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Customized Services: work w/ individual clients
Syndicated Services: routinely collect information on different issues & provide to subscribers
Standardized services: projects conducted & supplied
Field Services: suppliers concentrate only on collecting data for research projects
Selective services: specialize in just one or two aspects of marketing research, mainly concerning data coding, data editing, or data analysis
Branded products services: specialized data collection and analyses procedures to address specific problems
1. agree on research process
- problems or opportunities
2. establish research objectives
- hypothesis, bound areas of study
3. estimate the value of information
- only continue process if benefit is > cost
4. design the research
5. collect data
6. prepare and analyze the data
7. report the research results and provide strategic recommendations
used when seeking insights into the general nature of a problem, the possible decision alternatives, and the relevant variables that need to be considered. Generate all possible reasons for a problem.
provides an accurate snapshot of some aspect of the market environment. Narrow the possible causes.
· research purpose: how should a new product be distributed?
· research question: what is our current image?
· hypothesis: we are regarded as being conservative and behind the times
used when it is necessary to show that one variable causes or determines the values of other variables
· research purpose: will an increase in the service staff be profitable?
· research question: what is the relationship between size of service staff and revenue?
· hypothesis: the new air force will attract sufficient revenue from new passengers
1. Executive Summary
2. Research purpose and objective
3. Research design
4. Time and cost estimates
Primary Data: data collected to address a specific research objective
· scope of information available
· speed of information
· commercially available search
· rely solely on accuracy of author
· depend on the journal and article
Secondary Data: data collected for some other purpose other than the present research purpose
· low cost
· loss effective
· less time
· collected for some other purpose
· no control over data
· may be outdated or not meet requirements
1. Demand Estimation
2. Monitoring the environment
3. Segmentation and Targeting
· NAICS: North American Industrial Classification System
4. Developing a Business Intelligence System
to cover the gap between store audits/warehouses withdrawal services and actual purchases, two methods of data collection are used finition
Home Audit Approach: panel member agrees to permit an auditor to check the household stocks of certain product categories at regular intervals
Mail Diary Method: panel member records the details of each purchase and returns the diary by mail at regular intervals
1. Measuring Promotion Effectiveness: scanner data, diary panels
2. Measuring Ad Exposure & effectiveness: starch scores, NTI, Arbitron, multimedia services
3. Measuring product sales & market share: diary panels, retail audits, scanner data, internal records, NAICS
4. Estimation & evaluation of models: scanner data, starch scores, diary panels, internal records
Qualitative methods: recommended to capture the basic feel of a problem prior to conducting more analytical study
Observational Methods: limited to providing information on current behavior
Casual observation, content analysis, systematic observation, direct observation, contrived observation, physical trace measures, humanistic inquiry, behavior recording devices
· Cannot be used to observe motives, attitudes or intentions
· More costly and time consuming
· May yield biased results if there are sampling problems or if significant observant subjectivity is involved
1. Exploratory: conducted to explicitly define problems and formulate hypotheses and generate ideas
2. Orientation: to learn more about target customer’s point of view, educate researcher
3. Clinical: to gain insights into topics that are difficult in structured research
1. Volume of data
2. Complexity of analysis
3. Detail of clarification record
4. Time-consuming nature of the clerical efforts required
1. Non directive interviews: responded given maximum freedom to respond (open questioning)
2. Semi-structured or focused individual interviews: 2. covers a specific list of topics or sub-areas
*three techniques are being widely used now:
1. laddering --> questioning progresses from product characteristics to user characteristics
2. hiden-issue --> focus in not on socally shared values but rather "sore spots"
3. symbolic analysis --> analyze symbolic meaning
1. Exploratory focus groups: used in the exploratory phase of the market research process. Used for generating the hypotheses for testing
2. Clinical focus groups: based on the premise that an individual’s true feelings and motivations are subconscious in nature
3. Experiencing Focus Groups: Allows the researcher to experience the emotional framework in which the product is being used.
· Telephone Focus Groups
· Video Conference
· Two-way focus groups
· Online focus groups
1. word association
2. completion test
3. picture interpretation
4. third person techniques
5. role playing
6. case studies
Superior logistics service can have a positive influence on an organization’s financial performance. TF
The balance sheet reflects the assets, liabilities, and____ at a given point in time.
When developing logistics strategy, a ____ strategy refers to the management of logistics activities with a focus on costs.
A(n) ____ entails the functional units of an organization providing input into the other levels of strategy formulation.
A ____ strategy entails an organization developing a product and/or service that offers unique attributes that are valued by customers and that the customer perceives to be distinct from competitor offerings.
all of the above are levels at which strategy can be formulated
____ has been identified as the biggest information technology challenge that companies face today.
the cost of technology
____ refers to the application of mathematical tools to large bodies of data in order to extract correlations and rules.
____ refers to a network of satellites that transmits signals that pinpoint the exact location of an object.
The most relevant general software package for logisticians is ____.
data are simply facts; information is a body of facts in a format suitable for decision making
Landed costs refer to:
1. “How well a company does what it says it’s going to do” represents ___________.
1. What concept refers to “how well company resources are used to achieve what a company promises it can do?”
In a ____ logistics structure, logistics activities are managed in multiple departments throughout an organization.
One problem with a ____ logistics structure is that because logistics activities are scattered throughout a firm, they likely remain subservient to the objectives of the department in which they are housed.
