Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Charles Wild,Fonthill Abbey, 1799, Gothic Revival
Record ofBritish gentleman William Beckford, inherited fortune at age 9, built on father’s estate: 6 mile wall around property,converted garden bldg into monastery & erected ctrl medieval tower 250 ft & demolished country house, moved into monastery, renaming it. Failure as home b/c uninhabitable. Realization of Gothick fantasy, epitomized sublime. Dramatic end collapsed 2 yrs after sold, reminder of transience & wealth.
Henry Fuseli,The Nightmare, 1781, Romanticism
Lifelonginterest in theology, philosophy, lit. (former minister). Exh. At RoyalAcademy, friends w/ Josh Reynolds. Bad dream represented by a mara (monstrouscreature believed to cause nightmare). White horse perhaps representative ofnightmare. Evoke fear she experiences. Halfway btw Gothick thrill & sublimeterror, both repulses & fascinates. Forges link btw dreaming &sexuality (predates Freud).
Henry Fuseli,Titania and Bottom, 1790, Romanticism
Scene from Midsummer Night’s Dream. Jealous Oberon, king of fairiesquarreled w/ wife Titania. While asleep, casts spell on her to fallin love w/ 1st person she sees upon waking: Bottom,amateur actor from neighboring village w/ donkey mask. Cuddles him while retinueof fairies look on. Odd attendants: bearded scholar on leash,mini-muscle man, evokes a dream. Rise of British genre: “fairypainting.”
Henry Fuseli,Satan, engraving by Thomas Holloway, 1779, Romanticism
First conceptionof Satan as a young male w/ curly locks & large eyes. For a book for hisfriend Kaspar Lavater in his Essays on Physiognomy, which investigatedrelationship btw facial features & character. Would return to figure ofSatan for painting Satan & Death Separated by Sin for Milton Gallery –produced all paintings himself & controlled exh. & sale.
WilliamBlake, The Lamb from Songs of Innocence, 1789, Romanticism Poet, fine artist, engravings. 1 of 2 handmade vols, other is songs of Experience. Connect to text w/ frame. Insisted text & img on same copper plate. Unusual multi-stageetching reproduced handwriting. Text & image in 1color, others by hand. Like nursery rhymes, unsure if for children or adults. Meditations on good & evil,divine & demonic. 2 vols, themes of lamb & lion: “contrary states of human soul.” This vol. deals w/ world of love & bliss.
WilliamBlake, The Song off Los, frontispiece of the Book of Los, 1795, Romanticism Swedenborgian beliefs: man’s selfishnessdisturbed world’s perfection & political ideas. French Rev. sympathizer. Led to “prophetic” or Lambeth books. History of man’smental & physical enslavement. Cryptic: insisted meaning clear w/ carefulstudy. Fig. prostrated before altar covered w/ open book.Sun w/ dark blotches = fertility, growth, enlightenment.Sickened world: counsel in evil books & eternaldarkness.
JohnSingleton Copley, Death of the Earl of Chatham, 1779—81, American/Eng.Contemporary History Painting Followstradition of Death of General Wolfe’s innovation. Dramatic collapse in House ofCommons of William Pitt the Elder. Unlike West’s “Epic Composition,” closer toreportage. Effort to create individual likeness of parliamentarians. Combineshistory painting & group portraiture. Copley organized private show coupledw/ sale of reproductive print, was huge boon.
Joseph Wrightof Derby, Sir Richard Arkwright, 1789—90, Bourgeois Portrait Portraiture pop. late 18th, early 19th c. Diff formthan Gr Manner, in harmony w/ aspirations of Brit midclass. Someprtryd as aristocrats, others stress hard wk.Lancaster barber turned textile tycoon. Table: cotton-spinning rollers, pt of machine he invented. Some arist. conventions" draped curtain, column, indoors, seems interrupted at wk.Lacks posture of Gr Manner. Uncontrived.
Joseph Wrightof Derby, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery, in which a Lamp is Putin Place of the Sun, 1764—66, Genre Painting, Enltmt Exemplifies optimism, curiosity, self-imprvmt helped indust.succeed. Scientific society lecture-expmt. Orrery: early planetarium. Manlectures on astronomy. Indiv., not portrait, genreptg. Familiar to 18th c. viewer, societies common, Wright a member. Science & tech keys to mysteries of universe.
ElisabethVigee-Lebrun, Portrait of Marie-Antoinette, 1778—79, French Rococo
Late Rococoperiod before French Revolution. Marie-Antoinette’s favorite portraitist.Traditional ruler portrait. Low-cut gown, skirt w/ panniers, flounces, ribbons,tassels; hairpiece w/ ostrich feathers accentuate regal stature. Statue bust ofLouis XVI & royal crown mark position as most powerful woman in Europe. Againstobligatory backdrop of column & drapery.
Jacques-LouisDavid, The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of his Sons for Burial, 1789,French Neoclassicism Salon 1789, submitted 3 ptgs, this most imptnt; royal comm., fit events. Conflicting loyalties to family & society like Oath. After mvmtto oust last Roman king Tarquinius, Brutus: discovered plot to re-establishmonarchy, 2 sons involved. Killed on Brutus’s orders for sake ofrepublic. Brutus home: lictors (policemen). Gestures belie tension: stoic. Seen as revolutionary martyr.
Jacques-LouisDavid, preliminary drawing for the Oath of the Tennis Court, 1791,Neoclassicism, Contemporary History Painting Opposed Fr. Royal Academy. Joined radical “Jacobin” group &held gvmt positions, incl. pres. Party commiss. Would've been 1st major ptg to memorialize rev.event. To be hung at Nat. Ass., subscrip. funds. Indiv. portraits. Leaders at front. Abandoned: turbulent politics. Divided btw radicals (Jacobins) &moderates (Girondins).
Jacques-LouisDavid, Death of Marat, 1793, Neoclassicism Pted 3 majorwks 1793—4 of men who died for rev. cause. Jacobinjournalist murdered in bathtub. Skin disease: medicinal bathwhile writing. Charlotte Corday, wkg for Girondins, entered house on falsepretenses & stabbed him. David knew Marat, visited daybefore. In chg of public funeral, inspired to paint commemorative wk.Based on memory: wrote thoughts on salvation of ppl. Diff. posthumous portrait ofnational hero, not allegorical, vulnerable.
Pierre PaulPrud’hon, The French Constitution, Equality, Law, 1791, Neoclassicism Difficultyfinding patronage, turned to rev. imgs, w/ alleg. figs. Reprdcd:sold to indiv. & institutions. Ctrd around Minerva. Law: holds scepter w/ rooster (vigilance). Liberty tramples yoke & chain of slavery, shakes hand w/ Law & turnsto Nature: bare brsted woman w/ chldrn: natural social order, all men born free/equal Cat = indep, biblical img of lion & lamb peaceful: free, lawful society; teaching tool. Reflect on constitution.
Jacques-GermainSoufflot, Pantheon (formerly Church of Ste. Genevieve), 1755—92, Neoclassical
Perhaps mostimportant monumental endeavor, following Rev. Mausoleum for nation’sgreat men, transformed Ste. Geneviève.Masterpiece of Neocl. arch., ctrlzd plan, dome based onSt. Peter’s. Project for political propaganda: mobilize fine arts to rev./ repub. purposes. Blocked windows,removed religious sculptural decorations, replaced w/ reliefs on rev. themes w/different artists.
HubertRobert, The Bastille during the First Days of its Demolition, 1789, Neoclassicism
Demolition aspropaganda. Few monuments produced to celebrate est. of Republic. Attentiongiven to destruction of bldgs hateful to revolutionaries, reminded them ofpower of king, aristocracy & clergy wielded in past. Medieval Bastillefortress, feared & hated prison, detained numerous political prisoners.Exhibited at Salon of 1789, more than month after storming. Signifier of needto destroy past.
Jacques-LouisDavid, The Sabine Women, 1799, Neoclassicism Organized paidexhibition (unprcdntd in France) inLouvre. Accepted afterabolishment of Academy 1793. Ptd w/out patron. Political systemchanged dramatically: Jacobins defeated, David thrown in jail. Intent: heal after Robespierre’s ‘reign of terror’. Scene: beg. of Rome, Romulus invite Sabines to feast, abducted them (short onwomen). retaliate 3 yrs later, women intervened. Children reason for peace. Hersilia (ctr) embodies idea of peace.
Anonymous,Napoleon Bonaparte Showing the Apollo Belvedere to his Deputies, 1799,Neoclassicism
Napoleon 1st consul after parliamentary coup. Intent to reformadmin duties of French State, reorganize nat. & regional gvmts.,draw up Napoleonic code & est. French hegemony. Bolsters persona. Est. Napoleon Museum in Louvre: housed ApolloBelvedere. Used it to advertise prestige & wealth of military conquests. Heproudly says, “There it is, gentlemen, 2 million.”
