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New Economic Policy
Lenin’s 1921 policy of allowing Soviet farmers and small business to operate in a market economy. The policy was designed to jump-start the economy after years of civil war and internal revolution
Twentieth century political ideology that rejected the existing alternatives of conservatism,communism, socialism, and liberalism. Proponents stressed the authoritarian power of the state, the efficacy of violent action, the need to build national community, and the use of new technologies of influence and control.
League of Nations
International body founded after World War I and designed to resolve future international disagreements through peaceful means.
An event that occurred in 1917 that overthrew the tsar and eventually brought the Bolsheviks, a Communist party led by Lenin, to power.
Peace settlement with Germany at the end of World War I; It included the War Guilt Clause fixing blame on Germany for the war and requiring massive reparations.
A punitive peace imposed by the victorious Germans on Russia and signed by the Bolshevik government in 1917.
A 1917 British commitment to support the creation of a Jewish homeland in the Middle East after the conclusion of World War I, while simultaneously committing to respect Palestinian claims in the region.
The pre-World War I defensive understanding of France, Russia, and Great Britain designed to restrain German territorial ambitions in Europe and overseas.
The defensive military alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy brokered by German Chancellor Bismarck in the 1880s.
Term applied to artistic and literary movement from the late nineteenth century through the 1950s. Participants sought tocreate new aesthetics forms and values
Survival of the Fittest
A reorganization of the Japanese government in 1867 that marked the beginning of an intense campaign of Westernization and modernization.
An effort by Chinese nationals to expel Westerners from China in 1900. A combined American ,European, and Japanese force defeated the rebels.
The third phase of modern European _____, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and extended Western control over almost all of Africa and much of Asia.
Prejudice, hostility, or legal discrimination against Jews.
Government provision of worker benefits, including accident, sickness, and old age insurance pioneered in Germany under Otto von Bismarck in an effort to undermine the appeal of Marxism.
The trials of Captain Alfred Dreyfus on treason charges, which dominated French political life in the decade after 1894 and revealed fundamental divisions in French society.
An attack on the power and autonomy of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany during the chancellorship of Otto Von Bismarck. The campaign included the expulsion of the Jesuit order from Germany and the advancement of state schools over religious institutions.
An artistic and literary movement of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that involved a protest against classicism, appealed to the passions rather than the intellect,and emphasized the beauty and power of nature.
Great Reform Bill
Parliamentary legislation in 1932 that opened up voting rights to middle-class males in Britain.
The bill was a first in a series of reforms that would extend the franchise to the working class by the end of the nineteenth century.
Congress of Vienna
A religious organization founded in 1878 which attempted to assist men and women who faced poverty and despair, but their resources were limited.
His invention of the incandescent electric light marked the start of a new age of artificial light.
An automobile manufacturer that instituted the assembly line technique and the use of interchangeable parts by the early twentieth century
He often focused his literary works on the shattered lives of industrial workers (demonstrated by his 1854 work titled Hard Times) as they sought to find meaningful work in ugly and unhealthy cities.
Drugs that cause the reversible loss of sensation. The development of these druge, especially ether and chloroform during the 1840s, made surgical procedures less painful
A substance which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms. Beginning in the 1860s, such substances made childbirth safer. In the 1880s, progress against combating tuberculosis and cholera was made by the use of such substances.
A device that made instant communication across the Atlantic possible after 1866 thanks to the installation of the first trans-Atlantic electric cable.
The social process by which cities grow and societies become more urban. This process, along with technology, had redefined the relationship between humans and nature. But, in the early nineteenth century, the separation of large numbers of people from the rhythm of life on the land and small communities seemed, on balance, to have resulted in a better quality of material life for everyone.
An unskilled industrial worker who was entirely dependent on wage labor for his/her survival.According to many nineteenth century social theorists, including Karl Marx, such persons faced constant exploitation by the owners of the means of production..
Internal Combustion Engine
Lighter and more portable than the steam engine, the new technology was powered by liquid petroleum and led to the advent of the automobile age by the end of the nineteenth century.
Developed by James Watt in the 1760s, this invention made nonhuman productive power portable, launching the railroad age and allowing manufacturing to develop in urban areas first in Britain and then across Europe.
Sustained period of economic growth and change brought on by technological innovations in the process of manufacturing; began with Britain in the mid-eighteenth century
A form of government characterized by formal equality of rights and privileges. The French revolution brought about legal equality, freedom of expression, the sanctity of property ,the abolition of serfdom and the right to choose one’s career path, a written constitution, and religious toleration.
A system of governance in which power is vested in individuals according to merit. The Code Napoleon emphasized…unified standards of conduct irrespective of location or circumstances of birth.
