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Determines WHAT the advertising message will say or communicate
Determine HOW the message strategy will be executed
Approach used to attract consumers’ attention and/or to influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause
Creative execution style
Manner in which a particular appeal is turned into an advertising message presented to the consumer
Two categories or classes
Focus on the consumer’s practical, functional, or utilitarian need for the product or service
Types of Informational/Rational Appeals
• The Red Bull ad focuses on the various ingredients contained in the energy drink and the benefits they provide such as enhanced performance, endurance, and concentra/on.
• The ad is targeted to students to help them stay awake and alert when studying for exams.
Relate to the customers’ social and psychological needs for purchasing a product or service
Create favorable effect on consumers’ evaluations of a brand
Generate large profit gains
Rational & Emotional appeals can be combined as many purchase decisions are made on the basis of both rational and emotional motives.
Advantages of Emotional-Only Campaigns
Influence consumers’ interpreta/ons of product usage experience
Associates the experience of using the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics
and/or more enjoyable
• Builds brand awareness and/or helps keep the brand name in front of consumers
• Builds curiosity, interest, and/or excitement about a product or brand by talking about it but not actually showing it
• Created by consumers rather than by the company and/ or its agency
• Relies on a straight forward presentation of information concerning the product or service
• Used with informational rational appeals
• Advertisers cite technical/scientific information to support their advertising claims
• Illustrates the key advantages of the product by showing its actual use
• Effective in convincing consumers of a product’s u/lity, quality, and benefits
• Shows a brand’s particular advantage over its rivals
• Helps in positioning a new or lesser-‐known brand with
• Used to execute competive advantage appeals
• Messages are presented by a person who elaborates on his or her personal experience with it
• Endorsement -‐ A well-‐known or respected individual speaks on behalf of the company or the brand
• Based on a problem/solution approach
• Used by business-‐to-‐business marketers
• Slice-‐of-‐death advertising -‐ Focuses on the negative consequences that result when wrong decisions are made
• Developing a central character that can deliver the adver/sing message
• Aids consumers to iden/fy with a product/service
• Consists of visual elements rather than informa/on
• Encourage buyers to associate the brand with the symbols, characters, or
situa/on shown in the ad
• Focuses on telling a short story with the product or service as the star
• Increase in ac/on, conflict, and suspense
• Using various execution techniques to create a message
• Main text por/on of a print ad
• Goal -‐ Communicate the message and hold consumer aLen/on
• Play an important role in determining the effec/veness of the ad
• Goal -‐ Work synergis/cally with the headline and body copy to
produce an effec/ve message
• Visual elements that aLract viewers’ aLen/on and communicate an idea, message, and/or image
• Includes voices, music, and sound effects
• Voiceover: Message is delivered by an announcer who is not
• Needledrop: Music that is prefabricated, mul/purpose, and highly conven/onal, and inexpensive subs/tute for original music, the musical equivalence of stock photos.
• Jingles: Catchy songs about a product or service that carry the adver/sing theme and a simple message
Planning and Production of TV Commercials
Client-side approvals include:
Maintain consistency with the brand’s § Marketing and advertising objectives § Creative strategy and objectives
Creative approach must:
Be appropriate for the target audience
Communicate a clear and convincing message to the customer
Be appropriate for the media environment in which it is likely to be seen
Creative execution must keep from overwhelming the message
Advertisement should be truthful and tasteful
• Series of decisions involved in delivering the promo7onal message to the prospec7ve users of the product or brand
The media vehicle is the specific TV or radio station, newspaper or print publication, or online website.
• Measure of the number of different audience members exposed at least once to a media vehicle in a given period of time
• Number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle in a specified period
A media class is a general category of media, such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and the Internet.
Activities Involved in Developing the Media Plan
- Sweeps periods: Used for measuring TV audiences and setting advertising rates.
- This information is then generalized to succeeding months so future planning is based on past data that may not reflect current behaviors.
- Print media may use CPM (Cost per Thousand)
- Broadcast media may use CPRP (Cost per Ratings Point) § Outdoor media may use the number of showings.
Time pressures – advertisers often in a hurry to react to market environment
Difficulty measuring effectiveness – not all media decisions are quantitatively determined. Although always moving to that point.
As more and more content flows across screens, a new approach to video measurement is required to help businesses plan, measure and purchase media with a total view of this new platform-agnostic world.