Jacques Gondouin& Jean-Baptiste Lepere, Vendome Column, 1806—11 Initiated duringNap. rule: commemorate military exploits. Team of arch. &sculptors coordinated by Vivant Denon. Immediate occasion for sculpture: Napoleon’s victory at Austerlitz; defeated Austria & Russia.Bronze from confiscated army cannons. Stood in square that housed LouisXVI equestrian statue, destroyed by revolutionaries. Inspired by Column ofTrajan: victory over Dacians.
Jean-FrancoisChalgrin, Arc de Triomphe, 1806—36, Place de l’Etoile, Paris, Neoclassicism.
Initiated duringNapoleonic rule to commemorate his military exploits. Napoleon: preoccupied w/Roman imperialism, triumphal artch, preference for Roman over Greek art. Seriesof 3 monuments, this was 1st. At intersection of 5 roads, includingChamps Elysées, placement for maximum visual effect.
Alexandre-PierreVignon, “La Madeleine” 1807—45, Place de la Madeleine, Paris, Neoclassical
Initiated duringNapoleonic rule to commemorate his military exploits (1 of 3 monuments).“Temple of Glory” to honor French soldiers. Took form of Roman temple, completew/ tall platform & colossal, monolithic, Corinthian columns (typical ofRoman religious architecture). Incomplete at time of Napoleon’s fall. Finishedduring July Monarchy, according to original design & turned into church.
Jacques-LouisDavid, Napoleon Crossing the Alps at the Saint-Bernard Pass, 1800—1, Empire Style
1st heroicimg of Napoleon. Commissioned by Charles IV of Spain for gallery of greatleaders, triggered by victory on Marengo plain (N. Italy). Led 28,000 menacross Alpine pass, feat accomplished by Hannibal & Charlemagne(inscrip.). Nap. ordered copies, asked: sitting calmly on spirited horse. Policy: art should treatsubjects of “national character.” Understood Salon as propaganda.
Etienne-Maurice Falconet, Equestrian Statue of Peter the Great, 1766—82, Rococo
Famed “bronzehorseman” that may have inspired the composition for David’s Napoleon Crossingthe Alps. Czar Peter & horse scale mountainous rock, demonstrating courage inface of adversity. Peter wearscivilian clothes, but Napoleon is shown as a military leader.
Jacques-LouisDavid, Coronation of Napoleon in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, 1805—07, EmpireStyle
1st Painter to Emp. Planned by Nap.: Pope would crown him: linkw/Charlemagne, 1st Emp of Fr. Pope crowned 1000 yrs prior. Nap. had Pius VII come toParis. Sketch: affront to papal dignity, crowns self. Tactfulepi. chosen: crowns Josephine. > 100 life-size portraits. Motherdidn’t attend, depicted = family unity. Artists felt David abandoned rev. cause.
Pierre Paul Prud’hon,Portrait of Empress Josephine, 1805, Empire Style Contemp. ofDavid. Propaganda. Finished year Napoleon divorced her b/cshe couldn’t conceive. Not shown at Salon of 1810, year he married 2ndwife. Seated on mossy rock in garden at Malmaison château. High-waisted low-cut dress: Empire fashion. Red: bright note in muted colors.Naïve pensive expression & allegorical pose attrib. to looming divorce. Not true, but withdrawn: virtue.
Jean-DominiqueIngres, Portrait of Napoleon on his Imperial Throne, Salon of 1806, Empire Style
David’s student. Legislative Body commission = unique qualities. On gilded throne, curved back forms halo. R:golden scepter of Charlemagne, L: ivory hand of justice of French Medievalkings. Frontal pose: iconic: compared w/ God the Father of Ghent Alt.,famous stolen treasure in Nap. Museum. Effort to please emperor: god-like, endowed w/ divine wisdom. Noother portrait so blatant: superhuman monarch.
Antoine-Jean Gros,Bonaparte Visiting the Plague House of Jaffa, Salon of 1804, Empire Style,History Ptg David's student. Propaganda to counteract negative press: military genius & humaneleader. 1 of most successful ptgs at Salon of 1804, launched career.Failed to conquer Egypt, moved to Israel, Syria. Plague broke out amongFr. troops. Nap. visited sick in hospital to assess whocould be transported. Death defying gesture: touches sick w/out glove. Saintlyhealer. Precursor to Orientalistmode.
Antoine-JeanGros, Battle of Eylau, Salon of 1808, Empire Style, History Ptg Salonof 1808, commemorated battle btw Russians, Prussians, & France.Needed positive publicity, emphasized humanity in wake of bloodbath caused bymilitary ambitions. Aftermath: Napoleon consoledsoldiers & instructed healthy to attend to wounds of Russians. Saintlyfigure. Captures bleakness of N. Russian winter, darkly dressed figuresagainst drab bkdrop of mist, mud, & snow – few red hats enliven gloom.
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson,Sleep of Endymion, 1791, Empire Style: Neoclassicism (School of David)
3rd gen. David student; transformed style in new directions, such as Trioson.Youth from Greek myth put to eternal sleep by moon goddess so she could lovehim for ever. Languorous body of Endymion pose: ecstaticabandonment, caressed by rays of moon. Prepubescent Eros (spirit of love)parts branches. Differs from David’s edifying character, diagonals, effeminate body vs. heroic males.
Jean Broc,Death of Hyacinth, 1801, Empire Style: Neoclassicism (School of David) Latergen. of David’s school focused: graceful, androgynous nude; act ofrebellion. New emphasis on sensuality not austerity. Reflects onlgr psycho-cultural changes. Many suffering. Broc was a Barbus(rebellious 2nd generation student). Playmate of Apollo, killed throwing disks. Androgynous bodies & dreamlike quality diff. from David's musc. bodies & clarity.
Jean-Auguste-DominiqueIngres, Torso of a man, Salon of 1801, Empire Style: Neoclassicism (School ofDavid)
Masculineeroticism linked to David’s studio, w/ all-male student body who painted malenudes under male teacher. Homosocial environment perhaps cause them to conceiveof art w/ masculine frame of reference.
Jean-Henri Cless,The Studio of David, 1810, Empire Style: Neoclassicism
Depiction ofacademic studies conducted in David’s studio. Homosocial environment in whichnudes were on display of the viewer just as male model in studio was on displayfor David’s students.
Anne-Louis Girodet,The Entombment of Atala, 1808, Empire Style Neocl. (School of David) Abandoned Romanhist. themes for medieval & Ren. history or contemp.lit. François-René de Chateaubriand’s Atala, 1801.Fr. LA: story of Christian girl. Mother vowed her virginity. In love w/ Chactas,a Natchez Indian, conflict btw love & religion & poison herself.Chactas & Capuchin monk place body in grave. Contrast: old/ young,Christian/ pagan. Rev.: religion outlawed. Return after Nap.made Catholicism preferred relig.
FrançoisGerard, Ossian Summoning the Spirits, 1802, Empire Style: Neoclassicism (Schoolof David)
Depicts medievalsubject. 1 of 2 ptgs w/ Ossianic theme for Empress Joséphine’s residence atMalmaison. Ossian, represented as blind old bard playing Irish harp, summonsspirits of the dead. Far removedfrom severe classicism of david, has haunting sublimity like contemp. Britishartists.
Jacques-LouisDavid, Portrait of Madame Recamier, 1800, Empire Style: Neoclassicism Demand forlesser genres even during Consulate & Empire Salons, demand for lg. scale ptgs.New bourgeoisie furnished homes w/ portraits, demandinexhaustible. Portrait of well-connected Parisienne. Salon attracted manywell-known political figures, intellectuals, artists. Doesn’t focus on socialstatus, but natural beauty. Barefoot, reclines in Roman fashion on Empire setee.Exasperated & left unfinished.
Jean-DominiqueIngres, Portrait of Madame Riviere, 1805, Empire Style: Neocl. Best known forportraiture. Popularity related to ability to enhance sitters’ appearance, create illusion of realism. On icy-blue velvetcushions of a setee. Simply dressed, but qualities of shawl adds complexity, forming intricate patterns, dramatic contrasts, streamlinedsurfaces. Is clever deception in name of sensual beauty & grace. Comparedw/ Botticelli who sacrificed anatomical correctness to graceful contours.
Pierre Henride Valenciennes, Landscape of Ancient Greece, 1786, Neoclassicism Few ldscps of Consulate & Empire survive, due to lack of respect for the genre.Historical ldscp ranked above all categories, typical: mountainousscenery w/ classical buildings & small figs. Revivaldue to Valenciennes. Ldscp punctuated byClassical buildings, sculptures, tiny figs in various activities.Loosely inspired by Rome where he studied. Imaginaryconstruct leads eye from figs in frgd to bkgrd.Light: Med. glow.