A form of government characterized by hereditary succession of nobles to power. In 1791 the National Assembly created a constitutional monarchy. The criterion for office holding had shifted from birth to wealth, opening new opportunities for non-noble citizens to shape public policy at the national level; in fact, all titles of nobility were abolished.
Left vs. Right
From 1795-1799, the French government continued to face challenged from royalists and Jacobins, the war dragged on, and finances remained precarious. The distinct terms associated with the royalists and Jacobins, respectively, emerged from where delegates sat in the Convention.
In an effort to streamline and rationalize French law, Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) appointed a commission of influential jurors to examine French civil (not criminal) laws and to synthesize these into one code that the average citizen could understand. - The Code recognized the inherent equality of males, freedom of religion and separation of church and state, the inviolability of property, and freedom for the individual to choose a career.
All executive functions (of the French government) were reserved for five individuals—named the ____The ____ government wished to refocus the revolutionary impulse back to the reform agenda of the early years ( which were inspired by the eighteenth century philosophes, especially those of natural rights and liberties, religious freedom, and the accountability of magistrates).
Committee of Public Safety
Jacobin dominated group that persuaded the Convention to delegate executive power to its 12-member committee. Robespierre and his colleagues in this group attacked anyone who disagreed with Jacobin leadership. A brutal terror campaign was inaugurated against the varied “enemies of the people”.
Led by this man, the radical leaders of the Committee of Public Safety were intent on creating a“republic of virtue” in which ignorance and superstition would be expelled and there would be no extremes of wealth and poverty. A brutal terror campaign was inaugurated against the varied “enemies of the people”. It eventually consumed members of every social class and most political perspectives.
Working class revolutionaries who initiated the radical stage of the French Revolution in 1792.
They called on the government…
o To address the problem of economic equality by increasing wages, controlling food prices, and raising taxes on the wealthy.
o For a more democratic political order in which the voice of the common citizen would be heard.
Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
On August 27, 1789, the National Assembly of France approved the _______, a statement of political principles modeled after America’s Declaration of Independence. It held that all men were declared free and equal citizens, religious toleration was adopted, and taxation based on the ability to pay was accepted as a basic constitutional principle.
On June 17, 1789 the Third Estate, together with a handful of sympathetic clergy and nobility, declared itself the ______ of France and pledged not to disband until the country had a new constitution.
Two parts were composed of the clergy and nobility of France. The third part was composed of the French commoners, urban laborers, peasants, artisans, business people, lawyers, bankers, and financiers.
In general, longstanding monarchical regimes across Europe that were perpetuated by privileged aristocrats. Specifically, the perpetuated French monarchy that faced a dire fiscal emergency following Louis XVI succession to the French throne. It was overturned following the conviction of Louis XVI for conspiring against the liberty of the French people in December 1792.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendmentsto the United States Constitution of 1789 were informed by fears of too muchpower being concentrated in the hands of a distant central government. It was added to the Constitution of the United States in order to protect individual citizens from possible government abuse of power
King Louis XVI
An English radical that was expelled from the House of Commons in the 1760s for his criticism of the king and his ministers in the newspaper The North Briton. Colonists saw this event as evidence of a sinister pattern developing---England was slipping into tyranny.
Marquis de Lafayette
French military officer (1757-1834) played leading roles in both the American rebellion and French revolution. He drafted a statement of rights modeled after the Declaration of Independence; the revolutionary French National Assembly incorporated many of his ideas into the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789),the central text of the French Revolution.
Philosophers; the writers and thinkers of the Enlightenment, especially in France.
John Locke claimed that every person was born without any inborn or innate ideas but instead the mind at birth was a blank slate; this theory had enormous implications for the power of education to shape human personality.
Political theory that held the institution of monarchy had divine origin and that the monarch functioned as God’s representative on earth.
The systematic questioning of all alleged truths and a rigorous assessment of truth claims using empirical evidence and rational thinking.
A high government official that popularized the experiential and collaborative outlook in The Advancement of Learning (1605). He urged his contemporaries to look into the nature of things themselves without respect for tradition. He held that improvements in this field could only be secured by rigorous induction, working from particular examples and experiments, and avoiding grand generalizations.
Professor of mathematics at Cambridge University that developed the law of universal gravitation demonstrating that all bodies in motion were intimately connected. He wrote The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687); it introduced and clarified the role of gravity and motion in all aspects of physical creation,offering answers to key issues in astronomy and physics that scholars had debated since Copernicus.
Employed the newly invented (c.1608) telescope and mathematics to confirm the Copernican heliocentric theory. He discovered Law of Inertia; he insisted that there was no natural state of motion; if a body was in motion, it would remain in motion until another force deflected it.
Sun centered model ofthe Universe. (see also, Copernicus, Kepler, & Galileo)
Polish mathematician,astronomer, and Roman Catholic priest that was the first to seriously challenge the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic model of the cosmos; expressed serious concerns about the mathematical complexity of the Ptolemaic system (orbits within orbits).