Primary research and/or secondary sources help determine which specific groups to target
Good indicator of the potential of a market
• Charts the potential of a particular metro area, county, or city relative to the United States as a whole.
• Gives media planners insight into the relative value of a market
• Factors the rate of product usage by geographic area into the decision process
• It measures the relative sales strength of a brand within a specific market (e.g., the Pepsi brand among 10–50 year old’s)
• Provides information on the potential for development of the total product category and not specific brands
• CDI measures the sales strength of a particular product category within a specific market (e.g. sod drinks in 10–50 year old's).
Criteria Considered in the Development of Media Plans
Media mix refers to the various advertising channels through which a company communicates with its audience in order to fulfill a campaign as outlined in the media plan.
The media mix is the total amount of advertising that an agency, advertising company or media buyer has budgeted for a specific advertising strategy and media plan.
Adds more versatility to the media strategies
Increases coverage, reach, and frequency levels
Improves the likelihood of achieving overall communications and marketing goals
Just as the situation analysis leads to establishment of marketing and communications objectives, the media situa7on analysis should lead to determination of specific media objectives.
Media objectives are the goals for the media program and should be limited to those that can be accomplished through media strategies.
Matches the most appropriate media to a market
Goal - Extend media coverage to members of the target audience while minimizing waste coverage
Media coverage that reaches people who are not potential buyers and/or users
Timing promotional efforts such that they coincide with the highest potential buying times
Regular pattern of advertising without gaps or non advertising periods
Involves intermittent periods of advertising and non-advertising
Maintains continuity, but promotional efforts are stepped up at times
GRP = Reach × Frequency
• Measures impressions in relation to the number of
people in the target for an advertising campaign.
• Used to compare advertising strength of components of the media plan.
The average number of times the target audience reached by a media schedule is exposed to the vehicle over a specified period. The problem with this figure is revealed in the following scenario:"
Rather than focusing on a four-‐week planning period.
Focusing on short interval reach at minimum frequency levels as
close to the purchase decision as possible.
Has con7nuous schedule over a one week period.
Targets less to gain exposure to reach as many poten7al consumers as possible.
Appropriate media should be used to create a mood that
enhances the creativity of a message
Helps in dealing with:
Actual total cost required to place the message
Relationship between price paid for advertising time or space and the size of audience delivered
Factors to Consider During Evaluation and Follow-up
The interaction of sight and sound offers tremendous
creative flexibility and makes possible dramatic, lifelike representations of products and services. "
TV commercials can be used to convey a mood or image for a brand as well as to develop emotional or entertaining appeals that help make a dull product appear interesting. "
TV is an excellent medium for demonstrating a product or service as well as telling a story about a brand to highlight its features and benefits or create an emotional attachment.
Television advertising makes it possible to reach large audiences. "
Becauseofitsabilitytoreachlargeaudiencesinacost-efficient manner, TV is a popular medium among companies selling mass-consumption products. " Companieswithwidespreaddistributionandavailabilityoftheir products and services use TV to reach the mass market and deliver their advertising messages at a very low cost per thousand. "
Televisionhasbecomeindispensabletolargeconsumer packaged-goods marketers, telecommunication companies, carmakers, and major retailers.
Television is basically intrusive in that commercials impose themselves on viewers as they watch their favorite programs. Unless we make a special effort to avoid commercials, most of us are exposed to thousands of them each year.
The increase in viewing options and the penetration of DVDs, DVRs, remote controls, and other automatic devices have made it easier for TV viewers to avoid commercial messages."
However, the remaining viewers are likely to devote some attention to many advertising messages.
Television has often been criticized for being a nonselective medium, difficult to reach a precisely defined market segment. "
Some selectivity is possible due to variations in the composition of audiences as a result of program content, broadcast time, and geographic coverage."
With the growth of cable TV, advertisers refine their coverage further by appealing to groups with specific interests such as sports, news, history, the arts, or music, as well as specific demographic groups. "
Advertisers can also adjust their media strategies to take advantage of different geographic markets through local or spot ads in specific market areas. "
Ads can be scheduled to run repeatedly or to take advantage of special occasions. "
The high cost of TV stems not only from the expense of buying airtime but also from the costs of producing a quality commercial. "
Production costs for a national brand 30-second spot average more than $350,000 and can reach over $1 million for more elaborate commercials."
More advertisers are using media-driven creative strategies that require production of a variety of commercials, which drive up their costs. "
Even local ads can be expensive to produce and often are not of high quality."