Anton RaphaelMengs, Apotheosis of Hercules, 1762—9 and 1775, Royal Palace, Antecamera deGasparini, Madrid, Neoclassicism Spain power in 16th & 17th c., lost prestige by 18th. Carlos III invited Mengs to Spain todecorate newly built royal palace. Tiepolo also does ceiling fresco (Apotheosisof Spanish Monarchy), but contrast. No dramatic build-up to ctr,concentrated on edges, arranged figures like in classical frieze. Continues Neocllmodel of Parnassus.
Francisco,Goya, The Parasol, 1777, Romanticism
Mentor- future father-in-law Francisco Bayeu, who (w/ Mengs) wntd to revivetapestry manufactory. Sought genre scenes. Cartoons = regular income. Cartoon hung in prince’sdining room in El Pardo, royal hunting palace. Broadly ptd, less detail, not artificially pretty.Figs: maja & majo of urban subcult in 18th c.Spain: servants, small-time entrepreneurs. Admired: gallantbehavior & exotic dress.
FranciscoGoya, Wounded Mason, 1786—7, Romantcm
Interests inrealism & popular culture obvious in set of 6 cartoons for tapestriesrepresenting rural activities & scenes of low-class life. 2 men carrying injuredlaborer away from construction site. Unusual image for its time. Focusesattention on dismal living conditions of Spain’s wkg class. Ptd in dark, mutedcolors. Hardly suitable for decorative tapestry. Hung in princes’ dining roomin El Pardo; suggests they fit within Carlos III’s enlightened philosophy ofgvmt.
FranciscoGoya, Family of Carlos IV, 1800—1, Romanticism Appointed Pintordel Rey, 1st Court Ptr in 1799.Ptd ambitious, intriguing portrait: life-sized full-length portraitinformally grouped around 3 major members: Carlos IV, Queen Maris Luisa, CrownPrince Fernando on L. Women in jewelry, men in ribbons & insignia. L:Goya behind. Perhaps copy of mirror img, explains uncompromising realism(unusual appearance). Recalls Las Meninas, lacks genre character.
FranciscoGoya, Linda Maestra! (A Fine Teacher!) Los Caprichos, no. 68, 1797—8,Romanticism Pblshd albumof 80 etchings, new medium for artist. Indep. artist, mktd wk. In context ofpictorial satire. Chose errors & blunders as subj. 2 grps, socialills & fantastic imgry, rooted in lit. From 2ndgroup: Old witch teaches young how to ride broom. Exposes eagerness tofollow bad ex, even if becomes old, haggard. Brought little financial success.
FranciscoGoya, El Sueno de la Razon Produce Monstruos (The Dream of Reason ProducesMonsters), Los Caprichos, no. 43, 1797—8, Romanticism Albumof 80 etchgs. New medium (did altrpcs/ tapestrs) Set up as indep. artist, mktd his wk. In context ofpictorial satire. 2nd group: prob. intended as frontispiece. Artist asleepat drawing table, assaulted (in dream) by owls, bats. Evil arises when reason sleeps. Superstition overtakes man.Meaning in caption. Artistic process; imagination in check byreason.
FranciscoGoya, Execution of the Rebels on the Thirdof May, 1808, 1814, Romanticism Art as propaganda. 2 lg canvases represented 2 events at beginning of war:riot in Madrid on May 2 & bloody execution of rebels by French soldiers.Goya proposed 2 ptgs to gvmt w/ stipend to carry out. Capturedrebels, Execution grnd where French firing squad shoots. Contrast btwsoldiers & rebels brings scene to life. Soldiers like automatons,rebels = humanity, compared to crucified Christ. Spanish Catholicism vs.French atheism.
FranciscoGoya, Saturn Devouring One of his Children, 1820—23, Romanticism Later wk: seriesof murals for country house outside Madrid, nicknamed House of DeafMan (deaf from illness), w/ 14 lg ptgs. Scenes: religion, myth, daily life. Caprichos on lgr scale. Evil comes alive, grotesque ex.Illus. myth: Saturn, told 1 of his children will dethrone him. Toprevent: eats them 1 by 1. Face distorted by hate & fear. Old man’s bitterness & defeat. World chge from place ruled by reason, optimism to controlled by fear.
Jose de MadrazoY Agudo, The Death of Viriato, 1808, Neoclassical Counterpart toGoya; few followers. Most ptrs used style related to David.Differs from 3rd May, in style & iconography.Rather than contemp. war scene, Spanishresistance to Roman occupation in 2nd c BCE. Hero, led guerrillatroop against Romans. Death, hands of 2 soldiers bribed by enemy. Exposedevil, cowardice of Romans enemies. Clsscl, heroic theme& frieze-like comp. Lacks sobriety.
FranciscoGoya, Self-Portrait, 1815, Romanticism
Sketchy mannerof later years, shows him as he saw himself: rugged, individualist, worn bytrials & tribulations of life. Less official & public in nature thanVicente Lopez’s. Shows a different Goya: feisty & crusty, self-confident inknowledge of already historic position in history of Spanish art.
Friedrich Overbeck,Portrait of Franz Pforr, 1810, Romanticism, Nazarenes Rmnticsm 1stmanifested in wk of Nazarenes. Rejected Neocl., sought medieval, Christian insp. in 14th, 15th c. Ital &German artists. Formed Brotherhood of St.Luke. Notion: art not imitation , but transformation.Reshapes subj. accdng to inner nature. Friendship picture,expresses mutual admiration. Quasi-medievl dress, neararchwy of loggia. Behind: woman &Medieval German city.
Franz Pforr,Shulamit and Mary, 1811, Romanticism, Nazarenes 2 biblicalfigs yet not relig work. Main purpose: express Pforr’s view ofOverbeck’s artistic ideals & relation to own. Form: late-medieval diptych, on 2 separate, connected panels. L: Shulamitfrom Old Test. R: Mary from New Test. in Ren interior likeDurer prints. German virtue & pious domstcity w/ prayerbook,sewing bskt, cat. Shulamit from Solomon’s Song of Songs in guise of Madonna by Perugino or Pinturicchio.
PeterCornelius, The Reconciliation of Joseph & his Brothers, 1817, Romntcsm,Later Nazarenes Brotherhd ofSt. Luke in Rome split community of expat German artists into Classicists &Medievalists/ Romantics. Catholics opposed Neocl., b/c pagan. Catholicelement increasingly imp. 1816 secured 1st majorcommission for Nazarenes: murals series in house of Prussian consul Salomon Bartholdy.Theme: Joseph in Book of Genesis. New direction of Nazarene ptg afterPforr’s death. Cues from High Ren,: Raphael’s Vatican frescos
Philip Otto Runge,Morning (oil sketch), 1808, German Romanticism Relig.diff, N Germany Protestant, S. Catholic. Like Friedrich, Runge diff. from Nazarenes. Runge, Lutheran. Receptive to Friedrich Bohme (16thc. Protestant mystic). Prelim sketch for 1st series of 4 lg. ptgsw/ times of day. Series preoccupid him meant as legacy to world. Envisioned as main element in Gesamtkunstwerk:combind diff. forms.Meant as arch. setting in Gothic space. For music, poetry accomp.
Philip Otto Runge,The Times of Day, (Morning, Midday, Evening, Night), 1803, German Romanticism
Early set ofconceptual drawings. Made numerous preliminary drawings & sketches forTimes of Day series, not completed single ptg. Represented by symmetrical, stylizedplants, surmounted by women & putti. Influenced by Bohme, whose writingsflowers serve as symbols of states of awareness.
Philip OttoRunge, Portrait of the Huelsenbeck Children, 1805—6, German Romanticism To supporthimself while producing Gesamtkunstwerk, ptd portraits. 3 chldrn of bros business partners. In front of home outsideHamburg. 2 older ones, girl & boy pull wooden cart, holds chubby babysister or bro. Masc /fem roles clearlydefined as girl, reaches baby w/ protective gesture &boy w/ whip. Ldscp: imptnt role, as in his relig & symbolic ptgs, reaffirm chldrn health. Village in bckgrd: simple upbringing.
Caspar DavidFriedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1809—10, German Romanticism Highly orig,outside artistic mainstream, like Runge brought lndscp ptg: personalvision. Reflects near-relig awe of nature. Striking in stark simplicity. Coastal scene populated by unique fig. of Capuchin. Monk: overwhelmed at vast expanse of ocean, barren headland, empty horizon,expansive sky. Evokes Kosegarten’s line “the trumpets of the sea and themany voiced pipe organ of the storm. Contempl of nature akin toreligious experience.