____ organizational design has its foundations in the command-and-control military operation, where decision-making and communication often follow a top-down flow.
The ____ is responsible for the security of the U.S. transportation system.
____ complexity centers on the implications associated with the increasing number of products that most companies continue to face in an effort to differentiate themselves with their customers.
What concept can be viewed as a combination of processes, functions, activities, relationships, and pathways along which products, services, information, and financial transactions move in and between enterprises from original producer to ultimate end user or consumer?
The two most prominent supply chain management process frameworks are the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) Model and the ____.
c. Global Supply Chain Forum (GSCF) Model
What is a perfect order?
What concept refers to the variability in demand orders among supply chain participants?
Two key factors, ____ and ____, have sparked much of the technological change affecting supply chains.
The general idea behind ____ is that one company allows a specialist company to provide it with one or more logistics functions.
Procurement and ____ are viewed as synonymous terms.
A focus on satisfying internal customers is associated with which procurement objective?
Buying the right products, at the right price, from the right source, at the right specifications, in the right quantity, for delivery at the right time to the right internal customer is associated with what procurement objective?
is used by many managers to classify corporate purchases in terms of their importance and supply complexity
What concept refers to when firms consider all the costs that can be assigned to the acquisition, use, and maintenance of a purchase?
Diversity and philanthropy are two dimensions of socially responsible procurement. TF
____ refers to the time from when the seller receives an order until an appropriate location is authorized to fill the order.
The text suggests that ____ often represents the best opportunity to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of an order cycle.
order picking and assembly
The time span within which an order must arrive refers to ____.
The percentage of orders that can be completely and immediately filled from existing stock is the ____ rate.
____ refers to a process that continuously identifies, understands, and adapts outstanding processes inside and outside an organization.
Text messaging and the Internet have lessened the need for telephone interaction and face-to-face contact between seller and customer. TF
Holding high levels of inventory result in ____ inventory carrying costs and ____ stockout costs.
Which of the following situations is likely the most damaging (costly) with respect to a stockout?
The economic order quantity (EOQ) deals with calculating the proper order size with respect to ____ costs and ____ costs.
____ recognizes that all inventories are not of equal value to a firm and thus all inventories should not be managed in the same way.
____ products refer to those that customers view as being able to fill the same need or want as another product.
The higher the average cost of a stockout, the more likely a company is going to want to hold some amount of inventory (safety stock) to protect against stockouts. TF
Service parts logistics has decreased in importance in recent years. TF
____ is the most popular location for near-sourcing among companies that do business in North America.
A pure material ____.
is one that loses no weight in manufacturing
Labor force ____ are a key locational determinant as supply chains become more global in nature.
Right-to-work laws refer to a situation where ____.
an individual cannot be compelled to join a union as a condition of employment
From a business perspective, ____ taxes are analogous to the personal property taxes paid by individuals.
____ refers to the net advantages that can be gained by a sharing of common locations by various enterprises.
Inventory taxes have become increasingly difficult to collect in part because of a lack of agreement as to what is meant by inventory. TF
Facility relocation is associated with business growth, while facility closing is associated with business contraction. TF
____ involves bringing together similar stocks from different sources.
____ refers to separating products into grades and qualities desired by different target markets.
amount of product entering and leaving a facility in a given time period
feasible when demand patterns are irregular
increased space utilization
As one builds higher, building costs ____, while warehousing equipment costs tend to ____.
In general, warehousing security can be enhanced by focusing on people, ____, and ____.
Motivation of warehousing employees can be difficult because of the somewhat repetitive nature of the operation. TF
Clean and sanitary warehousing facilities can have a positive impact on employee safety, morale, and productivity. TF
Logistics service quality
Refers to a firm's ability to deliver products, materials, and services without defects or error to both internal and external customers
Logistics uncertainty pyramid model
A model that identifies uncertainty sources that can affect the risk exposure for logistics activities
framework that identifies eight relevant processes, such as customer relationship management, demand management, and order fulfillment, associated with supply chain management
Supply chain partnership
Refers to a tailored business relationship between two supply chain members
Customer profitability analysis (CPA)
Refers to the allocation of revenues and costs to customer segments or individual customers to calculate the profitability of the segments or customers
reorder (trigger) point (ROP)
the level of inventory at which a replenishment order is placed
Contract (third-party) warehousing
A type of contract logistics that focuses on providing unique and specially tailored warehousing services to particular clients
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS)
an effort by the United Nations to classify and label hazardous materials that provides three key pieces of information (1) a symbol, (2) a signal word, and (3) a hazard statement
the pick location is brought to the picker, such with carousels.
a flat sheet of either fiberboard material or plastic which is placed under the unit load.
And international logistics specialist that custom packs shipments when the exporter lacks the equipment or expertise to do so itself
Logistics performance index (LPI)
An index that is designed to measure a country's performance across six logistical dimensions
The uncontrollable forces and conditions facing an organization and include cultural, demographic, economic, natural, political, and technological factors
2. Differentiation strategy --> Entails an organization developing a product and/or service that offers unique attributes that are valued by customers and that the customers perceive to be distinct from competitor
3. Focus strategy --> Concentrates an organization’s effort on a narrowly defined market to achieve either a cost leadership or differentiation advantage
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