The high costs of producing and airing commercials often price small and medium-size advertisers out of the market.
Advertisers who are seeking a very specific, often small, target audience find the coverage of TV often extends beyond their market, reducing its cost effectiveness. "
Geographic selectivity can be a problem for local advertisers such as retailers, since a station bases its rates on the total market area it reaches. "
Audience selectivity is improving as advertisers target certain groups of consumers through the type of program or day and/or time when they choose to advertise."
However, TV still does not offer as much audience selectivity as radio, magazines, newspapers, or direct mail for reaching precise segments of the market."
TV commercials usually last only 30 seconds or less and leave nothing tangible for the viewer to examine or consider."
Commercials have become shorter and shorter as the demand for a limited amount of broadcast time has intensified and advertisers try to get more impressions from their media budgets. "
Thirty-second spots remain the dominant commercial length, accounting for 51 percent of network spots and nearly 70 percent of non-network ads. "
An important factor in the decline in commercial length has been the spiraling inflation in media costs over the past decade. With the average cost of a prime-time spot now exceeding $100,000, many advertisers see shorter commercials as the only way to keep their media costs in line.
he problems of fleeting messages and shorter commercials are compounded by the fact that the advertiser's message is only one of many spots and other non-programming material seen during a commercial break, so it may have trouble being noticed. "
The use of shorter commercials by advertisers has contributed to the problem."
Clutter also increases when the networks and individual stations run promotional announcements for their shows, make more time available for commercials, and redistribute time to popular programs.
When advertisers buy time on a TV program, they are not purchasing guaranteed exposure but rather the opportunity to communicate a message to large numbers of consumers. "
There is increasing evidence that the size of the viewing audience shrinks during a commercial break. "
People leave the room to go to the bathroom or to get something to eat or drink, or they are distracted in some other way during commercials."
Getting consumers to pay attention to commercials has become an even greater challenge as many homes have a DVR."
Most households have either cable or satellite service and receive an average of more than 100 channels, which means there are more viewing options available. "
These factors have contributed to the problems of zipping and zapping. Zipping occurs when viewers fast-forward through commercials as they play back a previously recorded program. "
The problem is being compounded by the fact that many of the networks schedule their most popular shows against one another on the same nights (usually Wednesday and Thursday) and in the same time slots.
Refers to changing channels to avoid commercials."
A Nielsen study found that most commercial zapping occurs at the beginning and, to a lesser extent, the end of a program. "
Zapping at these points is likely to occur because commercial breaks are so long and predictable. "
Zapping has also been fueled by the 24-hour continuous-format programming on cable channels such as CNN, MTV2, and ESPN. "
Research shows that young adults zap more than older adults and that men are more likely to zap than women."
Critics often single out TV commercials because of their pervasiveness and the intrusive nature of the medium. "
Consumers are seen as defenseless against the barrage of TV ads, since they cannot control the transmission of the message and what appears on their screens."
Viewers dislike TV advertising when they believe it is offensive, uninformative, or shown too frequently or when they do not like its content."
Studies have shown that of the various forms of advertising, distrust is generally the highest for TV commercials."
Concern has been raised about the effects of TV advertising on specific groups, such as children or older adults.