Caspar DavidFriedrich, Cross in the Mountains, 1807—8, German Romanticism Theme: power ofChristian faith in death. Cliff w/ pines. Crucifix:bronze Christ illum by last rays of evning sun. Rock= solidity of Christ. faith, trees & ivy climb cross = hope of man-kind. Golden fig. on cross = heaven's light. Natural & manmade = alleg. of Christ faith. God’sall-seeing eye in trinity & Eucharist symb. Tribute: GustavusAdolphus IV of Sweden (king of Pomerania). Altrpece criticized for elevatingldscp to relig. ptg. status
Caspar DavidFriedrich, Moonrise over the Sea, 1822, German Romanticism Many wks make ref to Christ, but spiritual in most general way. Part ofcommiss for 2 ptgs of morning & evening. Depicts 2 women &man on rocky shore watching moon rise from behind evening clouds. End ofjourney, spectator thinks of death: evoked by evening sky. Can interpret rocks as symb of faith & rising moon as resurrection. Owes impacton viewer to mood of nostalgia & reverie. Indentif. w/ 3 figs. Sunset inspires melancholy, awe.
ThomasGirtin, Guisborough Priory, 1801, Romantic British Landscape Zeitgeist, enthusiasm for nature. Naturalist mvmt in Britain related todev of regional tourism. Leading watercolorist. Demonstratesvariety of subj matter, aesthetic modality, artistic purpose. Sketching tours of Eng & Scotland. Gothic ruin angst ldscp bkgrd. Topographic ldscp, yet picturesque. Scenery favored by William Gilpin (1stused term picturesque): dramatic comp, contrasts& irreg textrs.
ThomasGirtin, Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland, 1797—9, Romantic British Landscape
Watercolor in adifferent mode. Sublime rather than picturesque. Dwarfs human figures thatinhabit castle. Emphasized colossal size. Placing dark mass of architectureagainst threatening sky, created sense of foreboding & apprehension.
J.M.W.Turner, Salisbury Cathedral Seen from the Cloister, 1802, Romantic BritishLandscape Began as watercolorist. Turned to oils,determined to make career w/in Royal Academy, related toambition to raise status of ldscp equal to history ptg, therefore emulated OldMaster ldscps & imbued w/ allegorical meaning. Combines accuracy oftopographic drawing w/ composition that brings out picturesque qualities.Understood marketability of picturesque, but preferred sublime.
J.M.W.Turner, Dido Building Carthage or Rise of the Carthaginian Empire, 1815,Romantic British Ldscp
Admired Claude Lorrain's seaports, composed around central body of water, flanked by unequalgrpgs of bldgs & bathed in warm, golden light. Dual method: raising status of ldscp to history ptg. Filled w/ historicref & visual metaphors. Imagined ancient city ofCarthage on N. African coast (annihilated by Romans). Sense of hope. R. bank, w/magnificent tomb, reminder of past tragedies.
J.M.W.Turner, Snow Storm – Hannibal Crossing the Alps, 1812, Romantic BritishLandscape Later wks convey political/social messages. Historical: armyof Hannibal, gen. of Carthage during Punic Wars in snowstorm, crossingAlps to invade Italy. Inspired by Turner’s trip & Napoleon’s invasion of Italy. Sent ptg to Royal Academy exh., included poem ofhis own for catalogue. Condemns Hannibal for wasting lives toconquer Rome. Indirectly comments on Napoleon (new Hannibal) whose efforts condemned in England.
J.M.W.Turner, Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, 1840, Romantic British Landscape
Event inrecent British history exh. at Royal Academy, 1840. Depraved Brit slavetraders drown sick slaves to claim damages from insurers. Couldn’t ifslaves died on board. Occurred in 1780s, hadn’t lost relevance. Officiallyabolished 1807, but slavery still practiced. Perhaps commenton inhumanity against man for material profit. Chaos ofbrushstrokes in different colors. Newtrend to pictorial freedom.
J.M.W.Turner, Rain, Steam and Speed—The Great Western Railway, 1844, Romantic BritishLandscape
Final yrs: reduces lndscp to basic elements of water,light, atmos. Abstract, resembling 20th c.non-obj ptg. Thinned oil paint like watercolor wash: heavy impasto. Almost tangibleatmospheric effects, of time. Steam train could produce delightful terror, sublime. Great Western Railway Co. on Maidenhead bridge. Not mechanically explicit, celebrates moderntech.
JohnConstable, The Hay Wain, 1821, Romantic British Landscape Determinedto elevate ldscp ptg in hierarchy of genres.Naturalistic approach not ideal beauty, sublime,picturesque effects, aimed at “believable” pictures. Exemplifies “natural painture.” Painted in Suffolk. Hoped to make rep as ldscp ptr& raise respect for pastoral scenes. Features Stour: partly canalized riverbordering family lands. Farmer on hay cart across a ford in river. Halcyon days of summer, city dwellers long for peace & quiet.
JohnConstable, Study of Cirrus Clouds, 1822, Romantic British Landscape
For many yrssketched sky & clouds at different times of day, under varied weatherconditions. Studies are marvels of meteorological observation. Ptd outside onsmall panels, carefully annotated w/ time, date, weather conditions. Indicatedit represents “cirrus” cloud. Finished ptgs: tried to preserve freshness ofoutdoor studies. May have referred to studies for Haywain.
FrancoisLemot, Equestrian statue of Henry IV, 1818, Restoration Period Louis XVIII filled power vacuum left by Napoleon’s defeat, succeeded byCharles X. Governed as constitutional monarchs. 1st thing: restore important monuments of monarchy. Former royal bldgs Versailles, St.Denis reclaimed by Bourbons. Statues destroyed during Rev made anew. On Pont neuf, re-creation of late Ren statue destroyed.Nap from Vendome melted for bronze. Memory forcibly, symbolically replaced by propaganda.
Pierre-Francois-LeonardFontaine, Chapelle Expiatoire, 1816—21, Restoration Pd Newmonumental initiatives. Symbolic site of atonement for French sin: guillotined king & qu. Grounds of smallcmtery where Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette buried. Political transitionfrom 1st Imperial arch to Royal Arch. Cntrl domed & cloister combines Greco-Roman, Estruscan, Ren, medieval styles. 1stsigns of trend. Restoration period: away from Classicism tomix of pre-rev styles.
Jean-PierreCortot, Marie-Antoinette Seeking Solace with Religion, 1825, Chapelle Expiatoire,Paris, Restoration Period Reflects trendof combining pre-revolutionary styles. 1 of most successful sculptors ofperiod. From line in queen’s last letter to XVI’s sister Elisabeth, onpedestal: “I die in the apostolic Roman Catholic religion.’ Kneeling, reaching to allegorical female img of Religion. Young & pretty, dress w/ fleur-de-lys (Bourbon dynasty) & ermine stole, symbolof royalty. Lost crown by side.
Francois-JosephHeim, Charles X Distributing Prizes after the Salon of 1824, 1825, RestorationPeriod Salon
Nap period salons in Louvre. Ptgs extol virtues of Bourbons.Relig ptgs, on rise during Nap’s rule. Monumental “grandes machines” dominate Salon, gvmtcommiss, by well-est older artists. Restor period, yng artists submit lg canvases, smllr wks didn't attract attention of news critics & gen.public. Grande-machines in mid range, smllr wks overpowrd. Followers of David dominate. New styles = impact.
HoraceVernet, Battle of Montmirail, 1822, Romanticism War =chaos. Doesn’t glorify single hero; masses struggling, dying.Journalistic approach, not propagand. Germaine de Staël wrote bk onGermany, popular in France. Launched Romantic mvmt, questioned France’scultural place. Focus on medieval past in Restoration regime(Catholic roots). Fr writer Stendhal advocated modern art w/ asoul. Vernet most representative: contemp. theme, gave pleasureto spectator. Visceral, not edifying.
TheodoreGericault, Charging Chasseur, 1812, Romanticism Explores tragedies of modern life. Reached artisticmaturity as Empire crumbled. 1st 2 militaristic ptgs also his last.Exh. At Salon of 1814. Cavalry officer of regiment of the chasseurs ready toattack. Represents horse diagonally from rear. As if jumping away frominvisible attacker, rider strikes w/ sword. Powerful sense of spacedifferent from David. Foreshortening effects like 17th c. Baroque.
TheodoreGericault, Wounded Cuirassier Leaving the Field of Battle, Salon of 1814,Romanticism Perhaps pendant to Charging Chasseur, though larger. Mmbrs of Nap’sfeared “steel hammer” cavalry, staggering down slope, saber as crutch,grabs frightened horse. Less daring than Chasseur. Novel: monumentalizes anti-hero.Loser in battlefield. Would be unthinkable in war ptgs forNapoleon, required glorious light. Not propaganda. Metaphor ofFrance’s capitulation to allied troops & unwillingness for bloodshed.