Were leaders among new institutions that began to emerge beginning in the 16th and 17th century, that contested the intellectual monopoly that the church and Europe’s few universities had enjoyed for so long. Inquiries focused on the utilitarian aspects of how nature worked.
Protestant monarch of England (Mary Tudor’s sister). She gradually eased her country toward a“settlement” of religion. A church with a Catholic hierarchical structure and ritual and a partially Protestant theology.
When she came to power she was eager to restore England’s allegiance to the papacy. She tried to rid England of Protestants by urging them to reconvert or emigrate; she imprisoned prominent Protestant clergy and by the end of her reign she had sought out and executed Protestant sympathizers.
Military strategistand a member of the House of Commons that became new English head of state after Charles I was convicted of treason and beheaded.; stuck to a puritan middle path and his support derived from his ability as a military leader to restore order to a country that was desperate for stability.
The greatest author during the period of Elizabethan England. Despite his lack of formal education, he learned to act and write plays. He is credited today with about 40 plays, 154 sonnets, and several longer poems.
The great fleet that Philip II launched in 1588 in what proved to be a futile attempt to conquer England and subdue Protestant resistance to the Netherlands.
He inherited western half of Charles V’s empire.. Sought to bring more of Europe under his control and thereby concluded that to strengthen his hold over the Netherlands he had to purge the land of Protestants. In 1567, he sent an army to the Netherlands to enforce religious conformity.
In 1517 (the year Luther attacked indulgences) the Oratory of Divine Love was founded in Rome to promote religious renewal among both clergy and laity.; influential members advocated reform but faced a serious obstacle in Renaissance papacy.
A papal dispensation(exemption) from the obligation to perform penance.
Augustinian monk that believed that people did not earn salvation by doing good works; salvation was gift God freely gave then while they were still sinners. Salvation could not be earned and human beings could not comprehend God’s motives in bestowing it. He believed that John Tetzel (Dominican friar), by claiming to be able to sell (indulgences as a means to salvation) what God freely gave, was committing fraud and endangering souls.
Reformation (Protestant Reformation)
Most prominent of Northern European humanists; like others of the Renaissance period, he believed that intellectuals should not keep their work to themselves, but rather should use it to benefit the masses. The best way to restore and build faith, he argued, was to give ordinary people a Bible they could read for themselves. He wrote Praise of Folly a social satire that targeted the clergy.
Perfected the printing press about 1455 (see also, printing press, Martin Luther).
First major NorthernEuropean artist to take a serious interest in Italy’s Renaissance. He immersed himself inthe rapidly growing literature dealing with the laws of perspective, and hisreading of classical authors and study of ancient statuary convinced him thatart should be informed by a close, scientific study of nature.
Was pioneered byNorthern European painters.The respect Renaissance humanists had for the material world made that world a fit subject for study and description in its own right.
A Florentine painterthat experimented with ways to suggest three-dimensional space and gave the faces of his subjects individualityand emotional intensity. Known for painting – Holy Trinity Fresco, 1428. Santa MariaNovella, Florence, Italy.
Marchesa of Mantua and“the First Lady of the World”. She translated Greekand Latin texts and carried on voluminous correspondence with leading politicaland cultural figures. Also, when her husband(Francesco Gonzaga, marquis of Mantua) was captured when on military campaignin 1509, she assumed control, commanded armies, presided over diplomaticconferences, and skillfully kept an invading French army at bay.
He began his family’scustom of providing patronage for scholars and artists. He treated artists andintellectuals they supported more as honored guests than as servants; theybelieved that their own reputations were enhanced by the genius of people theyattracted to their courts.
It created the modernworld; it allowed debates among scholars and leaders to be open to the court ofpublic opinion. It encouraged growth ofliteracy in early modern Europe and helped spread the art and literature of theRenaissance to an ever widening spectrum of European society
- Filippo Brunelleschi’s(Renaissance architect) analyses of architectural spaces led to the discovery that if lines are traced along the profiles of buildings and extended as far as possible, they all converge at a single point on the horizon
- Leon Battista Alberti (Renaissance architect) worked out and published the mathematics governing th eprojection lines that meet at such a point.
Leaders of theRenaissance that broke the ascetic, world-denying ideals of the Middle Ages by stressing the nobility of human existenceand the legitimacy of earthly pleasures. The mission of theintellectual leaders of Italy’s Renaissance was a search for methods to discoverand realize the potentials of human nature.
Clemens von Metternich
French uprising of 1848
Frederick Wilhelm IV
Otto von Bismark
North German Confederation
Social Democratic Party
SpecialTheory of Relativity
Frederick the Great
Jean Jacques Rousseau
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