Spreading messages by purchasing airtime from a television network
Assembles a series of affiliates to which it supplies programming and services
Buying period that occurs before the
TV season begins
Buying period that occurs throughout the season
Commercials shown on local TV stations
Non-network advertising done by a national advertiser
Advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and content of the program, and the advertising that appears within it
Allows a firm to:
Several advertisers buying commercial time on a particular program
Purchased from the local stations, appear during adjacencies
Time periods adjacent to network programs
Delivers TV signals through fiber or coaxial wire
Independent local stations that send signals nationally via satellite to cable operators
Number of cable systems and networks in a geographic area are joined for advertising purposes
Reaching very specialized markets
§ Increases in the number of channels
§ Changes in government regulations
§ Competition in the programming distribution business
§ Reaching relevant audiences § Growth due to multiplexing
Transmitting multiple channels from one network
Represents 1 percent of all the television households in a parLcular area tuned to a specific program
Non overlapping areas used for planning, buying, and evaluating TV audiences
Local people meter (LPM)
Local people meter (LPM) - Used to measure the largest local markets
Viewing audiences in every local television market are measured at least four times a year
Measures of the average viewership of the commercials both live and up to three days after the ads are played back on a DVR
Measures the number of people who:
§ Cost and efficiency § Receptivity
§ Mental imagery
§ Image transfer: Images of a TV commercial are
implanted into a radio spot
§ Integrated marketing opportunities
Network radio - Purchased on a network basis using one of the national networks
§ Spot radio provides:
§ Greater flexibility in selecting markets
§ Individual stations
§ Airtime and a chance to adjust the message for local market conditions
§ Local radio - Purchased from individual stations by local companies
§ Person estimates - Estimated number of people listening
§ Rating - Percentage of listeners in the survey area population
§ Share - Percentage of the total estimated listening audience
Presents detailed information that can be processed at the reader’s own pace
§ High-involvement media
§ Magazines are the most specialized of all advertising media
Bought by the general public for information and/or entertainment
Distribution - Subscription, circulation, and store
Frequency - Weekly, monthly, and bimonthly
Special-interest magazines - Help reach target audience with little wasted coverage or circulation
Directed to farmers and their families
Magazines for specific professional groups
Industrial magazines for businesspeople in manufacturing and production industries
Trade magazines for wholesalers, dealers, distributors, and retailers
Sending copies individuals the publisher believes can influence a company’s purchases
Calculated by multiplying the readers per copy by the circulation of an average issue
Provides complete planning information on domestic and international consumer, business, and health care publications
Provide the titles of people who receive a publication and the industry they work in
purchased within a contract year
Advantages and Disadvantages of Newspapers
Composed of the city where the paper is published and con3guous areas similar in character to the city
Market outside the city zone whose residents regularly trade with merchants within the city zone
Covers all circula3on not included in the city or retail trade zone
• Display advertisers outside the newspaper’s designated market area
• Any classification deemed by the publisher to be general in nature
• Rates are 75 percent higher than those paid by local advertisers
Apply to advertisers that conduct business or sell goods or services within the DMA
• Use column widths 2-‐1/16 inches wide with: • Tabloid-‐size papers five columns wide
• Standard or broadcast papers six columns
• Used for na3onal advertising
• Discounts are available based on frequency or bulk purchases of space
• Depend on the number of column inches purchased in a year
Uses a variety of non-traditional channels to deliver communications and to promote products and services
have effectively reached
Ambient advertising is about placing ads on unusual items or in unusual places you wouldn’t normally see an ad. An ambient ad doesn’t have to be placed outside. Ambient advertising can be found anywhere and everywhere!
pulling banners, skywriting, and blimps
Devices that carry advertisements and are mobile
Reach shoppers at a place where they buy. Located within supermarkets, drugstores, or convenience stores, in store displays come in a variety of forms:
§ Shopping cart panels
§ Aisle Displays
§ Above-aisle displays
§ End-aisle displays (End Caps) § Backlit front aisle displays
§ Digital message units § Store leaflets
§ Floor graphics
§ In-Store TV/Digital Screens
Targets people who are exposed to commercial transportation facilities
The transit advertising industry includes displays on:
or any place that consumers travel during the course of an average day.
Placed above the seats and luggage area inside public
Appear on the sides, backs, and/or roofs of buses, taxis,
trains, and subway and trolley cars
Sources of Audience Measurement in Out-of-Home Media
Promotional medium or method that uses the following promotional products
§ Business gifts
§ Sales Promotion
§ Motivational Communication
§ Distributed free
Measurement in Promotional Products Marketing
Specialty advertising does not have an established ongoing audience measurement system
Ads do not create awareness or demand for products or services but provide the location
Advantages and Disadvantages of Movie Theater Advertising
Blends marketing and entertainment through television, film, music talent, and technology
Refers to advertising within
Placement is integrated throughout the program content and/or script
Creation of audio-visual content to entertain users while advertising products
Online games that are designed to promote products
§ Ad-supported video on demand (VOD) § Others
Advantages and Disadvantages of Branded Entertainment
§ Viral marketing
Advantages and Disadvantages of Miscellaneous Alternative Media
Sponsorships: Form of advertising
Organic search results
Higher a site appears on a search page the more visitors it will receive
Based on advertisers’ target consumers by tracking their website surfing behaviors
Interactive digital media that exhibit dynamic motion
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
Bonus Packs: Advantages
Bonus Packs: Limitations
Horizontal cooperative advertising
Ingredient-sponsored cooperative advertising
Vertical cooperative advertising
Shopping cart signage
Ski resort-based media
In-store radio and television
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