TheodorGericault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1819, Romanticism Reflects ambiv. toward contemp. & classical, ctrd on male nude.Inspired by incident in summer of 1816: French frigate, transport colonists & soldiers to Senegal ran aground near w. coast of Africa.Lifeboats: room for ½ of 400 ppl. Carpenter assembled raft from ship.Promised to tow, but cut cords. All but 15 died.Story leaked. Criticized captain’s incompetence, appt due to nepotism.Sym. of France: country adrift, lack of comp. leader.
TheodoreGericault, Study of Arm and Two Feet, 1818—19, Romanticism
Made numerousdrawings for indiv. Figures on Raft. Sketches of severed heads & limbs.Assumed he ptd studies in morgue in effort to bring verisimilitude inrepresentation of dead & dying in raft. No direct correspondence can befound. Seem carefully posed. Still-lifes defy traditional subject categories,confuse boundaries btw still life & narrative fig. ptg.
TheodoreGericault, Pity the Sorrows of a Poor Old Man, 1821, Romanticism Fascinated by daily life in city. Albumof prints on London themes. Felt might be market in Britain & France. Choselithog. Made 12 prints published as Various Subjects Drawnfrom Life and on Stone. Old beggar outside bakery shop, try to stillhunger w/ smells of fresh-baked bread. Differ from lg-scale Salon ptgs. Meantfor mid-class public, genre subjects appealed to them. Neither tells story,nor sentimentalize. Foreshadows Realism.
TheodoreGericault, Man Suffering from Delusions of Military Rank, 1822—23, Romantcm Realism in litho, mostly portraits of insane owned by dr. Geoget: physician specializing in psych., perhaps for scientific purposes.Psych. new field: insane to be treated w/ compassion for 1sttime. Believed: correl. btw mental illness & physiognomy. Hat = Napoleonic military hat. Delusional state. Shifty eyes: imposs. ofcommunication. Mysterious world apart.
EugeneDelacroix, Dante and Virgil, 1822, Romanticm Preferred past,fictional & exotic (unlike Gericault who focused on present). Inspird by Divine Comedy. Author & guide, Roman poet Virgil, travel thru hell & purgatory. 2 poets cross lake, damned soulspunishd by eternal drowning. Spectcl of souls: naked humans (customary), cling to boat. Mix ofhorror & disdain in 3 figs. Boatmen row, Dante &Virgil watch. Felt 19th c. Francebland & ugly. Sought Mid Ages, Ren subj.
EugeneDelacroix, Scenes from the Massacres at Chios, 1824, Romanticism 1 of mostcontested ptgs at 1824 Salon for formal quals & emphasis on suffering. Rare ptg on contemp theme, epi in war, waged byGreeks, 1821 to gain indep from Ottoman Emp. 2nd yr ofwar, raided isl of Chios, sold Christians - slavery. Intrst in Greek War of indep,resonate w/ 19th c. ideals of frdm /ntnlsm. Victims pessimistic. Critics said lacked focus. 1stptg labld “romantic."
EugeneDelacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827—28, Romanticism, Orientalist mode Inspired by Brit Romantic poet George Byron’s poetic drama. Ancient Assyrian king, whose decadent lifestyle & unwilling to governinvite rebellion. To spite rebels orders totaldestruction. Sweeping diagonal line. Servants bring treasures: golden vessels, jewelry, clothes, horses, women, to be killedbefore eyes. 1820s not romantic by Stendhal’s def (not modern man). Term assoc w/ originality. Departure from classicism.
Jean-August-DominiqueIngres, Grand Odalisque, 1814, Neoclassicism, Orientalist mode Metw hostility at Paris Salon, Classical trad transformationduring Restoration. Painted for Caroline Murat. Nude, recliningharem woman. Unprecedented in late 18th & early 19thc., represented nude outside narrative context. Ok b/c orientalized, exoticized. Departure from Davidian classicism. Curvatureof back: unnatural elongation of spine. Purified reality.
Jean-Auguste-DominiqueIngres, The Vow of Louis XIII, Salon of 1824, Neoclassicism Submitted tosalons after crit for Odalisque. Most important. Cathedral in hometown of Montauban. Patron: Ministry of Interior. 1634, Louis XIII placed France under protection of Vir of Assumption.Difficult subj. Combo of historical fig w/ supernaturalevent. Heaven entrance after death. Vision: Louisbeholds Virgin & Child seated on cloud. Revelation: 2 angels.Perhaps homage to Raphael, amalgam of Sistine Madonna & Madonna of Foligno.
EugeneDelacroix, The 28th of July: Liberty Leading the People, 1830,Romanticism Highlight of1831 Salon. 3 day rev to overthrow Restoration gvmt.Ntnl icon. Allegorical fig. of Liberty, carrying musket in left hand.Tricolor in R hand. Leads motley group of revolutionaries. Factorywrkrs, artisans, peasants, stdnts. Encounter members of Royal Guard. Singleposition in oeuvre. Mixes contemp. event & imgs of real people w/alleg fig. Praised for new alleg lang.
ArtyScheffer, Battle of Tolbiac, Won by King Clovis over the Alamanni, n. d.,Romanticism/Neoclassicism
Louis Philippe,aware of propagandistic power of art. Saw it as means to unite divided countrythrough common history. Gallery of Battles, most important room. Medievalbattle, one of earliest depicted in room. Characteristic of juste-milieu art attime. Dutch, studied w/ Neoclassical painter, was admirer of Delacroix.Romantic side, but linearity of classical tradition.
FrançoisRude, The Departure of Volunteers of 1792 (“La Marseillaise”), 1833—36,Romanticism Louis Philippecompleted some of Nap’s projects. Gvmt commiss sculptures to decoratepillars of Arc de Triomphe. Evokes nationalistic spirit of men who volunteeredto defend country againstAustro-Prussian invaders after French Rev. Exmpl of Neocl monuments.Doesn’t represent scenes as happened. Alleg Liberty rousing ancientwarriors to battle: hair growth identifies them as gauls, not Romans.
HippolyteFlandrin, Christ’s Entry into Jerusalem, 1842—44, Neoclassicism Revival ofrelig mural ptg. Church reemerged as major art patron in July Monarchy.Rev. of 1830 brought separation of church & state. Relig revivalamong mid-class led to commis. In refurbished medieval church of St.Germain-des-Près. New, abstract style of mural of July Monarchy. Student of Ingres, studied in Rome. Like Nazarenes,interested in early Christian & Byzantine art: uncorruptedfaith. Hieratic poses, not action packed.
François-AugusteBiard, Four O’Clock at the Salon, 1847, July Monarchy
Museum ofHistory of France in Versailles, sculptures on Arc de Triomphe & ParisSalon became public places/events, accessible to anyone during July Monarchy,reached peak. Suggests it was a crowded affair. Throngs flocked to see & beseen. Development of lengthy salon reviews. Art criticism became literarygenre. Grandes machines continued to dominate.
PaulDelaroche, The Children of Edward: Edward V, King of England, & Richard, Dukeof York in the Tower of London, 1830, French Neoclas/Romntcism,juste-milieu Exh atSalon of 1831, sets tone for new historic genre. 12 yr old king ofEng & younger bro Richard, locked in Tower of London by jealous unclefuture Richard III. On bed while Edward kneels on prayer bench, clasp relig book. Scared: hear noise at door. Spectator, familiar w/ Shakespeare’s Richard III, knows both childrenabout to be murdered.
EugeneDelacroix, Women of Algiers in their Harem, 1834, Romntcsm/ Orientalism PopularizedOrientalist genre. Nap’s Egyptian campaign catalyst. French colonizationpursued by Louis Philippe, added fuel to fascination. As travel became easier, increasingly rooted in reality. Traveled to N. Africa ondiplomatic mission w/ Duc de Mornay, recorded voyage. Exh. At Salon of 1834, 3Odalisques in N. African house smoking water pipe. New richness of color.Dramatic chiaroscuro.
EugeneDelacroix, Arab Cavalry Practicing a Charge, 1832, Romanticism, Orientalism
Orientalismcould encompass quiet, feminine subjects like female harems & baths w/blatant sexuality, but also masculine subjects such as hunts & skirmishes.Early example in oeuvre of subject immensely popular throughout July Monarchy.Fiery Arab horses mounted by exotic riders. Overflows w/ energy &aggression. Shows western view of Orient as place where passions heightened.
Jean-Auguste-DominiqueIngres, Portrait of Louis-François Bertin, 1832, Neoclassicism/ Romanticism
Portraitslucrative. Middle class saw it as art form that could bolster status &prestige. Ingres set tone for portraiture of July Monarchy. Prominentnewspaperman, exemplifies prosperity & self-confidence of French middleclass of period. Compared w/ earlier wks, shows new degree of realism &psychological insight. Interest in character of sitter & emotional statemark Romantic portraiture.
