st products that come to mind in that particular group
brands for which a consumer is aware of but basically indefferent toward
the result of a discrepancy between desired state & actual state
the approaches to P.I.
1. activity analysis
3. emotion analysis
4. problem research
searching for information isn not free. it involves mental as well as physical activites. it takes time, money and energy
an internal search to determine the features or characteristics required to meet your needs
1. memory of past searches
2. personal sources such as friends and family
3. independent sources such as magazines
4. marketing sources such as webistes and ad's
5. experiential sources such as product trail
use when there are numerous evaluative criteria and the decison is complex
search engine optimization
involves techniques designed to ensure that a company's webpage appears high on an internet search result list
maximizing the accuracy of the decsions or minimizing the experience of negative emotions while making the decision
motives activates behaviors designed to achieve a 2nd goal
based on conscious evaluation of various features. more holistic in nature generally focues on the way they will make the user feel as a product is use
the consumer is presented with a set of products or product descriptions in which the evaluative criteria vary, then they rank what criteria is the most imporant to them
most widely used technique
conjunctive, disjunctive, elimination by aspect, lexiographic, compensatory
establishes a minumum required performance standard for each evalutive criterion and selects the 1st or all brands that meet or exeed the minimum standard
decsions rule establishes a minimum level of performance for each imporant attribute and all brands that meet or exceed the performance level for any key attribute are considered acceptable
requires the consumer to rank the criteria in order of imporance
the brands that rates the highest on the sum of the consumers judgements of the relevant criteria wil be chosen
requires consumer to rank the evaluative criteria in terms of their imporantance to establish a cutoff point for each criterion
1. outlet 1st, brand second
2. brand 1st, outlet 2nd
1. shopping lovers- buys online often
2. adventurous explorers- online shopping is fun
3. suspicious leaners- lack computer training
4. business users- use computer for business only
5. fearful browsers- cusp of online buying
6. shopping avoiders- dont want to wait for delivered products
7. technology muddlers- computer illiterate
8. fun seekers- security issues
sudden urge to have item
a price with which other proces are compared to
consumer doubts the purchase he has made
an outlet or brand whose performance confirms a low-performance expectation generally will result in this
the physical functioning of the product
the emotional response that owning or using a product provides
involved organizational characteristics ( size, activities, objectives, location & inductsy category) and characteristics of the organozation (gender, age, education, income distribution)
innovative organziations that derive a great deal of their success from leading change. have been shown to be a key reference grouop that influences both reference group infrastructure and other potential users.
leader users accelerate market adoption
lead users tend to accelerate diffusion of information through infrastructure
situation occurs when purchase is a minor importance and is not complex. Reordering basic supplies and component parts
moderately important to the firm or the choice is slightly more cpmplex. involves a product or service that the organization is accustomed to purchasing but the product or the firm's needs have changes.
buying decisions is very imporant and the choice is quite complex
complex, multideminsional process. the study of individuals, groups and organizations and their processes they use to select, secure, and use and dispose of products, services , experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processesses have on the consumer and society
small convenient, oper-air retailing complexes laid out to evoke the small-town shopping districts of previous generations
market segmentation steps
1. ID product related need sets