Jean-Baptiste-CamilleCorot, Hagar in the Wilderness, 1835, Romanticism Ldscp genre best represented at Salon & in strong demand. Sold throughSalon & curio shops. 3 trends during July Monarchy: incl historic trad. Salon of 1835, est rep asgreatest ldscp painter at time. From bk of Genesis. Abraham’s wife,unable to conceive, encourages Abe to sleep w/ faithful servant Hagar. Jealous when she conceives & banishes her. She kneels in despair bybody of child. Harmony btw Hagar’s desperate state & desolateldscp.
Jean-Baptiste-CamilleCorot, Fishing with Net, Evening, Salon of 1847, Romanticism Earlier careerdevoted to direct study of nature. Produced category of ptgs less formed thanHagar of French scenes, he sold to collectors. Ex ofmid-size wks, probably identical w/ a wk shown at salon of 1847. Bought byprovincial collector Alfred Bruyas. Exemplifies mode popular w/ collectors. Simple ldscp w/ water, trees, & figs. Use offresh greens & light, feathery touch for foliage suggests springtime.Quiet, poetic quality.
TheodoreRousseau, Heath, 1842—43, Romanticism, Barbizon Naturalisttrend. Not interested in medieval castles & ruins, preferred woods &fields of France, esp. small cottages & shepherds. Sought subjectsclose to home. Barbizon: ctr of ldscp ptg & attracted artists.Exemplifies Barbizon School: focus on quiet corner of Fr devoid of ruins. Elements of nature = importance as pictorial subjects.Less interested in capturing effects of light & atmos thanrepresenting nature & processes. Concerned w/ tangible aspects.
Jules Dupre,Crossing the Bridge, 1838, Romanticism, Barbizon School
Produced ptgs w/lyrical, pastoral quality often absent from Rousseau’s wks & more invitingto look at. Exhibited at Salon of 1838, has pleasant rustic quality, greatlyappealed to city dwellers. Paris & other urban ctrs expanded at frighteningspeed. Growing nostalgia for countryside, ensured market for ptgs.
CharlesPhilipon, Les Poires (The Pears) Illustration in Le Charivari, 1831, JulyRevolution caricature
Press censorshipeliminated: newspapers published as they saw fit & had growing importance. Litho enabled mass repro. Imgs a way to boost sales. Published humorous journals w/ political caricatures & social satire.Most famous satirical emblem of July Monarchy, of Louis Philippe. Slang term(poire) meaning fat-head. Louis: nothing but a figurehead,faceless & voiceless, out-ruled by ministers.
HonoreDaumier, Masks of 1831, Illustration in La Caricature, 1832, July Revolutioncaricature
Typical of earlywork, almost exclusively portrait caricatures. To advertise issue of Philipon’sLa Caricature, created series of busts out of clay displayed in shop window ofpublishing house. Clay ideal medium, enabled him to experiment w/characterization. Familiar w/ sciences of physiognomy: relationship betweenappearance & character.
HonoreDaumier, Gargantua, 1831, July Revolution caricature Made politicalcartoons for Philipon’s papers. Most so virulent, Philipon sued for libel. Led to imprisonment & ban on pub. Pear-headed Louis Philippe in guise of great Gargantua, chrctr invented by medieval Fr writer Francois Rabelais. Seated on 19thc. john devouring baskets of gold brought by army of carriers.Excellent digestion: expels mound of paper docs (lttrs of nomination &appt to gvmt pos).
HonoreDaumier, Rue Transnonain, April 15, 1834, July Revolution caricature Non-satiricalpolitical litho. Re-creation of actual event. Not libelous, gvmtunable to bar publication, although contained implicit critique. Spring 1834:unrest in Paris fueled by republican & socialist societies that opposedJuly Monarchy. Gvmt sent troops to end riots in poor sections. April 15 rioterin tenement house shot popular army officer. Soldier went to each house onstreet & killed everyone. Compares to photojournalism.
HonoreDaumier, Good-bye My Dear, I am Going to My Editors, From the series of Les BasBleus (The Bluestockings), 1844, July Revolution caricature
Louis Philippe’sgvmt in Sept. 1835 intro'd censorship laws: politicallysubersive imgry difficult. Philipon & illus forced to concentrateon social rather than political satire. Special grps: docs,lawyers, bourgeois, or bluestockings. Woman leaves house to take manuscript to editor, husband watches baby. Mocks ambitious contemp women: George Sand.
J.J.Grandville, Venus at the Opera, 1844, July Revolution caricature Social satire,competed w/ Daumier. Best known for fantastic drawings.From album Un Autre Monde. Mocks 19th c. theater: spectators more interested in each other than drama onstage. Crowd of male spectators gazing at beautiful woman. Feigns to ignore gazes. Caricature in metamorphosis of men’s heads into eyes,(they’re all eyes) & woman into bust (on a pedestal).
HonoreDaumier, Photography. A New Procedure, Used to Ensure Graceful Poses, 1856,caricature
Earlyphotog, exposure times were so long (15-30 mins) that it was impossible tophotograph anything that moved. By 1842, improved enough to allow for shortertimes of 10-50 seconds. Daguerreotype could be used for photography if subjectstood still. To help them, photographers used apparatus clamped to sitter’shead. Explains stiff formality of early photos, which makes them seem lesslively than paintings.
E. Thiesson,Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre, 1844, Early Photog Subject inventedDaguerreotypes: printed on silver-coated copper plates rather than paper. Though known for clarity & sharpness, made singleimpression. In early photog, exposure times so long (15-30 mins) was impossible to photog anything that moved. 1842, improved enough for shorter times of 10-50 seconds. Daguerreotype could be used forphoto if subject stood still. Used apparatusclamped to sitter’s head. Explains stiff formality.
Jean-Baptiste-LouisGros, View of the Seine and the Louvre, 1847, Early Photography
Portraiture mostcommon use of early photography. Offered middle class opportunity to recordlikenesses of themselves & loved ones. Also used to document places. Suchphotos were predecessors of picture postcard of modern times. Daguerreotypeprocess only one of many developed in parts of Europe at time.
HonoreDaumier, The Urchin of Paris in the Tuileries Palace, 1848, caricature Pblshed in LeCharivari. Recalled events of 1789. King’schair in Tuileries Palace occupied by street urchin. Appeared in wake ofRev of 1848, uprising in Paris would escalate into wave ofrevs & result in political upheaval. Caused by food shortage thataffected Euro econ. France had recession & massive unemployment, whichled to discontent. Lower & middle classes sought greater politicalparticipation in gvmt.
Jean-LouisErnest Meissonier, Memory of Civil War, or Barricade in the Rue de laMoretellerie, June 1848, 1848, Realism Rev of 1848 impact on Salon: preoccupation w/ rev sappedinterest in art. New & innovative works allowed: showed impact of events of 1848. Repub symphathies, mournedatrocities. His 1st contemp pic. June Days,ptd after fact, w/ help of models. Scene he witnessed. Stormed barricades as artillery cap. of Natnl Guard. Stressescivil tragedy.
Charles Garnier,Opera, 1860—75, Place de l’Opera, Beaux-Arts Style, Neo-Baroque Paris. 2nd Empire: Suited to convey grandeur of Euro elite acquired during age of expansion. Mirrored opulence of privlg few. Intricate arrgmt of corridors, vestibules, strwys, balconies, alcoves, entrances, exists facilitate pssge, provide soclizing at intermissions: Hausmannization, facilitates traffic. Hierarchical higher up, the cheaper the ticket. Upper class lives revolved around opera.
J. L. CharlesGarnier, The Grand Staircase in the Opera, 1860—75, Beaux-Arts Style,Neo-Baroque
High end streetin Haussmann’s Paris. Epitomizes culture of 2nd Empire. Time ofoptimism & wealth, gilded age for bourgeoisie. Eclectic style recalls 17thc. Baroque. Upon entering, opulent staircase completes experience.
Jean-BaptisteCarpeaux, The Dance, 1865—69, Beaux-Arts, Neo-Baroque 1 of 4monumental alleg sculptures on 1st story of façade. Represent mainartistic elements in making an opera: comp., music, drama, & dance. 1st 3 unimaginative in neocl models, Danceis dynamic. Ctrl alleg personification rejects standard draped female for youngmale nude w/ tambourine. Joy. vitality like pagan bacchanalia. Scandal: genitls sugg, females not classical, threatens morality.
EugeneGuillaume, Instrumental Music, 1865—9, Opera, Paris, Neoclassical
1 of 4monumental allegorical sculptures on 1st story of façade. Represent main artisticelements in making an opera: composition, instrumental music, lyric drama,& dance. 1st 3 unimaginative in neoclassical models, Dance isdynamic.
Marcello,Pythian Sibyl, 1867—70, 2nd Empire
Decoratesinterior of Opera. By Swiss artist Adèle d’Affry (Marcello), among 1st famous female sculptors in France. Ancient Greekprophetess at Apollo’s sanctuary. Seated on tripod,body convulsed as mind receives divine message. Subject appropriate since inearly 19th c., relig rapture compared w/ artistic inspiration.Said she cast her own shoulder & L hand. Idealized, unlike Dance, but lacksCarpeaux’s realism.
Jean-LouisErnest Meissonier, The Painting Connoisseurs, 1860, Historical Genre Ptg 2ndEmpire salon: new popular trend for smaller ptgs in July Monarchy.Modest size. 18th c. artist at wk in studio, surrounded by 3admiring conn. Surpasses Empire troubadour ptrs & Delaroche in “authenticity.” Hist accuracy, smallest detail of clothing & furniture researched.Verisimilitude, meticulous finish: lendsminiaturist quality. Criticized by Baudelaire.
AdolphMenzel, The Flute Concert of Frederick the Great at Sansoucci, 1852,Romanticism Series ofmid-size historic genre ptgs. World of 18th c Prussian king Frederick II. Was amateur flute player, like manyGerman princes. Played several nights a week w/ court chamberorchestra. In 1 of reception rooms at Sansoucci, garden palace at Potsdam.Harpsichordist, son of Bach (dir. of royal chamber orch). Spec. attraction: candle-light illum. Musicians in sem-dark.
AdolphMenzel, The Berlin-Potsdam Railway, 1847, Romanticism More interestedin contemp life in private/ public spheres. Varying degrees offocus, perhaps related to photog. or interest in visual perception. Earlylandscapes: rear window scenes similar to Blechen’s View of Roofs. Of group ofcontemp ptgs indicate interest in railways, affected land & humanmobility. Panoramic perspective & bravura brushwork recalls Turner. Blurred: creates illusion of speed. Prob. considered sketch.
AdolphMenzel, Iron Rolling Mill, or Modern Cyclops I, 1872—75, Romanticism 19thc. ptg rarely treated indust scenes. News & mags focused onpeasants not factory workers. This: exception. Interior of rolling mill for train rails in native region ofSilesia (now Poland). Bismark’s gvmt aided indust: Capitalists to compete intly. Das Kapitalpublish 1867, Germans didn’t notice. Factory as heroic subject. Descrip:interest in indust process not sympathetic.
WilhelmLeibl, Village Politicians, 1876—77, Realism
Became acquaintdw/ Courbet in Munich in 1869: Intl Art Exh. Close-up representation of countrylife. Reminiscent of Ornans or Stone Breakers. 5 villagers huddled in roomfocusing on newspaper. Contains list of those eligible to vote. Suspense &tension in facial expressions & gestures. Beyond Courbet in attentiontophysiognomy, pose, gesture. Greater psychological truth. Sharp focus: infl ofphotography, Durer & Holbein.
Hans vonMarees, Orange Grove of Sorrento, 1873, Idealsm Rejectedsentimental realism of Biedermeier. Distaste for bourgeois materlsm& commerclztion of art world. Drawn to Italian Ren. Unlike Nazarenesdidn’t form coherent mvmt. Came to Italy to copy ptgs. 1873 commiss topaint 5 frescos: scenes of life in Bay of Naples for German zoologicalobservatory. Orange grove w/ nude male, picks orange from tree. Old man digs atsoil. Alleg of human life: diff stages: playfulness, fruitful labor,preparation for death.
Roger Fenton,Queen Victoria, the Prince and Eight Royal Children in Buckingham Palace Garden,22 May 1854, Victorian Photography Queen Victoria’sreign: 1837—1900. Marriage to 1st cousin Albert in 1840 = 9children. Photos of brood widely circulated. Advanced her img as queen & mother & prompted fam values of her reign.Informal nature of medium. She promoted this type of img. Cast self as another Brit citizen, espoused same ideals/ values as rest of nation. Demeanor/ dress like from Britmid class.
EdwinLandseer, Windsor Castle in Modern Times, 1841—45, Victorian Age Young Victoriadressed as mid-class woman of per. greeting husband returning from hunt.Vicky, their 1st child w/ pet bird inspect dead partridge. Virtues of Victorian mid class: domest harmony spousal fidelity,masc. character, feminine devotion/ modesty. Social changesbrought by econ pressures of Indust Rev. Mass of indust laborers & peasants. Wealthy indust competed w/ aristocracy.
Gustave Dore,Holland House, A Garden Party Illustration from London: A Pilgrimage, 1872,Victorian Age Belated responseto socio-economic probs of Victorian’s reign. Thomas Carlyle, CharlesDickens, Charles Kingsley, Friedrich Engels tried to expose injustices. Reformwas slow. Illustrator: showed differences btw rich & poor in drawings forLondon: A Pilgrimage written by Blanchard Jerrold. Comparing drawing of gardenparty at Holland House w/ one of London slum: shows gap btw rich & poor.
RichardRedgrave, The Poor Teacher, 1845, Early Victorian Anecdotal Scene Changingmarket 1830s & 40s; moved away from history ptg; devoted tosentimental-Romantic scenes from modern life, history, lit popular inBiedermeier Germany & July Monarchy France. Popular: made 4, 5 replicas.Poor teacher in schoolroom eating meal at desk. Black dress: in mourning. Handholds letter prob from home = nostalgia. “ sees no kind of domesticvisage here.” Cavernous space: loneliness & abandonment.
Richard Dadd,Fairy Feller’s Master Stroke, 1855—64, Fairy Painting Uniquely Britishgenre; Victorian interest in preternatural, psychic, occult. Based on Shakespeare’s plays. Known for wks he did laterin life when a patient in Bedlam (treated for schizophr); where he ptdthis. Inventive imgry & startling manipulation of size. Diminutive figsagainst giant flowers reminiscent of fairly tales. Horror vacui & detailcharacterstic of imgry by schizo patients. Ctrd on “feller” who stands inforeground.
John Martin,Great Day of Wrath, 1852, Early Victorian Landscape Ldscp ptg important early 19th c. Turner’s rep inhibited youngerldscpsts. Popular Victorian times. Img ofGod’s punishment of world in biblical Book of Revelation orApocalypse. “Great day of His Wrath is come.” Belated ex. of sublime. Exaggof spec effects more closely related to pop entertnmnt than Burke’s notion. Inspired by contemp panoramas, magic lantern shows. Combined w/artificial sounds.
JuliaMargaret Cameron, Portrait of Sir John Herschel, 1867, Victorian Portraiture(photography)
Mid classreplaced aristocracy as major art patrons; no longer market for lg scale. 1 of many amateur photographers in mid-19th c. Cameron strove forprof recognition: developing, printing own photos & submitting themto photo exh. Used difficult/ sensitive collodian process. Dramaticchiaroscuro. Imitated ptd portraits rather thanmirror img of sitter.
Charles Barryand A. W. N. Pugin, Houses of Parliament, rebuilding begun 1840, London, GothicRevival
Fired destroyedmuch of Westminster Palace 3 days before Victoria ascended throne. Competitionto rebuild. Eclectic historicist style favored during period. Admirer of Gothicstyle. Convert to Roman Catholicism; found spiritual quality & sense ofmoral integrity lacking in pagan Greek/ Roman arch. Imitate late Gothic styleof early Tudor period.
Charles Barryand A. W. N. Pugin, The Peers’ Lobby, looking towards the House of Lords, 1848,House of Parliament, London, Gothic Revival Eclectichistoricist style favored in period. Admirer of Gothic style. Convert to Catholicism; spiritual qual. & sense of moral integritylacking in pagan Greek/ Roman arch. Imitate late Gothic style of early Tudorperiod. Reinterpretation of Gothic style; elaborate decor & skilled workmanship of every element. Best wood & stonecarvers, metalsmiths, tilemakers = crafted look.
William Dyce,Mercy: Sir Gawaine Swearing to be Merciful and Never be Against Ladies, 1854,Gvmt Commiss Concern gvmtcircles: Brit art degenerates into mid-class entertnmt. Competition: fresco in parl: elevates Brit art. MakeHouses of Parliament national monmnt; Brit subj. Aruthurianlegend: early Victorn Brit values: piety, hosptalty, mercy,generosity. G’s trial for accidentally killing woman at Arthur’s wedding feast. Sentence: life of mercifulness,courtesy, devotion. Format: sacra conversazione.
John EverettMillais, Christ in the Carpenter’s Shop, 1849—50, Pre-Raphaelite Modeled afterNazarenes. Scorned mid-class eclecticism, cheap sensationalism. Devoted to lit themes: Shakespearean & Biblical. Mode: Symbolic Realism. Spiritualityelevated them above Victorian materialism. Christ pierced hand w/ nail:crucifixion. Joseph inspects wound. John the B brings water: Baptism. Whitedove: Holy Spirit. Triangle: Trinity. Sheep: Christ’s flock. Meticulous detail.Critics scorned.
Dante GabrielRossetti, Ecce Ancilla Domini, 1849—50, Pre-Raphaelite
Criticism atNational Institution (alt to Royl Acad) not for blasphemous realism but excessof didacticism. Saw art as vehicle for ideas. “Behold the handmaid of theLord”: Annunciation as told in Lucke 1:30. Young Virgin approached by Gabrielwho comforts her. Holds white symbol of purity.
John EverettMillais, Death of Ophelia, 1852, Pre-Raphaelite Realized Christin Carpenter’s Shop wouldn't bring success. Diff strategy; like Hunt, combined idealism & realism. Marks abandonmentof relig subj matter for themes inspired by lit, history, contemp life.Based on Shakespeare’s Hamlet: suicide of rejected lover driven to madnessafter he killed her father. Followed text closely. Success: naturalsetting, fashionable beauty.
WilliamHolman Hunt, The Awakening Conscience, 1853—54, Pre-Raphaelite Hunt onlyPR to paint relig subj consistently. After 1852: lit & modern life. Meant as modernfoil of World's light. Sudden remorse of young prostituteentertains wealthy young man. Looks out window, confronted by light/ beauty of nature, sees evil of her situation. Rich Victorian interior. Material world thatdistracts attn from spiritual matters. Moralizing aspects not obviousenough, inscribed in frame.
John EverettMillais, Blind Girl, 1856, Pre-Raphaelite
Little interestin improving society despite lofty idealism. Preoccupation w/ biblical &lit themes escape from brutal realities of contemp life. Few exceptionsconfirm rule. Probl of homelessness. Blind Girl & companionseated on side of road, listening to rumble of thunderstorm. Bothdressed in rags: vagrants who travel from village to village, scraping togethershillings by playing on concertina & holding cup. Used mid-class models:well-kept.
WilliamFrith, At the Seaside (Ramsgate Sands), 1854, Mid-Victorian descriptive genrepainting WhilePre-Raphaelites tried to give ptg a relig/ moralizing significance, genrestill popular. Focus shifted from anecdotal to descrip. New fashion:mid-class life in detailed documentary fashion. Public life of midclass at seashore, races, or railroad station. 1st in series. Bought by Queen Victoria. Entertained w/ miniaturist style.Always more to discover.
Emily MaryOsborn, Nameless and Friendless, 1857, Mid-Victorian anecdotal genre painting Anecdotal genrepersisted alongside descriptive. 1 of numerous female pters active inBritain in Mid-V period (not allowed to exh at Academy). Aware of plight of other female artists. Shows young woman artist offering ptgfro sale to art dealer. She & young son wait & dealer casts deprecatingglance at pic. He’s feigning dislike to offer lowest possible price, althoughkeen interest of assistant indicates it’s good.
Henry PeachRobinson, Fading Away, 1858, Mid-Victorian narrative genre Robinson, famousfor “art photos.” Young girl on deathbed surrounded by fam. Deathbed scenesof young common in sentimental novels: reality of 19thc.: diseases: “consumption” tuberculosis), cholera, and diptheria. Imposs to shoot entire scene in focus: several negs incombo print = dramatic contrasts. Title engraved, inscribed w/strophe from poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.
Dante GabrielRossetti, Monna Vanna, 1866, Aesthetic Movement Pre-RaphaeliteBrohood lost coherence mid 1850s. Moved in new circles: poet Algernon CharlesSwinburne. Mvmt against reigning bourgeois tastes by depreciating content,belittled the narrative & descrip genre ptgs. Resumed wk w/ series ofbeautiful sumptuously dressed young women. Iconic rather than narrative:doesn’t suggest story, but an img for pure visual contemplation. Not an actualwoman, but a vehicle for beautiful pic.
Edward ColeyBurne-Jones, Golden Stairs, 1876—80, Aesthetic Movement Focused on womenas principal theme: all hold musical instruments, some dating to MiddleAges. Doesn’t spell out/ illus story but leaves up to viewer to imagine.Striking formal qualities: subtle color scheme: composed almost entirely ofshades of blue & yellow: semicircular composition; contrast btw geometriclines of arch & irreg contours of female bodies. Musical theme invitescomparison of ptgs tones & harmonies w/ music.
James AbbottMcNeill Whistler, Symphony in White, No. 3, 1867, Aesthetic Movement Came closer thanany other 19th c Brit artist to abandoning subj matter toembrace form. Interest in analogy. 1st wk w/ musicaltitle. Close to non-obj ptg. Royal Acad exh of 1867: 2 girls inwhite on white couch: scheme ltd to hues of white enlivened byred tones of girls’ hair & green plant in frgrnd. Contrast created btw straight lines or room décor & arabesquecontours of bodies.
James AbbottMcNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875 John Ruskinfamously accused ptr of being a charlatan. Whistler sued critic for libel; went to trial & drew spectators. Brought forth iss at stake for history of modern art. In Nocturne Ruskin found neither moral nor pictorial clarity hedesired. Attempt tocapture dazzling effects of fireworks over Thames defied critic’sunderstndg of nature as a divine creation. Whistler: diff understanding purpose – art for art’s sake.
Lawrence AlmaTadema, A Reading from Homer, 1885, Royal Academy Most importantdiff btw French & Brit art worlds in nat academies. Tension btw grand trad& modern artists in France, not exist in Britain. Changed mid 19thc from sober Neocl to historicism. Compard to Gerome's Neo-Grec wks: precise rendering of details & realism of figs: powerful senseof actuality. Narrow horizontal format: resembles clssicl frieze such asParthenon frieze in Brit Museum.
FredericLeighton, Fatidica, 1893—94, Royal Academy
Pres ofRoyal Acad from 1878 to death. Demonstrates proximity in Britain of acad & avant-garde trends: ptgs depicts Roman goddess worhipped for ability toforetell future. Seated on throne set w/in grey stone niche. Ptd w/ paletteltd to white & grey hues. Ptg derives impact not from subject but fromsubtl play of light & shade & complex pattern caused by folds ofgarment. Diff from Whislter: subject & precision, but less pronounced thanprogressive academics.
Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851, Victorian Age
1st intl exh. organized in Britain. Coincided w/ efforts to est free trade (Adam Smith promoted). Arch gives express to Britain’s technical superiority. Commiss for exh bldg given to Paxton (gardener, experience w/ hothouses, proposed glass). Admitted light: required to view: main activity. Lightweight: transported. 3 types modular units: glass panes, cast-iron supports, iron girders. Prefab. Unprecedented in revivalist per.
JosephPaxton, Crystal Palace, 1851, Victorian Age
1stintl exh. org in Britain. Coincided w/ efforts to est free trade (AdamSmith promoted). Important that arch express Britain’s tech superiority. Paxton: gardener, exp w/ hothouses, proposed glass. Admitted light: for viewing: main activity. Lightwght: transported. 3 types modularunits: glasspanes, cast-iron supprts, iron girders. Prefab. Unprecedented revivalist per. Cheapest most unskilled labor possible. Publicity.
CrystalPalace, The United States’ Department Illustration in The Crystal PalaceExhibition Illustrated Catalogue, London, 1851, Victorian Age
Featuredconsumer products: kitchenwares, small sculptures forbourg home. Machines of modest sz for textile industry. Eachnation, section. US sec: pianos, gas lamps, Power’s Greek Slave, tepee & wooden Indian & squaw. Wood engravgs: what public could see. Mid 19thc ambition bourgeoisie: imitate aristoc.
Owen Jones,Plate lxvii from The Grammar of Ornament, 1856, Victorian Age By highlightingexisting standards for design of consumer prods, reoriented design & ornamentation. Principle fig in design “revolution.” Rather than imitating/ combinng ornaments of past, dsgners analyzed principles: suitable dec style for 19th c.Developed 30 axioms of design, appeared in Grammar of Ornament. Beyondrevivalist styles to manuscr & Islamic &Far East art.
Philip Webb,Backgammon cabinet, with figures painted after a drawing by Edward Burne-Jones,1861, Victorian 2nd exh in 1862, consumer goods again focus. Hoped to show advances inBrit design. Most orig prods in Medieval Court. Inspired by medieval. Formal simplicityinnovative compared to furniture in 1851 exh. Box on 4 high postsconnected by shelf. Lacked carved ornamntatn; decor ltd to ptg: abstract, color bands, geo motifs. Fig scene by Burne-Jones.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!